The Peloridiidae or moss bugs are a family of true bugs, comprising eighteen genera and thirty-four species. They are small, ranging in length from 2 to 4 mm, rarely seen, peculiarly lumpy, flattened bugs found in Patagonia (Argentina and Chile), New Zealand, eastern Australia, Lord Howe Island, and New Caledonia. Peloridiids are found amongst mosses and liverworts, commonly in association with southern beech forests. They have become known as moss bugs for their habit of feeding on mosses. Almost all Peloridiidae species are flightless, except one (Peloridium hammoniorum).[a] Their present distribution suggests they have existed since before the breakup of Gondwana. They are the only living members of the suborder Coleorrhyncha, which first appeared in the Upper Permian, over 250 million years ago.

Xenophyes rhachilophus
Xenophyes forsteri
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Coleorrhyncha
Superfamily: Peloridioidea
Family: Peloridiidae
Breddin, 1897

Evolution edit

Peloridiidae are the only extant[b] family in the suborder Coleorrhyncha. Historically the Peloridiidae and their fossil kin were assigned to a variety of orders. In 1929 they were placed in the Homoptera,[3] in 1962 they were placed in the Auchenorrhyncha,[4] in 1963 they were placed in the Cicadomorpha,[5] and in 1997 they were placed in Fulgoromorpha.[6] However, essentially all sources since 1969 are in consensus that the Peloridiidae belong in Coleorrhyncha and that Coleorrhyncha is a sister group to the Heteroptera.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

The question remains whether this affinity between the Coleorrhyncha and the Heteroptera necessitates the imposition of a suborder between them and the order Hemiptera. In 1995 Sorensen proposed the name Prosorrhyncha for such a suborder.[14] (See the Heteroptera and Prosorrhyncha pages for a discussion).

The oldest members of Coleorrhyncha are known from the Upper Permian, over 250 million years ago, assigned to the family Progonocimicidae. It is likely that Progonocimicidae is paraphyletic, with other families of Coleorrhyncha derived from it. The closest relatives of Peloridiidae are the Hoploridiidae from the Early Cretaceous of Asia.[15]

Genera edit

Oiophysa distincta

Notes edit

  1. ^ The South American Peloridiidae Peloridium hammoniorum Breddin, 1897 has both a winged and a wingless form.[1]
  2. ^ Other families in the Coleorrhyncha are preserved in the fossil record, notably the early Progonocimicidae, and the later Karabasiidae and Hoploridiidae.[2]

References edit

  1. ^ Burckhardt, Daniel (2009). "Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Gondwanan moss bugs or Peloridiidae (Hemiptera, Coleorrhyncha)". Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. 56 (2): 173–235. doi:10.1002/mmnd.200900019.
  2. ^ Heads, Sam W. (2008). "A new species of Yuripopovia (Coleorrhyncha: Progonocimicidae) from the Early Cretaceous of the Isle of Wight" (PDF). British Journal of Entomology and Natural History. 21: 247–253.
  3. ^ Myers, John Golding & China, William Edward (1929). "The systematic position of the Peloridiidae as elucidated by a further study of the external anatomy of Hemiodoecus leadi China". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 105 (3): 282–294. doi:10.1080/00222932908672971.
  4. ^ China, William Edward (1962). "South American Peloridiidae (Hemiptera–Homoptera: Coleorrhyncha)". Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London. 114 (5): 131–161. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1962.tb01077.x.
  5. ^ Evans, John William (1963). "The systematic position of the Ipsviciidae (Upper Triassic Hemiptera) and some new Upper Permian and Middle Triassic Hemiptera from Australia (Insecta)". Australian Journal of Entomology. 2 (1): 17–23. doi:10.1111/j.1440-6055.1963.tb00384.x.
  6. ^ Bourgoin, Thierry H.; Steffen‐Campbell, J. D. & Campbell, B. C. (1997). "Molecular phylogeny of Fulgoromorpha (Insecta, Hemiptera, Archaeorrhyncha). The enigmatic Tettigometridae: evolutionary affiliations and historical biogeography". Cladistics. 13 (3): 207–224. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1997.tb00316.x. PMID 34911231. S2CID 83588966.
  7. ^ Schlee, Dieter (1969). "Morphologie und Symbiose, ihre Beweiskraft für die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen der Coleorrhyncha (Insecta, Hemiptera): phylogenetische Studien an Hemiptera IV: Heteropteroidea (Heteroptera+ Coleorrhyncha) als monophyletische Gruppe". Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde (in German). 210: 1–27.
  8. ^ Popov, Yu A. & Wootton, Robin J. (1977). "The Upper Liassic Heteroptera of Mecklenburg and Saxony". Systematic Entomology. 2 (4): 333–351. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1977.tb00382.x. S2CID 84814736.
  9. ^ Wheeler, Ward C.; Schuh, Randall T. & Bang, Ranhy (1993). "Cladistic relationships among higher groups of Heteroptera: congruence between morphological and molecular data sets". Insect Systematics & Evolution. 24 (2): 121–137. doi:10.1163/187631293X00235.
  10. ^ Campbell, Bruce C.; Steffen-Campbell, Jody D.; Sorensen, John T. & Gill, Raymond J. (1995). "Paraphyly of Homoptera and Auchenorrhyncha inferred from 18S rDNA nucleotide sequences". Systematic Entomology. 20 (3): 175―194. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1995.tb00090.x. S2CID 86424475.
  11. ^ Schuh, Randall T. & Slater, James Alexander (1995). True bugs of the world (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): classification and natural history. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-2066-5.
  12. ^ Ouvrard, David; Campbell, Bruce C.; Bourgoin, Thierry & Chan, Kathleen L. (2000). "18S rRNA Secondary Structure and Phylogenetic Position of Peloridiidae (Insecta, Hemiptera)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 16 (3): 403–417. doi:10.1006/mpev.2000.0797. PMID 10991793. S2CID 20926719.
  13. ^ Brozç, Jolanta (2007), Labial sensillae and the internal structure of the mouthparts of Xenophyes cascus (Bergroth 1924)(Peloridiidae: Coleorrhyncha: Hemiptera) and their significance in evolutionary studies on the Hemiptera (PDF)
  14. ^ Sorensen, John T.; Campbell, Bruce C.; Gill, Raymond J. & Steffen-Campbell, Jody D. (1995). "Non-monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha ("Homoptera"), based upon 18S rDNA phylogeny: eco-evolutionary and cladistic implications within pre-Heteropterodea Hemiptera (sl) and a proposal for new monophyletic suborders". The Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 71 (1): 31–60.
  15. ^ Jiang, Tian; Wang, Bo; Szwedo, Jacek (January 2019). "The first representative of Progonocimicidae (Hemiptera: Coleorrhyncha) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber". Cretaceous Research. 93: 346–359. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2018.09.018. S2CID 133781827.

Other reading edit

External links edit