Paul Biya (born Paul Barthélemy Biya'a bi Mvondo; 13 February 1933) is a Cameroonian politician who is the second president of Cameroon since 6 November 1982, having previously been the prime minister of Cameroon from 1975 to 1982.[1][2] He is the second-longest-ruling president in Africa, the longest consecutively serving current non-royal national leader in the world and the oldest head of state in the world. He is regarded as an authoritarian leader and dictator.[by whom?]

Paul Biya
Biya in 2014
2nd President of Cameroon
Assumed office
6 November 1982
Prime MinisterBello Bouba Maigari
Luc Ayang
Sadou Hayatou
Simon Achidi Achu
Peter Mafany Musonge
Ephraïm Inoni
Philémon Yang
Joseph Ngute
Preceded byAhmadou Ahidjo
1st Prime Minister of Cameroon
In office
30 June 1975 – 6 November 1982
PresidentAhmadou Ahidjo
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byBello Bouba Maigari
Personal details
Born
Paul Barthélemy Biya'a bi Mvondo

(1933-02-13) 13 February 1933 (age 91)
Mvomeka'a, Ntem, French Cameroon
(now Cameroon)
Political partyRDPC
Spouses
  • (m. 1961; died 1992)
  • (m. 1994)
Children3
EducationNational School of Administration, Paris
Institute of Political Studies, Paris
Signature

A native of Cameroon's south, Biya rose rapidly as a bureaucrat under President Ahmadou Ahidjo in the 1960s, as Secretary-General of the Presidency from 1968 to 1975 and then as Prime Minister. He succeeded Ahidjo as President upon the latter's surprise resignation in 1982 and consolidated power in a 1983–1984 staged attempted coup in which he eliminated all of his major rivals.[3]

Biya introduced political reforms within the context of a one-party system in the 1980s, later accepting the introduction of multiparty politics in the early 1990s under serious pressure. He won the contentious 1992 presidential election with 40% of the plural, single-ballot vote and was re-elected by large margins in 1997, 2004, 2011, and 2018. Opposition politicians and Western governments have alleged voting irregularities and fraud on each of these occasions. Many independent sources[citation needed] have provided evidence that he did not win the elections in 1992 and that subsequent elections suffered from rampant fraud.[4]

Early life and education edit

Paul Biya was born in the village of Mvomeka'a[1][2] in what is now the South Region of Cameroon. He studied at the Lycée General Leclerc, Yaoundé, and in France at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Paris, going on to the Institut des hautes études d'Outre-Mer, where he graduated in 1961 with a higher education diploma in public law.[5]

Presidency: 1982–present edit

Rise to prominence and forward edit

As an official in post-independence 1960s Cameroon, specifically as a Chargé de Mission[6] Mr. Biya rose to prominence under President Ahmadou Ahidjo. After becoming director of the Cabinet of the minister of national education in January 1964 and secretary-general of the ministry of national education in July 1965, he was named director of the civil cabinet of the president in December 1967 and secretary-general of the presidency (while remaining director of the civil cabinet) in January 1968. He gained the rank of minister in August 1968 and the rank of minister of state in June 1970, while remaining secretary-general of the presidency. Following the creation of a unitary state in 1972, he became Prime Minister of Cameroon on 30 June 1975. In June 1979, a new law designated the prime minister as the president's constitutional successor. Ahidjo unexpectedly announced his resignation on 4 November 1982, and Biya accordingly succeeded him as president of Cameroon on 6 November.[1][2]

Because Biya is a Christian from the southern region of Cameroon, it was considered surprising that he was chosen by Ahidjo, a Muslim from the north, as his successor. His [Paul Biya's][7] father, who was a catechist, wanted him to join the clergy, but at the age of 16 while in Catholic school, he was expelled. After Biya became President, Ahidjo initially remained head of the ruling Cameroon National Union (CNU/ UNC). Biya was brought into the CNU Central Committee and Political Bureau and was elected as the Vice-President of the CNU.[8] On 11 December 1982, he was placed in charge of managing party affairs in Ahidjo's absence. During the first months after Biya's succession, he continued to show loyalty to Ahidjo, and Ahidjo continued to show support for Biya, but in 1983 a deep rift developed between the two. Ahidjo went into exile in France, and from there he publicly accused Biya of abuse of power and paranoia about plots against him. After Ahidjo resigned as CNU leader, Biya took the helm of the party at an "extraordinary session" of the CNU party held on 14 September 1983.[9]

 
Ahidjo in July 1982, three months before he resigned.

In November 1983, Biya announced that the next presidential election would be held on 14 January 1984; it had been previously scheduled for 1985. He was the sole candidate in this election and won 99.98% of the vote.[9] In February 1984, Ahidjo was put on trial in absentia for alleged involvement in a 1983 coup plot, along with two others; they were sentenced to death, although Biya commuted their sentences to life in prison.[10] Biya survived a military coup attempt on 6 April 1984, following his decision on the previous day to disband the Republican Guard and disperse its members across the military.[9] Estimates of the death toll ranged from 71 (according to the government)[10] to about 1,000.[9] Northern Muslims were the primary participants in this coup attempt, which was seen by many as an attempt to restore that group's supremacy; Biya, however, chose to emphasize national unity and did not focus blame on northern Muslims.[9][10] Ahidjo was widely believed to have orchestrated the coup attempt,[10] and Biya is thought to have learned of the plot in advance and to have disbanded the Republican Guard in response, forcing the coup plotters to act earlier than they had planned, which may have been a crucial factor in the coup's failure.[9][10]

 
Biya with U.S. President Ronald Reagan in 1986

Under his rule, the country adopted a structural adjustment plan submitted to it by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, which involved privatization, opening up to competition, and reducing social spending. Civil servants' salaries were reduced by 60%, and the informal sector increased very significantly.[11]

In 1985, the CNU was transformed into the Cameroon People's Democratic Movement, in Bamenda and Biya was unlawfully elected as its president. He was also re-elected as President of Cameroon on 24 April 1988.[2]

Biya initially took some steps to open up the regime, culminating in the decision to legalize opposition parties in 1990. According to official results, Biya won the first multiparty presidential election, held on 11 October 1992, with about 40% of the vote. There was no provision for a runoff; the opposition was unable to unite around a single candidate. The second placed candidate, John Fru Ndi of the opposition Social Democratic Front (SDF), officially received about 36%.[12][13] The results were strongly disputed by the opposition, which alleged fraud.[12]

 
Biya and U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell in September 2002

In the October 1997 presidential election, which was boycotted by the main opposition parties, Biya was re-elected with 92.6 percent of the vote;[13][14] he was sworn in on 3 November.[15]

He has been consistently re-elected as the National President of the RDPC; he was re-elected at the party's second extraordinary congress on 7 July 2001 and its third extraordinary congress on 21 July 2006.[16][17]

Biya won another seven-year term in the 11 October 2004 presidential election, officially taking 70.92 percent of the vote,[18][19] although the opposition again alleged widespread fraud.[18] Biya was sworn in on 3 November.[19]

After being re-elected in 2004, Biya was barred by a two-term limit in the 1996 Constitution from running for President again in 2011, but he sought to revise this, to allow him to run again. In his 2008 New Year's message, Biya expressed support for revising the Constitution, saying that it was undemocratic to limit the people's choice.[20] The proposed removal of term limits was among the grievances expressed during violent protests in late February 2008. Nevertheless, on 10 April 2008, the National Assembly voted to change the Constitution to remove term limits. Given the RDPC's control of the National Assembly, the change was overwhelmingly approved, with 157 votes in favor and five opposed; the 15 deputies of the SDF chose to boycott the vote in protest. The change also provided for the President to enjoy immunity from prosecution for his actions as President after leaving office.[21]

 
Biya with U.S. President George W. Bush in 2003

On 12 June 2006, he signed the Greentree Agreement with Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo which formally put an end to the Bakassi peninsula border dispute.[22]

In February 2008, riots broke out, calling for lower prices and the departure of Paul Biya as president. The demonstrators were severely repressed with reports of a hundred dead and thousands of arrests.[11]

In the October 2011 presidential election, Biya secured a sixth term in office, polling 77.9% of votes cast. John Fru Ndi was his nearest rival, polling 10%.[23] Biya's opponents alleged wide-scale fraud in the election and procedural irregularities were noted by the French and US governments.[24][25] In his victory speech, Biya promised to stimulate growth and create jobs with a programme of public works which would "transform our country into a vast construction site".[25] On 3 November 2011, he was sworn in for another term as President. [26]

Biya won the 2018 presidential election with 71.3% of the vote.[27] The election was marred by violence and low voter turnout.[28] As of 2022, he is the longest serving non-royal head of state, having been in power since 30 June 1975.

Foreign relations edit

France

His regime is supported by France, one of the former colonial powers in Cameroon, which supplies it with weapons and trains its military forces. France is also the leading foreign investor in Cameroon.[11]

China

The People's Republic established relations with Cameroon on 26 March 1971.[29] In the 2000s, leading politicians paid state visits to and from each country; these included President Biya's visit for a conference in 2006 and Hu Jintao's visit to Cameroon in 2007.[30]

Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi visited Cameroon on 12 January 2014.[31]

Cameroon was one of 53 countries that, in June 2020, backed the Hong Kong national security law at the United Nations.[32]

Israel

Cameroon voted against several anti-Israel UN resolutions, and was the only nation to join Israel in voting against the UN resolution "Assistance to Palestine Refugees".[33]

Cameroon cut ties with Israel from 1973 to 1986[34] and was one of the first states to restore relations.[35] The government of Cameroon uses Israeli armored vehicles,[36] and Cameroon's Rapid Reaction Force, often shortened (by its French name) to BIR, is equipped and trained by Israel.[37][38][39]

Students in Cameroon were granted 11 month visas to travel to Israel and learn about agriculture,[40] while poultry farmers underwent training for poultry production in Israel.[41]

Israelis also trained personnel at six hospitals in Cameroon on how to combat the Ebola virus.[42]

Nigeria

Biya, Abidjo's successor as president, filed suit at the International Court of Justice on 29 March 1994.[43]: 12  Cameroon's claim to Bakassi was largely based on the Anglo-German agreement of 1913 and the 1975 Maroua Declaration. Nigeria, on the other hand, argued that the peninsula had been the territory of the chiefs of Old Calabar, who had transferred their title to Nigeria upon its independence. As support for this argument it pointed to the Nigerian collection of taxes in the region, the widespread use of Nigerian passports by its residents, and other signs that the Nigerian state had been intimately involved in the governance of the peninsula.[44]: 289–90  On 10 October 2002, after more than eight years of hearings and deliberations, the court ruled in favour of Cameroon, instructing Nigeria to withdraw immediately from the region.[45]: 54 

Although Nigeria initially protested the decision, and although it caused significant unrest in Bakassi, Olusegun Obasanjo's regime largely cooperated with the ruling.[46] In June 2006, at the Greentree estate in Long Island, New York, the countries signed the Greentree Agreement, which required Nigeria to withdraw its troops from Bakassi by 4 August 2008, and also required Cameroon to protect the rights of the Nigerian citizens who lived in Bakassi.[47] The transfer of the territory to Cameroon proceeded peacefully under the agreement.[48] The Cameroonian government now presents the dispute as a "misunderstanding", and its resolution as "a model of peaceful conflict resolution in Africa."[49]

At the request of Biya and Obasanjo, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan established the Cameroon–Nigeria Mixed Commission to negotiate a smooth implementation of the International Court of Justice's 2002 ruling. The commission's responsibilities included demarcating the entirety of the Cameroon–Nigeria border, facilitating cross-border cooperation and troop withdrawals from Bakassi, and protecting the rights of locals.[50] The commission was chaired by Mohamed Ibn Chambas and had met 38 times by 2015.[51] As of July 2019, 2,001 kilometres of boundary (out of an estimated 2,100 kilometres) had been surveyed and agreed to by both countries, including the border at Bakassi.[50] In May 2007 in Abuja, the commission finalised the maritime boundary, but in 2015, the Cameroonian government reported that "a few tens of kilometres remain[ed] a stumbling block" in finalising the land boundary.[51]

United States

However, Cameroon–U.S. economic relations were at their highest ever level in 1982, when Ahidjo was replaced by his prime minister, Biya. Between 1982 and 1984, the U.S. overtook France as Cameroon's foremost export market, primarily due to its consumption of Cameroonian oil.[52] Biya pursued a diversification of Cameroonian foreign relations still more vigorously than Ahidjo had, describing his foreign policy in such terms as "diplomacy of development", "co-operation without frontiers", and "open door" diplomacy.[52]

From around 2013, bilateral relations increasingly emphasised joint counterterrorism actions against Boko Haram and Islamic State in West Africa, alongside other regional security initiatives, especially in the Gulf of Guinea.[53] Between 2015 and 2020, about 300 U.S. military personnel were deployed in northern Cameroon to conduct regional intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance.[53]

Opposition and criticism edit

Biya makes relatively few public appearances, and is sometimes characterized as aloof. Since the early 1990s, he has faced his strongest opposition from the Anglophone population of the former Southern Cameroons in the western part of the country.

 
US President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama pose for a photo during a reception at the Metropolitan Museum in New York with Biya and his wife Chantal, 2009

Although Biya made some efforts to open up the political environment, his regime still retains clear authoritarian characteristics and has largely bucked the trend toward democracy in Africa since the 1990s. Under the constitution, Biya has sweeping executive and legislative powers. He even has considerable authority over the judiciary; the courts can only review a law's constitutionality at his request. The RDPC continues to dominate the National Assembly, which does little more than approve his policies.

"Tyrants, the World's 20 Worst Living Dictators", by David Wallechinsky, ranked Biya together with three other leaders in sub-Saharan Africa: Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Equatorial Guinea, and King Mswati of Swaziland (now Eswatini). He describes Cameroon's electoral process in these terms: "Every few years, Biya stages an election to justify his continuing reign, but these elections have no credibility. In fact, Biya is credited with a creative innovation in the world of phony elections. In 2004, annoyed by the criticisms of international vote-monitoring groups, he paid for his own set of international observers, six ex-U.S. congressmen, who certified his election as free and fair."[54] In a 2005 interview William Quantrill, a retired member of the British Diplomatic Service, argued that the reluctance of Biya to delegate responsibility seriously hampered the quality of governance, with trivial decisions often delayed until he got round to delivering them, and that there was too much government interference in the economy in general.[55]

Biya regularly spends extended periods of time in Switzerland at the Hotel InterContinental Geneva where the former director Herbert Schott reportedly said he comes to work without being disturbed.[56] These extended stays away from Cameroon – while sometimes as short as two weeks and sometimes as long as three months – are almost always referred to as "short stays" in the state-owned press and other media.[57][58] In February 2008, he passed a bill that allows for having an additional term in office as president which was followed by civil unrests throughout the country. The main violent riots took place in the Western, English-speaking part of the country starting with a "strike" initiated by taxi drivers in Douala, allegedly causing more than 200 casualties in the end.[59][60][61] In 2009, his holiday in France allegedly cost $40,000 a day spent on 43 hotel rooms.[62]

 
US Secretary of State John Kerry greets President Biya, 2014

In 2009, Biya was ranked 19th in Parade Magazine's Top 20 list of "The World's Worst Dictators".[63]

In November 2010, Bertrand Teyou published a book titled La belle de la république bananière: Chantal Biya, de la rue au palais (English: "The beauty of the banana republic: Chantal Biya, from the streets to the palace"), tracing Chantal Biya's rise from humble origins to become Paul Biya's First Lady.[64] He was subsequently given a two-year prison term on charges of "insult to character" and organizing an "illegal demonstration" for attempting to hold a public reading.[64] Amnesty International and International PEN's Writers in Prison Committee both protested his arrest and issued appeals on his behalf; Amnesty International also named him a prisoner of conscience.[64][65] He was freed on 2 May 2011 when the London chapter of International PEN agreed to pay his fine in order that he might seek treatment for his worsening health condition.[66]

In February 2014, French citizen Michel Thierry Atangana was released from a makeshift Yaoundé prison where, under Biya's orders, he had been arbitrarily detained for 17 years under false claims of embezzlement because of supposed closeness to presidential candidate Titus Edzoa.[67] Considered a political prisoner and prisoner of conscience by the United States Department of State, Amnesty International, Freedom House, and the U.N. Working Group on Arbitrary Detention since 2005,[68] Michel was released under Biya's personal decree but the Working Group's tripartite demands remain unfulfilled.[69][70]

 
Bayero Fadil with Paul Biya, 2020

In 2016, Cameroonians in the nation's capital city of Yaoundé criticized Biya's reaction to the country's worst train crash in which 79 people died. Critics included government officials who remained anonymous, fearing a backlash.[71] The Anglophone protests in late 2016 were led by English-speaking lawyers in protest against the use of French in Cameroonian courts, which led to violent clashes with police. Opposition party leader Edna Njilin of the Cameroon People's Party spoke out against the enforced use of French in the classroom. In January 2017, the government ordered a suspension of Internet services in the Northwest and Southwest provinces.[72] Criticism of the suspension and increased opposition led to resumption of services in late April.[73]

By June 2017, protests in Cameroon's English-speaking provinces and cities led to police responding with force, with four protesters killed and more than 100 arrested. International criticism has been levied at the United States for their lack of response to the growing Cameroonian crisis.[74]

In April 2017, a Cameroonian journalist working for Radio France Internationale, Ahmed Abba, was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment by a military tribunal for failing to report acts of terrorism. The judgement was severely criticized by human rights groups including Amnesty International.[75]

On 7 November 2018, another Cameroonian journalist, Mimi Mefo, was arrested after reporting on social media that the Cameroonian military was behind the murder of an American missionary in the country, Charles Trumann, in October of that year. Mefo was charged with "publishing and propagating information that infringes on the territorial integrity of the Republic of Cameroon," but was released and charges were dropped on 12 November after her arrest was condemned by both local and international media groups.[76]

In March 2024, the NGO Human Rights Watch (HRW) denounced “intense repression” by the Cameroonian government against the opposition, after the government of Paul Biya declared the grouping of its main parties in two platforms “illegal”.[77]

Anglophone Cameroon edit

 
Biya and his wife Chantal at the opening of CAN 2021 on 9 January 2022

During 2016 and 2017, under Paul Biya's reign, large scale protests broke out among Anglophone Cameroonians in the area of the formerly British Southern Cameroons. Protestors complained that Anglophone regions in Cameroon (the Northwest Region and the Southwest Region) were neglected by Biya's government, and excluded from power.[78] During this time, Anglophone separatists claim that government forces murdered protestors en masse, and committed crimes against humanity, including genocide.[79][additional citation(s) needed] Certain protestors had called upon Biya and the Cameroonian government to grant them independence.[80]

Eventually, separatists declared independence in October 2017 under the name Ambazonia. Numerous civilians and activists have accused Biya's government forces of burning villages, raping women, extrajudicial killings of civilians, and acts of genocide.[78][81] A petition to the United Nations gave details of police raping students at a university.[citation needed] The National Commission for Human Rights and Freedoms embarked on a fact-finding mission in Buea to investigate allegations of human rights abuses in the region.[citation needed][when?]

A June 2018 report by the BBC News found a widespread pattern of villages throughout the Southwest Region being burnt, including one video of men wearing government-issued BIR (Bataillon d'Intervention Rapide) equipment.[78] The BIR is a special force body that reports directly to President Biya.[citation needed] The report also included a video of a man being tortured by men appearing to be Cameroonian gendarmes.[78] Biya's Minister of Communication, Issa Tchiroma, responded by stating that anyone can use government equipment to commit false flag attacks, and said that Biya's government would investigate.[78]

Individual sources testify that all of those sent to fight the secessionist militia are French speaking, thus widening the linguistic division between local residents.[citation needed]

On 14 November 2019, Biya admitted in a Paris forum of trying to assimilate former British Southern Cameroons into the majority Francophone system, formerly East Cameroon State but failed,[82][better source needed] due to identity differences, thus triggering the conflict.[citation needed]

 
Biya's son Franck Emmanuel Olivier Biya, September 2020

Personal life edit

Biya became a naturalized citizen of France when he studied there, but he later relinquished his French citizenship when he returned to Cameroon to serve in government positions.[citation needed]

In 1961, he married Jeanne-Irène Biya, who did not have any children, though she adopted Franck Emmanuel Olivier Biya, who had been born in 1971 from a relationship between Biya and Jeanne-Irène's sister[83] or niece.[84][8] Franck Biya is seen as a possible successor of his father in the context of presidential elections scheduled for 2025.[by whom?]

Jeanne-Irène Biya died on 29 July 1992 after a short illness while Paul Biya was attending a conference abroad. Rumors have it that she and a number of people close to her did not die of natural causes.[85][84]

Paul Biya married Chantal Vigouroux, who is 36 years his junior, on 23 April 1994,[2] and had two more children with her, Paul Jr. and Anastasia Brenda.

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b c Profile of Biya at Cameroonian presidency web site (in French).
  2. ^ a b c d e Biography at 2004 presidential election web site Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Emvana, Michel Roger (2005). Paul Biya: les secrets du pouvoir (in French). KARTHALA Editions. ISBN 978-2-84586-684-3.
  4. ^ "Elections. La fraude "made in Cameroon" fait fureur". www.cameroonvoice.com. 29 October 2012.
  5. ^ "Biography". www.prc.cm.
  6. ^ "Biography". www.prc.cm.
  7. ^ IsongAsu (2021). "Paul Biya: A Psychopath responsible for enormous damage". www.cameroonintelligencereport.com.
  8. ^ a b Eigo, Tim; Donaldson, Catherine Victoria (2018). "Paul Biya". encyclopedia.com (three essays on Paul Biya's presidency with the following source information: Contemporary Black Biography (May 2018, author Tim Eigo), Newsmakers 2006 Cumulation (May 2018, author Catherine Victoria Donaldson) and Encyclopedia of World Biography (May 2018)). Retrieved 29 March 2024.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Milton H. Krieger and Joseph Takougang, African State and Society in the 1990s: Cameroon's Political Crossroads (2000), Westview Press, pages 65–74.
  10. ^ a b c d e Jonathan C. Randal, "Tales of Ex-Leader's Role In Revolt Stun Cameroon", The Washington Post, 15 April 1984, page A01.
  11. ^ a b c Thomas Deltombe, Manuel Domergue, Jacob Tatsita, Kamerun !, La Découverte, 2019
  12. ^ a b John Mukum Mbaku, "Decolonization, Reunification and Federation in Cameroon", in The Leadership Challenge in Africa: Cameroon Under Paul Biya (2004), ed. John Mukum Mbaku and Joseph Takougang, page 34.
  13. ^ a b Elections in Cameroon, African Elections Database.
  14. ^ "UK Home Office Immigration and Nationality Directorate Country Assessment – Cameroon", UNHCR.org.
  15. ^ "Cameroun. Biya reinstalle", ANB-BIA, 3 November 1997.
  16. ^ "21 ANS DE TÂTONNEMENT", Camerounlink.net, 21 July 2007 (in French).
  17. ^ "Paul Biya réélu sans surprise à la tête du RDPC" Archived 21 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine, rfi.fr, 22 July 2006 (in French).
  18. ^ a b "Cameroon's Supreme Court confirms Biya's re-election" Agence France Presse, 25 October 2004.
  19. ^ a b "President Biya is sworn in for another seven-year mandate." Archived 25 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Cameroonian government website].
  20. ^ "Cameroun: Paul Biya va modifier la Constitution" Archived 5 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Panapress, 2 January 2008 (in French).
  21. ^ "Cameroun: adoption d'une révision constitutionnelle controversée" Archived 22 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine, AFP, 10 April 2008 (in French).
  22. ^ "AGREEMENT TRANSFERRING AUTHORITY OVER BAKASSI PENINSULA FROM NIGERIA TO CAMEROON 'TRIUMPH FOR THE RULE OF LAW', SECRETARY-GENERAL SAYS IN MESSAGE FOR CEREMONY - Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". www.un.org.
  23. ^ "Cameroonian president wins vote, extending 29-year-rule". CNN. 22 October 2010. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  24. ^ "Court declares Cameroon's Biya landslide poll winner, despite accusations of fraud". Washington Post. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.[dead link]
  25. ^ a b "Cameroon's Biya promises youth jobs after poll win". Reuters. 25 October 2011. Archived from the original on 25 February 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  26. ^ "Cameroon: Biya sworn in for sixth presidential term". BBC News. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  27. ^ Blaise, Eyong; Adebayo, Bukola (22 October 2018). "Cameroon's Paul Biya wins seventh term in office". CNN. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  28. ^ "Cameroon's President Paul Biya wins seventh term". BBC News. 22 October 2018.
  29. ^ Milutin Tomanović, ed. (1972). Hronika međunarodnih događaja 1971 [The Chronicle of International Events in 1971] (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade: Institute of International Politics and Economics. p. 2598.
  30. ^ Backgrounder: Relations between China, Cameroon People's Daily Online, March 23, 2010
  31. ^ "Chinese Foreign Minister Due In Cameroon Soon". CameroonOnline.org. 5 January 2015. Archived from the original on 6 January 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  32. ^ Lawler, Dave (2 July 2020). "The 53 countries supporting China's crackdown on Hong Kong". Axios. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  33. ^ "Fourth Committee Forwards 28 Drafts to General Assembly for Adoption, Concluding Work for Session". United Nations. 14 November 2013.
  34. ^ "Israel, Cameroon Restore Ties After 13-Year Break". Times Wire Services. 27 August 1986 – via LA Times.
  35. ^ "Israel-Cameroon Relations". Embassy Of Israel In Cameroon.
  36. ^ "Cameroon's Presidential Guard first known user of Israel Musketeer vehicle". IHS Jane's 360.
  37. ^ Hilsum, Lindsey (13 May 2015). "On the border and in the crossfire: Cameroon's war with Boko Haram". The Guardian.
  38. ^ Youssef, Nancy A. (25 February 2015). "Boko Haram Are Finally Losing. And That Makes Them Extra Dangerous". The Daily Beast.
  39. ^ Freudenthal, Emmanuel; van der Weide, Youri (23 June 2020). "Making a killing: Israeli mercenaries in Cameroon". African Arguments. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  40. ^ "Cameroon /Israel Cooperation: Cameroonian students receive scholarship". 3 November 2014. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2023.
  41. ^ "Israel To Help the Industry in Cameroon". 25 June 2008.
  42. ^ Leichman, Abigaiel Klein (6 October 2014). "Israeli aid on way to fight Ebola spread". ISRAEL21c: Uncovering Israel.
  43. ^ Amin, Julius A. (2020). "Cameroon's relations toward Nigeria: a foreign policy of pragmatism". Journal of Modern African Studies. 58 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1017/S0022278X19000545. S2CID 214047726.
  44. ^ Konings, Piet (2005). "The Anglophone Cameroon-Nigeria Boundary: Opportunities and Conflicts". African Affairs. 104 (415): 275–301. doi:10.1093/afraf/adi004. hdl:1887/3500. ISSN 0001-9909. JSTOR 3518445.
  45. ^ Cornwell, Richard (2006). "Nigeria and Cameroon: Diplomacy in the Delta". African Security Review. 15 (4): 48–55. doi:10.1080/10246029.2006.9627621. S2CID 144062623.
  46. ^ Cornwell 2006, p. 54.
  47. ^ Amin 2020, p. 14.
  48. ^ United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel (9 July 2019). "A Success in the Resolution of Boundary Dispute". The Cameroon–Nigeria Mixed Commission.
  49. ^ Presidency of the Republic of Cameroon (2015). Nigeria: Our Neighbour, Our Partner (PDF) (Report).
  50. ^ a b United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel 2019.
  51. ^ a b Presidency of the Republic of Cameroon 2015.
  52. ^ a b Takaugang, J. (1993). "Continuity and Change in Cameroon's Foreign Policy in the Post-Ahidjo Era". The African Review: A Journal of African Politics, Development and International Affairs. 20 (1/2): 135–153. ISSN 0856-0056. JSTOR 45341604.
  53. ^ a b Husted, Tomás F. (22 September 2021). "Cameroon: Key Issues and U.S. Policy" (PDF). U.S. Congressional Research Service.
  54. ^ Wallechinsky, David (2006). Tyrants: the World's 20 Worst Living Dictators. Regan Press. pp. 286–290. ISBN 9780060590048. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  55. ^ Kometa, Georgiana Magho. "There Was Disparity Between Biya's Professed Policies And Reality -Former British Ambassador". Up Station Mountain Club. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  56. ^ Belibi, Jean Francis. "Cameroun: Herbert Schott – Paul Biya est un sacré personnage". Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2016.. fr.allafrica.com. 30 October 2007 (in French)
  57. ^ "Le Chef de l'Etat en séjour privé en Europe". Prc.cm. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  58. ^ "Le Président est de retour" (in French). Prc.cm. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  59. ^ "Anatomie eines Aufstandes: Dunkle Krawalle – Der Freitag" (in German). Freitag.de. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  60. ^ "Dissent violently repressed in Cameroon". Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 2010-12-04.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link). amnesty.org. 29 January 2009
  61. ^ "Cameroon | Amnesty International Report 2009". Report2009.amnesty.org. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  62. ^ "Cameroon defends Biya hotel bills", BBC, 3 September 2009 (in French).
  63. ^ The World's Worst Dictators. Parade.com (2011-10-20). Retrieved on 2011-11-08.
  64. ^ a b c "CAMEROON: Author jailed for insulting President's wife". International PEN. 25 March 2011. Archived from the original on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  65. ^ "Urgent Action:CAMEROONIAN WRITER HELD IN HARSH CONDITIONS". Amnesty International. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  66. ^ "Cameroun: L'écrivain Bertrand Teyou Sort De Prison". camerpress.net. 2 May 2011. Archived from the original on 1 December 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  67. ^ Desnos, Marie (22 October 2015). "Français emprisonné 17 ans au Cameroun - Michel Thierry Atangana, le citoyen oublié". Paris Match (in French). Retrieved 16 October 2022.
  68. ^ "Cameroun: Selon Amnesty international, Michel Atangana prisonnier d'opinion". www.cameroon-info.net. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016.
  69. ^ "University of Minnesota Human Rights Library". www1.umn.edu.
  70. ^ Olivier, Mathieu (21 October 2015). "Michel Thierry Atangana : " Je dois être réhabilité pour reprendre le cours de ma vie "". Jeune Afrique (in French).
  71. ^ Atabong, Amindeh Blaise (25 October 2016). "Cameroonians are furious with their 'absent' president after a national tragedy". Quartz. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  72. ^ Monks, Kieron (3 February 2017). "Cameroon goes offline after Anglophone revolt". CNN. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  73. ^ "Cameroon ends internet shutdown on orders of President Paul Biya". BBC News. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  74. ^ Morse, Yonatan L. (2 June 2017). "Analysis | Cameroon has been in crisis for six months. Here's what you need to know". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  75. ^ "Cameroon Journalist Jailed for 10 Years Under Anti-terrorism Law". VOA. Reuters. 24 April 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  76. ^ BBC News. "Cameroon drops fake news charges against Mimi Mefo". Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  77. ^ Le Monde, AFP. "Human Rights Watch accuse à nouveau le Cameroun de Paul Biya de réprimer toute opposition" (in French). Retrieved 23 March 2024.
  78. ^ a b c d e Leroy, Aliaume; Freudenthal, Emmanuel (25 June 2018). "Witnessing Cameroon's descent towards civil war". BBC News. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  79. ^ "Crimes against humanity and genocide in Southern Cameroons: Mechanisms for redress". Cameroon Concord News. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  80. ^ "Southern Cameroonians agitate for independence from Republic of Cameroon". Tribune. 26 May 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  81. ^ Zongo, Peter (30 May 2018). "'This is a genocide': villages burn as war rages in blood-soaked Cameroon". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  82. ^ "Cameroon from Biya - a mea culpa on the Angliphone Crisis in Paris". panafricanvisions.com. 14 November 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  83. ^ Francis B. Nyamnjoh: Africa's Media, Democracy and the Politics of Belonging, p. 213, Zed Books, 2005. In: books.google.de
  84. ^ a b Secrets d'Etoudi : voici les véritables parents de Franck Biya, 24. March 2022. In: camerounweb.com
  85. ^ A Review of Notable Political Rumors from Cameroon (englisch)

External links edit

Political offices
Preceded byas Prime Minister of East Cameroon Prime Minister of Cameroon
1975–1982
Succeeded by
Preceded byas Prime Minister of West Cameroon
Preceded by President of Cameroon
1982–present
Incumbent