Pediatric nursing

Pediatric nursing is part of the nursing profession, specifically revolving around the care of neonates and children up to adolescence. The word, pediatrics, comes from the Greek words 'paedia' (child) and 'iatrike' (physician).[1] 'Paediatrics' is the British/Australian spelling, while 'pediatrics' is the American spelling.

DisciplinesEdit

Direct nursingEdit

Nursing functions vary regionally, by individual education, experience, and individual career goals. Functions include the administration of procedures and medicines according to prescribed nursing care plans. These nurses observe vital signs and develop communication skills with children and family members, as well as with other medical personnel. Supporting children and their families is one component of direct nursing care.[clarification needed] Awareness of the concerns of children and parents, physical presence at times of stress, and helping children and family members cope are other common functions.[2]

Neonatal nursingEdit

Neonatal nurses specialize in working with the youngest patients. Neonatal nursing focuses on providing care and support for newborn babies delivered prematurely or who are suffering from health problems such as birth defects, infections, or heart deformities. Many neonatal nurses work in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) providing specialized medical care to at-risk newborns.[3]

A dysmature newborn "is one whose developmental level is poor at birth."p[4] These newborns require a special type of care, due to their health issues, such as:[5]

  • Inadequate respiratory function
  • Poor control of body temperature
  • Increased tendency to bleed
  • Poor resistance to infection
  • Poor nutrition
  • Immature kidneys and skin
  • Jaundice

Neonatal nurses employ medical techniques, including the use of incubators. Essentially, the incubator "provide[s] proper heat, humidity, oxygen, and mist... and protection from infection."[6] The medical apparatus provides essential medical care for at-risk newborns.[7][8]

Emergency nursingEdit

Pediatric nurses are expected to provide a quick response to stressful circumstances in life-threatening situations. Key features of pediatric emergency nursing include:[9]

  • Handling multifaceted trauma, injury or illness cases without letting the patients succumb to the urgency of the situation
  • Stabilizing patients
  • Quickly diagnosing conditions and providing on-spot solutions
  • Administering appropriate medications to address pain
  • Upgrading skills and knowledge
  • Remaining patient and caring for the traumatized families accompanying the patient
  • Maintaining equanimity around patients who do not improve.[10]

Pediatric nurse practitionersEdit

Pediatric nurse practitioner must attend school for at least two years after earning a bachelor's degree, pass an examination, and apply to their state board of nursing.[11]

GoalsEdit

  • Normalize the life of the child during hospitalization.
  • Minimize the impact of the child's unique condition.
  • Foster growth and development.
  • Develop realistic, functional and coordinated home care plans.
  • Respect the roles of the families.
  • Prevent disease and promote health.

TrainingEdit

AustraliaEdit

A registered nurse license is required. A registered nurse requires a Bachelor of Science (Nursing), a 3–4 years full-time investment. Once completed 12–18 months in a clinical setting is required followed by completing a graduate certificate in pediatric nursing.[12]

United StatesEdit

The CPN (certified pediatric nurse) exam validates knowledge and expertise beyond the prerequisite Registered Nurse (RN) licensure. Eligible RNs may have a diploma, associate's degree, BSN, MSN, or higher nursing degree and must have a minimum of 1800 hours of pediatric nursing experience. Over 30,000 nurses actively held CPN certification as of April 15, 2021.[13]

Training involves a mix of formal education and clinical experiences. Pediatric nurses can become certified in the field and may choose to further specialize. Students can enroll in an associate or bachelor's degree program. Some diploma programs offered exclusively through hospitals may also prepare students for the RN exam.

Global developmentEdit

Southern and eastern AfricaEdit

Strengthening the pediatric nursing workforce has been recommended as a primary strategy to reduce under-five mortality in African nations.[14] Children make up close to half the population in many African countries, but research suggests that children's nurses often make up less than 1% of the nursing workforce: a 2019 workforce survey found approximately 4,000 qualified children's nurses in South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, Malawi and Kenya. The majority (8/10) were in South Africa.[15]

Career overviewEdit

 
Examining a newborn baby [16]

Pediatric nurses work in settings including doctor's offices and community-based settings to hospitals and critical care facilities.[citation needed] Pediatric nurses may assist pediatricians or work alongside them. Pediatric nurses offer primary care services such as diagnosing and treating common childhood illnesses and conducting developmental screenings.[citation needed] Acute care and specialty services are also available for the chronically ill. Some pediatric nurses and nurse practitioners specialize in areas such as cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology or oncology.[citation needed]

EducationEdit

Pediatric nurses are responsible for helping patients adapt to a hospital setting and prepare them for medical treatments and procedures. Nurses also coach parents to observe and wait for important signs and responses to therapies, to increase the child's comfort, and even to provide ongoing care.

CounselingEdit

Injury-prevention strategies and anticipatory guidance are provided via counseling. Helping the child or family solve a problem is often a focus, usually provided by advanced practice nurses or other experienced nurses.[2][17]

AdvocacyEdit

The effective advocate nurse must be aware of the child's and the family's needs, the family's resources, and available health care services.[18] Nurses help reinforce families to help them make knowledgeable choices about medical services and to act in the child's best interests.[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Datta, Parul (2007). Paediatric Nursing. Jaypee Brothers, Medical Publishers. p. 506. ISBN 9788180619700. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  2. ^ a b c Ball, J.W.; Bindler, R.C. (2003). Pediatric Nursing: caring for children. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Julie Levin Alexander. pp. 4. ISBN 0-13-099405-7.
  3. ^ "Is a Career in Neonatal Nursing Right for You?".
  4. ^ Thompson 1976, p. 71.
  5. ^ Thompson 1976, p. 73-74.
  6. ^ Thompson 1976, p. 74.
  7. ^ Thompson 1976, p. 75.
  8. ^ Healthwise Staff. "Isolette (Incubator)". Healthwise.
  9. ^ "Role of pediatric emergency nursing". www.multibriefs.com. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  10. ^ Majudmar, A.D. (2010). "Role of pediatric emergency nursing". Multibriefs.
  11. ^ "Pediatric Nursing Careers". www.pncb.org. Retrieved 2016-10-25.
  12. ^ "How to Become a Paediatric Nurse". Nursing Courses. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  13. ^ "Pediatric Nursing Certificate Board". Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  14. ^ "GHWA task force on scaling up education and training for health workers. Country case study: Malawi's emergency human resources programme" (PDF). Geneva: WHO.
  15. ^ North, N.; Shung-King, M.; Coetzee, M. (2019). "The children's nursing workforce in Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, South Africa and Zambia: generating an initial indication of the extent of the workforce and training activity". Human Resources for Health. 17 (1): 30. doi:10.1186/s12960-019-0366-4. PMC 6505296. PMID 31064414. Retrieved 2021-05-04.
  16. ^ Duque, Linda (2012-04-13), Photo, retrieved 2016-10-25
  17. ^ Fraser, J. (2014). Paediatric Nursing in Australia. Cambridge. ISBN 978-1-107-68500-0.
  18. ^ Sterling, Yvonne M. (2013-05-01). "Pediatric Nurses as Advocates". Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 28 (3): 309–310. doi:10.1016/j.pedn.2013.02.022. ISSN 0882-5963. PMID 23473712.

Further readingEdit