Paul Horner (November 5, 1978 – September 18, 2017) was an American writer, comedian and contributor to fake news websites whose stories have been said to have had a significant impact on the 2016 U.S. presidential election.
Lead writer for National ReportEdit
One of his widest-spread fake stories was a piece claiming artist Banksy had been arrested and his identity revealed as Paul Horner, which Horner posted in 2013 and was re-circulated in 2014 and once again in 2017.
Horner is still listed as a possible suspect behind Banksy's true identity and some even believe Banksy could be Horner's creation who goes by the name Fappy The Anti-Masturbation Dolphin; a Christian mascot with over 100,000 followers on Facebook and was supposedly doing a documentary by Michael Moore along with being arrested for public masturbation five times. Random art sightings claiming to be works of art by Banksy stating, "Paul Horner I come for you", turned out to be hoaxes by Horner.
Due to one of Horner's stories, former Arizona Governor Jan Brewer had to go on live television to insist that she was not implementing mandatory gay to straight programs in all Arizona K-12 schools. Fox News did a live broadcast about one of Horner's stories as being factual: Barack Obama had personally funded a Muslim museum so it could stay open during the government shutdown of 2013.
A stir was caused across the Internet as St. George, Utah, was the focus of an article posted on National Report claiming the city had made pornography illegal with first-time offenders receiving 30 days in jail.
Departure and launch of News ExaminerEdit
Horner left National Report in 2014, launched News Examiner at the start of 2015 and also started numerous websites including cnn.com.de, cbsnews.com.co and nbc.com.co to post fake news articles, as well as ABCnews.com.co. In 2015, he wrote a fake story that Yelp was suing South Park that received wide circulation, as did another story that a man named "Paul Horner" had undergone the world's first head transplant.
By 2015, he had written several fake stories about DeQuincy, Louisiana, which said that the town had been under attack from gay zombies, had legalized polygamy, and had banned twerking, discussing the color of any dress (in response to the viral story about the dress), and Koreans; he told a local news station that he originally targeted it because "my friend Brandon Adams said there is like 4,000 people that live there, and all they do is drink Old Milwaukee's Best and beat their wives" and that he kept targeting it because he had received death and castration threats in response to his first story. One of his stories about DeQuincy, and one that he says is one of his favorites, was about a man who stopped a robbery in a diner by quoting Pulp Fiction; the story was posted on the Miramax website. In 2016, one of Horner's stories about Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán escaping from prison for a third time, forced the Mexican government to tweet images of the drug kingpin behind bars to dispel rumors of the escape.
2016 U.S. presidential electionEdit
His stories had an "enormous impact" on the 2016 U.S. presidential election according to CBS News; they consistently appeared in Google's top news search results, were shared widely on Facebook and were taken seriously and shared by third parties such as Trump presidential campaign manager Corey Lewandowski, Eric Trump, ABC News and Fox News. Horner later claimed that his work during this period was intended "to make Trump's supporters look like idiots for sharing my stories".
In a November 2016 interview with The Washington Post, Horner expressed regret for the role his fake news stories played in the election and surprise at how gullible people were in treating his stories as news. In February 2017 Horner said,
I truly regret my comment about saying that I think Donald Trump is in the White House because of me. I know all I did was attack him and his supporters and got people not to vote for him. When I said that comment it was because I was confused how this evil got elected President and I thought maybe instead of hurting his campaign, maybe I had helped it. My intention was to get his supporters NOT to vote for him and I know for a fact that I accomplished that goal. The far right, a lot of the Bible thumpers and Alt-Right were going to vote for him regardless, but I know I swayed so many that were on the fence.
In December 2016, while speaking on Anderson Cooper 360°, Horner said that all news is fake news and called CNN "fake news", which was one month before Donald Trump leveled the same criticism at that network.
Horner spoke at the European Parliament in March, speaking about fake news and the importance of fact checking. According to a 2017 BuzzFeed article, Horner stated that a story of his about a rape festival in India helped generate over $250,000 in donations to GiveIndia, a site that helps rape victims in India. Horner wrote many anti-Donald Trump stories in 2017, one about Twitter canceling his account, and one about Trump canceling Saturday Night Live. Horner was in many documentaries about the subject of fake news including one by Orange S.A. and L'important. Horner said he disliked being grouped with people who write fake news solely to be misleading. "They just write it just to write fake news, like there's no purpose, there's no satire, there's nothing clever. All the stories I wrote were to make Trump's supporters look like idiots for sharing my stories." HuffPost referred to Horner as a "Performance Artist".
Horner said he wrote about things he saw wrong in society and mocked them satirically to bring awareness to the problem. Horner said that sites like The Onion give away the gag in the headline so the information presented is not as powerful because the reader knows it is a joke, but in his stories, Horner believed that when he wrote an article about Donald Trump saying that he will deport all the Jews in America, people would actually listen and reconsider their support of the president. Horner was referred to as a "hoax artist" by outlets such as the Associated Press and the Chicago Tribune. PolitiFact and The Washington Post both called Horner the Internet's most prolific hoax artist.
The Phoenix New Times reported that Horner died in his sleep on September 18, 2017. Although this was initially thought to be a hoax, it was later confirmed by the Maricopa County, Arizona, coroner's office.
Maricopa County Sheriff's Office spokesman Mark Casey said on September 19, 2017, that authorities discovered Horner dead in his bed on September 18. Casey said the county's medical examiner performed an autopsy which showed there were no signs of foul play. He said Horner had a history of prescription drug abuse and that "evidence at the scene suggested this could be an accidental overdose". Horner had a history of heart problems since adolescence.
The Maricopa County medical examiner determined the death a drug overdose after finding a mix of drugs in his system, including the synthetic opioid fentanyl, according to the Arizona Republic.
- "Paul Horner". Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Caitlin Dewey. "Did Facebook just kill the Web's burgeoning industry?date=January 21, 2015". Washington Post. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- "This is not an interview with Banksy". Washington Post. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- Hathaway, Jay (October 20, 2014). "Banksy Has Not Been Arrested, And His Name Isn't Paul Horner". Gawker.
- Bavaro, Rhonda (September 7, 2017). "Street Artist Banksy Arrested And Unmasked at Art Exhibit In Palestine Is A Hoax". Business2community.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "FACT CHECK: Graffiti Artist Banksy Arrested in London; Identity Revealed?". Snopes.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "Fake News: Graffiti Artist Banksy NOT Arrested At Art Exhibit In Palestine; Identity NOT Revealed". Hoax-alert.leadstories.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Sophie Gadd (October 20, 2014). "Calm down everyone, Banksy hasn't been arrested: 9 clues that it's a hoax". Mirror Online. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- *Please enter your name. (November 16, 2015). "Anti-Masturbation Mascot Was NOT Caught Masturbating". Klaq.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.Mirror Online"Is Michael Moore really making a movie about an anti-masturbation dolphin called Fappy?". The Daily Dot. Retrieved September 27, 2017.Mirror Online"Is Banksy Actually Fappy The Anti-Masturbation Dolphin?". Mass Appeal. October 20, 2014. Retrieved September 27, 2017.Mirror Online"FALSE: Christian Anti-Masturbation's Mascot "Fappy" Arrested for Public Masturbation". Snopes.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.Mirror OnlineNeuendorf, Henri. "Who Is Banksy? Here are the 10 Most Plausible Theories". News.artnet.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Facebook Twitter email Print Article AA (February 25, 2015). "No, There Isn't a Banksy at The Lost Leaf in Phoenix". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved September 27, 2017.Mirror Online"Who Is Banksy? We Rank the 10 Most Plausible Theories | HuffPost". Huffingtonpost Post. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "Jan Brewer Fights Back Against Satirical Gay Conversion Therapy Article | HuffPost". Huffington Post. August 23, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Wemple, Erik (October 7, 2013). "'Fox & Friends' fails on Obama-Muslim museum connection: No surprise here". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "Jimmy Kimmel Gives 'Gullible' Fox News a Shocking Tip About Obama". Mediaite. October 8, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "Anna Kooiman, Obama's 'Muslim Museum' And Fox News Bias". YouTube. October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "National Report satire on St. George creates a stir – St George News". Stgeorgeutah.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Lince, Tim (September 15, 2015). "Notorious 'cybersquatter' advises brands: 'know your target and adapt your approach'". World Trademark Review.
- Horgan, Richard (March 14, 2016). "Three Strikes and This Fake News Site Is Out". www.adweek.com.
- Huff, Steve (October 21, 2015). "Yelp is Not Suing South Park for $10 Million". Maxim.
- Hernandez, Vittorio (July 13, 2015). "Hoax Alert: South Africa Didn't Beat Italy In Performing World's 1st Successful Head Transplant Surgery". International Business Times AU.
- Cooper, Michael (May 15, 2015). "DeQuincy targeted by fake news site ... again". KPLC News.
- Hedegaard, Erik (November 29, 2016), "How a Fake Newsman Accidentally Helped Trump Win the White House - Paul Horner thought he was trolling Trump supporters – but after the election, the joke was on him", Rolling Stone, retrieved November 29, 2016
- "Man quotes PULP FICTION - stops robbery". Miramax. December 5, 2013.
- Eugene Daniels (July 8, 2016). "Today In Fake News: El Chapo Escapes For A Third Time - Newsy Story". Ktts.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "Mexican Politician Tweets El Chapo Prison Photo to Dispel Rumors of an Escape". ABC News. July 9, 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- Balsam, Joel. "No, El Chapo Didn't Escape From Prison Again". Askmen.com. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- "Lawyer: Mexican officials violated privacy of 'El Chapo' by posting prison photo". Upi.com. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- "Facebook fake news creator claims he put Trump in White House". CBS News. November 17, 2016.
- Jacobson, Louis (November 17, 2016). "No, someone wasn't paid $3,500 to protest Donald Trump". Politifact.
- Daro, Ishmael N. (October 28, 2016). "How A Prankster Convinced People The Amish Would Win Trump The Election". BuzzFeed.
- French, Sally (November 18, 2016). "This person makes $10,000 a month writing fake news". MarketWatch.
- Bratu, Becky; et al. (December 15, 2016). "Tall Tale or Satire? Authors of So-Called 'Fake News' Feel Misjudged". NBC News.
- Dewey, Caitlin (November 17, 2016). "Facebook fake-news writer: 'I think Donald Trump is in the White House because of me'". Washington Post.
- Neidig, Harper (November 17, 2016). "Fake news giant: I feel bad about putting Trump in the White House". TheHill.
- Genzlinger, Neil (November 17, 2016). "'Duck Dynasty' Legacy: Real, Fake and Upfront About It". The New York Times.
- Sykes, Charles (November 25, 2016). "Donald Trump and the Rise of Alt-Reality Media". Politico.
- Binckes, Jeremy (November 17, 2016). ""People are definitely dumber": Thanks to Facebook, a viral fake-news writer is making $10,000 a month". Salon.
- Madigan, Charles M. (November 21, 2016). "The danger of a leader who believes what 'people are saying ...'". Chicago Tribune.
- "Comedian Who Writes Fake News Claims: Trump Won The Election Because Of Me". Inside Edition. November 18, 2016.
- Welch, Dennis (February 16, 2017). "Fake news writer 'regrets' taking credit for Trump victory", azfamily.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- The Late Show with Stephen Colbert (November 19, 2016). "Stephen Speaks Out Against Diplomatic Bullying". YouTube. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- "The Late Show with Stephen Colbert Video - Facebook fake news". Globaltv.com. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- "Fake News Writer to Anderson Cooper: CNN Spreads False Info, I Educate People, It's Satire", YouTube, December 12, 2016.
- "Fake news writer: It's satire", Anderson Cooper 360°, CNN.
- Collinson, Stephen (February 16, 2017), "An amazing moment in history: Donald Trump's press conference", CNN.com, February 16, 2017.τ
- "Fake news in social media as reality shapers", Streamovations, March 8, 2017.
- Daro, Ishmael N. (March 9, 2017), "A Live TV Debate About Fake News Went Completely Off The Rails And It Was Amazing To Watch", BuzzFeed.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Nashrulla, Tasneem (November 8, 2013), "An American Website Wrote A Satirical Article About An Indian Rape Festival And Many People Thought It Was Real", BuzzFeed.com. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Madan, Karuna (November 21, 2013), "US website’s ‘rape festival’ report sparks uproar", Gulf News India.
- "FACT CHECK: Did Twitter Delete Donald Trump's Account over 'Racism'?". Snopes.com. January 11, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
- "FACT CHECK: Donald Trump Signs Executive Order Cancelling Saturday Night Live". Snopes.com. April 16, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
- Découverte : à la rencontre de Paul Horner, maître incontesté de la fake news (in French), March 24, 2017, retrieved September 28, 2017
- "franceinfo vidéo". Facebook.com. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- "Ahurissant ! Il diffuse de fausses infos sur le net et gagne beaucoup plus qu'un journaliste". Twitter.com. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- "Tall Tale or Satire? Authors of So-Called ‘Fake News’ Feel Misjudged", nbcnews.com, December 15, 2016.
- Frank, Priscilla (April 19, 2017). "Alex Jones Says He's A Performance Artist. Surprisingly, Actual Performance Artists Agree", HuffPost. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "NOT REAL NEWS: A look at what didn't happen this week", Associated Press/Chicago Tribune. May 26, 2017.
- "This is not an interview with Banksy". Washington Post. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- "Fake news writer concocted story about Trump resigning". Retrieved October 1, 2017.
- "Meet the professional fake news creator who believes he's doing a public service". Rooster. August 30, 2017. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Angie Drobnic Holan (December 13, 2016). "2016 Lie of the Year: Fake news". PolitiFact. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
- Leatherman, Benjamin (September 23, 2017). "Phoenix Comedian and Internet Hoaxster Paul Horner Has Died". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "Phoenix New Times Tweet". tWitter.com. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
- Noah Kulwin (December 6, 2017). "A fentanyl cocktail killed the fake news writer who bogusly claimed he got Trump elected". Vice.
- An online journal for Paul Horner
- Cooper, Anderson; Horner, Paul (December 12, 2016). "Fake news writer: My work is satire and CNN is fake news". CNN Video.
- Paul Horner, comedian and host