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Patricia Era Bath (November 4, 1942 – May 30, 2019) was an American ophthalmologist, inventor, humanitarian, and academic. She was an early pioneer of laser cataract surgery. She also became first woman member of the Jules Stein Eye Institute, first woman to lead a post-graduate training program in ophthalmology, and first woman elected to the honorary staff of the UCLA Medical Center. Bath was the first African-American person to serve as a resident in ophthalmology at New York University. She was also the first African-American woman to serve on staff as a surgeon at the UCLA Medical Center. Bath was the first African-American woman doctor to receive a patent for a medical purpose. The holder of five patents,[1] she also founded the non-profit American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness in Washington, D.C.

Patricia Bath
Patriciabath.jpg
Born
Patricia Era Bath

(1942-11-04)November 4, 1942
DiedMay 30, 2019(2019-05-30) (aged 76)
CitizenshipAmerican
Alma materHunter College (B.A.)
Howard University (M.D.)
OccupationOphthalmologist, inventor, humanitarian
Known forInvention of Laserphaco Probe

Early life and educationEdit

Born on November 4, 1942, in Harlem, New York, Patricia Bath is the daughter of Rupert and Gladys Bath.[2] Her father was an immigrant from Trinidad, a newspaper columnist, a merchant seaman and the first black man to work for the New York City Subway as a motorman.[3][4] Her father inspired her love for culture and encouraged her to explore different cultures.[5] Her mother was descended from African slaves and Cherokee Native Americans.[3] Gladys Bath decided to be a homemaker while her children were young, then later became a housekeeper to help fund the education of her children.[3] Patricia and her brother attended Charles Evans Hughes High School where both students excelled in science and math. Patricia was inspired by her teachers to pursue research.[6]

Inspired by Albert Schweitzer's work in medicine,[4] Bath applied for and won a National Science Foundation Scholarship while attending high school; this led her to a research project at Yeshiva University and Harlem Hospital Center studying connections between cancer, nutrition, and stress.[7][8] The head of the research program realized the significance of her findings and published them in a scientific paper.[5] In 1960, still a teenager, Bath won the "Merit Award" of Mademoiselle magazine for her contribution to the project.[4]

Bath received her Bachelor of Arts in chemistry from Manhattan's Hunter College in 1964 and [2] relocated to Washington, D.C. to attend Howard University College of Medicine. Her freshman year at Howard coincided with the Civil Rights Act of 1964. She co-founded the Student National Medical Association and became its first woman president in 1965. At Howard, she was awarded a Children's Bureau National Government Fellowship Award to do research in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in the summer of 1967. The highlight of the award ceremony was the meeting of Earl Warren, chief justice of the United States Supreme Court, at the US Embassy in Belgrade. Bath graduated with honors from Howard University College of Medicine in 1968. She was awarded the Edwin Watson Prize for Excellence in Ophthalmology by her mentor, Lois A. Young.

The assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 caused Bath to dedicate herself to achieving one of the dreams of King, namely the empowerment of people through the Poor People's Campaign. She organized and led Howard University medical students in providing volunteer health care services to the Poor People's Campaign in Resurrection City in the summer of 1968.[9]

Bath returned to her Harlem community and interned at Harlem Hospital Center, which had just become affiliated with Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. During her internship, she observed large proportions of blind patients at Harlem Hospital in comparison to patients at the Columbia University Eye Clinic. Prior to beginning her ophthalmology residency study at NYU in 1970, she was awarded a one-year fellowship from Columbia University to study and contribute to eye care services at Harlem Hospital. She began to collect data on blindness and visual impairment at Harlem Hospital, which did not have any ophthalmologists on staff. Her data and passion for improvement persuaded her professors from Columbia to operate on blind patients, without charge, at Harlem Hospital Center,[10] which had not previously offered eye surgery.[6] Bath was proud to be on the Columbia team that performed the first eye surgery at Harlem Hospital in November 1969.

She served her residency in ophthalmology at New York University, from 1970 to 1973, the first African American to do so.[4][3]

CareerEdit

After completing her residency at NYU, Bath began a Corneal fellowship program at Columbia University, which focused on corneal transplantation and keratoprosthesis surgery (1973 to 1974). While a fellow, she was recruited by both the UCLA Jules Stein Eye Institute and Charles R. Drew University to co-found an ophthalmology residency program at Martin Luther King, Jr. Hospital. She then began her career in Los Angeles, becoming the first woman ophthalmologist on the faculty at Jules Stein Eye Institute at UCLA. She was appointed assistant chief of the King-Drew-UCLA Ophthalmology Residency Program in 1974, and was appointed chief in 1983.[citation needed]

At both institutions she rose to the rank of associate professor. At UCLA, she founded the Ophthalmic Assistant Training Program (OATP) in 1978. The graduates of the OATP are key personnel to provide screening, health education, and support for blindness prevention strategies. In 1978, Bath co-founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness and served as president.[3][7][11]

While at UCLA Jules Stein Eye Institute, she established the Keratoprosthesis Program to provide advanced surgical treatment for blind patients. The program continues today as the KPRO and thousands of patients have had their eyesight restored with this innovative technology. Based on her research and achievements with keratoprosthesis, Bath was chosen to lead the first national keratoprosthesis study in 1983.[12]

In 1983, Bath was appointed Chair of the KING-DREW-UCLA Ophthalmology Residency Program, becoming the first woman in the US to head an ophthalmology residency program.[4][3] In 1986, Bath elected to take a sabbatical from clinical and administrative responsibilities and concentrate on research. She resigned her position as chair of ophthalmology and followed her research pursuits as visiting professor at centers of excellence in France, England and Germany. In France, she served as visiting professor at the Rothschilde Eye Institute of Paris with Director, Daniele Aron-Rosa. In England, she served as visiting professor with Professor Emmony at the Loughborough Institute of Technology. In Germany, she served as visiting professor at the University of Free Berlin and the laser medical center.

In 1993, she retired from UCLA, which subsequently elected her the first woman on its honorary staff.[3][4]

She served as a professor of ophthalmology at Howard University's School of Medicine and as a professor of telemedicine and ophthalmology at St. Georges University[11][13] ophthalmology training program.[14]

Bath has lectured internationally and authored over 100 papers.[14]

Blindness studies and community ophthalmologyEdit

Based on her observations at Harlem Hospital, Bath published the first scientific paper showing the higher prevalence of blindness among Blacks, as well as the higher prevalence of glaucoma as a cause of blindness.[15][16]

Based on her research, she pioneered the worldwide discipline of "community ophthalmology" in 1976[17] after observations of epidemics rates of preventable blindness among under-served populations in urban areas in the US as well as under-served populations in "third-world" countries.[15][18] Community ophthalmology was described as a new discipline in medicine promoting eye health and blindness prevention through programs utilizing methodologies of public health, community medicine and ophthalmology to bring necessary eye care to under-served populations.[3]

InventionsEdit

In 1986, Bath did research in the laboratory of Danièle Aron-Rosa, a pioneer researcher in lasers and ophthalmology at Rothschilde Eye Institute of Paris,[19] and then at the Laser Medical Center in Berlin, where she was able to begin early studies in laser cataract surgery, including her first experiment with excimer laser photoablation using human eye bank eyes.[19]

Bath coined the term "Laser phaco" for the process, short for laser PHotoAblative Cataract surgery,[20] and developed the laserphaco probe, a medical device that improves on the use of lasers to remove cataracts, and "for ablating and removing cataract lenses". The device was completed in 1986 after Bath conducted research on lasers in Berlin and patented in 1988,[21] making her the first African-American woman to receive a patent for a medical purpose.[7] The device — which quickly and nearly painlessly dissolves the cataract with a laser, irrigates and cleans the eye and permits the easy insertion of a new lens — is used internationally to treat the disease.[3][2][4] Bath has continued to improve the device and has successfully restored vision to people who have been unable to see for decades.[11][22]

Bath holds five patents in the United States.[1] Three of Bath's five patents relate to the Laserphaco Probe.[11] In 2000, she was granted a patent for a method for using pulsed ultrasound to remove cataracts,[4] and in 2003 a patent for combining laser and ultrasound to remove cataracts.

List of U.S. patentsEdit

DeathEdit

Bath died on May 30, 2019, at a University of California, San Francisco medical center from cancer-related complications, aged 76.[23][24]

Honors and awardsEdit

  • 1999: Smithsonian Museum included her in their Innovative Lives Exhibition and Program[citation needed]
  • 2001: American Medical Women’s Association induction into Hall of Fame[citation needed]
  • 2011: American Academy of Ophthalmology induction into the Museum of Vision for contributions to Ophthalmology[citation needed]
  • 2012: Tribeca Film Festival Disruptive Innovation Award[citation needed]
  • 2013: Association of Black Women Physicians Lifetime Achievement Award for Ophthalmology Contributions[citation needed]
  • 2014: Alpha Kappa Alpha Presidential Award for Health and medical Sciences[citation needed]
  • 2014: Howard University Charter Day Award for Distinguished Achievement in Ophthalmology and Medicine[citation needed]
  • 2017: Medscape one of 12 "Women Physicians who Changed the Course of American Medicine"[25]
  • 2017: Time Magazine "Firsts: Women Who Are Changing the World” for being the first to invent and demonstrate laserphaco cataract surgery[26]
  • 2017: Hunter College Hall of Fame induction[27]
  • 2018: New York Academy of Medicine John Stearns Medal for Distinguished Contributions in Clinical Practice, for invention of laserphaco cataract surgery[28]
  • 2018: Alliance for Aging research: Silver Innovator Award for contributions and research towards blindness prevention[29]

Bath has been honored by two of her universities. Hunter College placed her in its "hall of fame" in 1988 and Howard University declared her a "Howard University Pioneer in Academic Medicine" in 1993.[4] A picture book on her life and work in science was published in 2017,[13] and was cited by both the National Science Teachers Association and the Chicago Public Library's list of best children's books of the year.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

Notes

  1. ^ a b Patricia E. Bath, Google patent search. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Wilson, Donald; Jane Wilson (June 20, 2003). The Pride of African American History. AuthorHouse. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-4107-2873-9.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Dr. Patricia E. Bath". Changing the Face of Medicine. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Retrieved February 25, 2011.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lambert, Laura (September 1, 2007). "Patricia Bath: Inventor of laser cataract surgery". Inventors and Inventions. Marshall Cavendish. 1: 69–74. ISBN 978-0-7614-7763-1.
  5. ^ a b "Patricia Bath – Inventor, Doctor, Educator". Biography.com. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
  6. ^ a b Farmer, Vernon L.; Shepherd-Wynn, Evelyn (May 15, 2012). Voices of Historical and Contemporary Black American Pioneers. ABC-CLIO. pp. 21–22. ISBN 9780313392252.
  7. ^ a b c Henderson, Susan K. (March 1, 1998). African-American Inventors III. Capstone Press. pp. 9–13. ISBN 978-1-56065-698-2.
  8. ^ Williams, James Henry (January 21, 2011). African American Inventors and Pioneers. Xlibris Corporation. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-4568-4000-6.
  9. ^ Mazique, E. C. (1968). "Health services and the Poor People's Campaign". Journal of the National Medical Association. 60 (4): 332–333. PMC 2611562. PMID 5661208.
  10. ^ "Patricia Bath | Influential Women". Influential Women. Retrieved 2017-04-19.
  11. ^ a b c d "Modern Black Inventors". Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. 101 (7): 55. February 4, 2002. ISSN 0021-5996. (pdf at google books)
  12. ^ Aquavella J.; Bath, P.; Buxton, G.; Cardona, H.; Dohlman, C.; Farris, L.; Girard, L.; McNeil, J.; Polack, F.; Waring, G. and; Also, D. Willard.; Helmsen, R.; Binder, P.; Groden, L. and; Fogle, J., "Keratoprosthesis Conference", Cornea, September 1983, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp. 229–236.
  13. ^ a b Mosca, Julia Finley (2017). The Doctor with an Eye for Eyes: The Story of Dr. Patricia Bath (Amazing Scientist). The Innovation Press. ISBN 9781943147311.
  14. ^ a b Group, Career Communications (October–November 1997). "1997 Women of Color". U.S. Black Engineer & IT: 42. ISSN 1088-3444.
  15. ^ a b Bath, Patricia E. (February 1979). "Rationale for a program in community ophthalmology". J Natl Med Assoc. 71 (2): 145–8. PMC 2537323. PMID 423288.
  16. ^ Bath, Patricia E. (October 1990). "Blacks at Greater Risk of Blindness," Archives of Ophthalmology, 108, pp. 1377–8.
  17. ^ "U.S. Ophthalmologist, Dr. Patricia E. Bath first defined the term community ophthalmoogy in her 1976 presentation to the American Public Health Association meeting in Miami, Florida." Source: Logan D. A. Williams, "Introduction", Eradicating Blindness: Global Health Innovation from South Asia, Springer, Aug 20, 2018, p. 9.
  18. ^ Bath, Patricia E. (May 1978). "Blindness Prevention Through Program in Community Ophthalmology in Developing Countries", Excerpta Medica Series 442, Amsterdam, Oxford CCIII International Congress of Ophthalmology, 1913–1915.
  19. ^ a b American Academy of Ophthalmology, Conversation Between Patricia Bath, MD and Eve Higginbotham, MD, Orlando, FL, October 23, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  20. ^ Bath, P. E., "Laserphaco: an introduction and review," Ophthalmic Laser Therapy, Vol 3, no. 2 (1988), pp. 75–82.
  21. ^ Patricia E. Bath, US Patent 4,744,360, Apparatus for ablating and removing cataract lenses, issued May 17, 1988 (filed Dec. 18, 1986). Retrieved February 24, 2019
  22. ^ Stewart, David (October 1, 2005). What's the Big Idea?. Salariya Publishers. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-904642-56-5.
  23. ^ "Cataract treatment inventor Dr. Patricia Smith dies at 76". The Washington Post. June 4, 2019.
  24. ^ Green, Andrew (2019-08-10). "Patricia Bath - Obituary". The Lancet. 394 (10197): 464. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31684-8. ISSN 0140-6736.
  25. ^ https://www.medscape.com/features/slideshow/women-physicians#page=13
  26. ^ "THE INVENTOR: Patricia Bath | First person to invent and demonstrate laserphaco cataract surgery", Firsts, Time.
  27. ^ "Hispanic Federation President Jose Calderón Inducted Into The Hunter College Hall of Fame by Hunter College President Jennifer J. Raab", Hunter College.
  28. ^ "The 171st Anniversary Discourse & Awards and Annual Meeting of the Voting Fellows", The New York Academy of Medicine, November 1, 2018.
  29. ^ "25th Annual Bipartisan Congressional Awards Dinner", Alliance for Aging Research, October 2, 2018.

External linksEdit