Peace through strength
"Peace through strength" is a phrase which suggests that military power can help preserve peace. It is quite old and has famously been used by many leaders from Roman Emperor Hadrian in the first century AD to former U.S. President Ronald Reagan in the 1980s. The concept has long been associated with realpolitik. The idea has critics: "'Peace through strength' easily enough becomes 'peace through war,'" according to Andrew Bacevich.
The phrase and concept date to ancient times. Roman Emperor Hadrian (AD 76–138) is said to have sought "peace through strength or, failing that, peace through threat". Hadrian's Wall was a symbol of this policy.
United States of AmericaEdit
- "There is a rank due to the United States among nations which will be withheld, if not absolutely lost, by the reputation of weakness. If we desire to avoid insult, we must be able to repel it; if we desire to secure peace, one of the most powerful instruments of our rising prosperity, it must be known that we are at all times ready for war."
In Federalist No. 24, Alexander Hamilton argued for peace through strength, stating that strong garrisons in the west and a navy in the east would protect the Union from the threat of Britain and Spain.
Peace Through Strength (1952) is the title of a book about a defense plan by Bernard Baruch, a World War II adviser to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, published by Farrar, Straus and Young. During the 1964 presidential campaign in the United States, the Republican party spent about $5 million on "Peace through Strength" TV spots. For supporters of the MX missile in the 1970s, the missile symbolized "peace through strength".
The US Republican partyEdit
In 1980, Ronald Reagan used the phrase during his election challenge against Jimmy Carter, accusing the incumbent of weak, vacillating leadership that invited enemies to attack the United States and its allies. Reagan later considered it one of the mainstays of his foreign policy as President. In 1986, he explained it thus:
- "We know that peace is the condition under which mankind was meant to flourish. Yet peace does not exist of its own will. It depends on us, on our courage to build it and guard it and pass it on to future generations. George Washington's words may seem hard and cold today, but history has proven him right again and again. "To be prepared for war," he said, "is one of the most effective means of preserving peace." Well, to those who think strength provokes conflict, Will Rogers had his own answer. He said of the world heavyweight champion of his day: "I've never seen anyone insult Jack Dempsey."
The approach has been credited for forcing the Soviet Union to lose the arms race and end the Cold War. "Peace Through Strength" is the official motto of the Nimitz-class nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76).
On assuming office in January 2017, President Trump cited the idea of "Peace Through Strength" as central to his overall "America First" foreign policy. As such the introduction to US National Defense Strategy of 2018 states: The US force posture combined with the allies will "preserve peace through strength". The document proceeds to detail what "achieving peace through strength requires".
For Andrew Bacevich, "belief in the efficacy of military power almost inevitably breeds the temptation to put that power to work. 'Peace through strength' easily enough becomes 'peace through war.'"
The mock inversion "strength through peace" has been used on occasion to draw criticism to the militaristic system of diplomacy advocated by "peace through strength". Ohio Congressman Dennis Kucinich adopted the slogan "Strength Through Peace" during his 2008 Presidential run, as part of his platform as a peace candidate in opposition to the Iraq War.
During Reagan's presidency, the non-profit American Security Council Foundation (ASCF) and its for-profit direct-mail provider, Communications Corporation of America, sought to influence United States foreign policy by promoting the idea, but after the Soviet collapse of 1991 ASCF fell into obscurity while other organizations continued to promote the slogan. The Heritage Foundation and the Center for Security Policy (CSP) have also used the term in print. The ASCF registered a trademark for the phrase in April 2011. In September 2012, ASCF filed a trademark infringement lawsuit against CSP and Frank Gaffney, prompting the Washington City Paper to ridicule ASCF's Director of Operations, Gary James, for editing the online encyclopedia Wikipedia article titled 'Peace through strength' so that it was "drenched in ... ASCF references". Following a counterclaim by the CSP alleging that the trademark application had been fraudulent, in August 2013 the ACSF announced that it had settled the lawsuit with the CSP and would cancel its trademark claim.
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- Elizabeth Speller (Oct 14, 2004). Following Hadrian?. Oxford University Press. p. 69.
- Martin Wainwright (14 March 2010). "Legions of sightseers attend Hadrian's Wall illumination". Retrieved September 15, 2012.
Designed as a symbol of Hadrian's contemporary-sounding policy of "peace through strength", the wall marked the northern frontier of the Roman empire.
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- George Washington (December 3, 1793). "Fifth Annual Message of George Washington". 1793 State of the Union Address. Philadelphia. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- The Federalist Papers. New York: New American Library, a division of Penguin Books. 1999. pp. 157–158. ISBN 0-451-52881-6.
- Rosenbloom, Morris Victor (1 January 1952). "Peace through strength: Bernard Baruch and a blueprint for security". American Surveys in association with Farrar, Straus and Young, New York – via Google Books.
- Steven A. Seidman (2008). Posters, Propaganda, and Persuasion in Election Campaigns Around the World and Through History. Peter Lang. p. 76.
- Fred Kaplan (18 September 2005). "Perspective: Cold War Relic; All It Touched Off Was a Debate". The New York Times.
- Kiron K. Skinner, Serhiy Kudelia, Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, and Condoleezza Rice (17 September 2007). "Politics Starts at the Water's Edge". The New York Times.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- "Peace Through Strength (1980 Political Commercial)". YouTube.
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- "'Peace Through Strength' - The Official Web Site of CVN 76 USS Ronald Reagan". United States Navy. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
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- Republican Platform. "We Believe in America". Republican National Committee. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
- Huntley, Steve (October 8, 2012). "Romney's Foreign Policy: Peace Through Strength". Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved October 12, 2012.
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- David A. Graham (February 16, 2016). "Ted Cruz's Hugely Expensive Plan for a Huge Military". The Atlantic. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
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- Karen DeYoung (January 10, 2017). "Trump's national security adviser says foreign policy will emphasize 'peace through strength'". Washington Post. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- US National Defense Strategy, (Washington: Department of Defense, 2018), p 1, 6, https://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/pubs/2018-National-Defense-Strategy-Summary.pdf
- Andrew Bacevich (4 August 2010). "The Western Way of War Has Run its Course". CBS News. Retrieved 20 August 2010.
- Jim George (June 2005). "Leo Strauss, Neoconservatism and US Foreign Policy: Esoteric Nihilism and the Bush Doctrine". International Politics. Palgrave Macmillan. 42 (2): 174–202. doi:10.1057/palgrave.ip.8800106.
- John Lofland (1993). Polite Protesters: The American Peace Movement of the 1980s. Syracuse University Press. pp. 103–104.
- Eric Appleman, ed. (2008). The Race for the 2008 Democratic Nomination: A Book of Editorial Cartoons. Pelican Publishing. p. 29.
- "The American Security Council Mission Statement". Retrieved 9 August 2010.
- Kim R. Holmes (1995). "Geo-Conservatism; Why Conservatives Are Better Than Liberals at Foreign Policy". Policy Review. The Heritage Foundation (71).
- "Peace Through Strength". United States Patent and Trademark Office. April 5, 2011. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
- "American Security Council Foundation v. Center for Security Policy, Inc. et al". District of Columbia District Court. Justia. September 7, 2012.
- Sommer, Will (September 14, 2012). "No Peace for Hawkish Think Tanks Over Reagan Slogan". Washington City Paper.
- American Security Council Foundation (August 5, 2013). "Ronald Reagan's Legacy Preserved: AFLC Wins Favorable Settlement in Trademark Battle over Famous Slogan". Retrieved April 8, 2015.