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The Patria Pasi (earlier known as the Sisu Pasi) is a Finnish-made six-wheeled armoured personnel carrier (APC) originally designed for Finnish Defence Forces. The first version was produced in 1983 and serial production began in 1984. It was designed to operate with ease of use, simple structure and low-cost maintenance. The basic appearance and configuration of Patria Pasi is similar to most wheeled APCs. The XA-180 and XA-185 versions are fully amphibious while the XA-203 is not.

Pasi (Patria XA-180 Series)
Norwegian Sisu XA.JPG
Norwegian XA-185
TypeAmphibious Armoured Personnel Carrier
Place of originFinland
Specifications
Mass13.5 tonnes (13.3 long tons; 14.9 short tons)
Length7.5 m (25 ft)
Width2.9 m (9 ft 6 in)
Height2.77 m (9 ft 1 in)
Crew2 (+16 passengers)

Armor10 mm
Main
armament
12.7 mm NSV machine gun
EngineXA-180: Valmet 611 DSBJA diesel
XA-200: Valmet 612 DWIBIC (EURO 2), 6 in-line cylinders, turbo-charged, intercooled diesel
XA-180: 236 hp (176 kW)
XA-200; 271 hp (202 kW) at 2100 rpm, max torque 1080 Nm at 1600 rpm
Power/weight17.48 hp/tonne
Suspensionparabolic leaf-springs with hydraulic shock absorbers
Operational
range
900 km
Speed100+ km/h on land, 10 km/h in water

Contents

DevelopmentEdit

In 1980, Sisu produced an XA-180 prototype for Finnish Army tests. It competed against two other prototypes, but was declared the winner of the trials in 1983. On 22 December 1983 the Finnish Army ordered a first batch of fifty XA-180s, of which nine were reserved for UN duties. The vehicle proved quite successful and more orders were soon to follow.

The XA-180 was originally manufactured and marketed by the Finnish company Sisu Auto but later variants were marketed by the Finnish defence company Patria and are known as Patria XA series.[1] The Vehicle's widely known nickname "Pasi" (also a common given name of Finnish men) stems from the Finnish name "panssari-Sisu" (English: armoured Sisu). The main superstructure is mainly manufactured from 6 to 12 mm of armour steel and the bottom is mine-strengthened, and the front windows are bullet-resistant and equipped with protective hatches. The vehicle has continuous six wheel drive and good capabilities for off-road driving. It can take inclines up to a maximum of 60°.

The XA series has no standard armament, but is equipped with a rotating turret structure for installation of light/heavy machine guns or autocannons. It also has 8 BMP style firing ports on the sides and rear. Therefore, passengers, usually a squad of infantry, can fire their weapons from the cover of the armor.

The XA series is popular in peacekeeping missions due to its mobility, non-aggressive appearance, and good protection against mines and improvised explosive devices (IED). The vehicle also offers a good combination of armament, comfort, mine protection, protection against shrapnel and small calibre fire, road speed, short time of learning how to drive, and an acceptable terrain mobility. It also offers more internal space compared to other similar vehicles like the Fuchs or BTR-80.

Operational serviceEdit

The Sisu Pasi has seen service in several conflict areas, including Afghanistan, Bosnia, Croatia, Eritrea, Golan Heights, Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon, Macedonia, Namibia, Liberia, Somalia and Chad.

Pasis have also been used by the Finnish police in sieges and SWAT operations.

In 2018, five Estonian Pasi XA-188's were deployed to Mali as part of that country's contribution to Operation Barkhane.[2]

VersionsEdit

Sisu XA-180
Original six wheeler, carries crew of 2 and 16 troops. Empty weight ca 12 tonnes.
Sisu XA-185
Upgraded version, carries crew of 2 and 18 troops. Has a more powerful engine and improved power transmission. Used as an ambulance in the Norwegian Army.
Sisu XA-186
Upgraded armour. Armoured and equipped with machine-assisted gun turret (.50 BMG). Cannot swim because of the heavy armour. Empty weight ca 19 tonnes. Engine and transmission same as XA-185.
Sisu XA-188
Used by the Netherlands Army.[3]
Sisu XA-200
The 200 series looks a little different from older variants due to increased armour. It lacks amphibious capabilities but can wade through water that is up to 1.5 m deep. The improved armour protects the passengers against up to 14.5 mm small arms fire. It is also equipped with modern optical aids like periscopes and night vision. The armor upgrade was initiated after the realisation that the previous armor was inadequate, even modern armor-piercing 7.62 mm ammunition could pierce the older XA-180 and XA-185 models in certain areas. The XA-202 was originally developed for Communications and Command. The XA-203 was made as a temporary replacement for XA-185, and is intended to be replaced by Patria AMVs in Finnish service. The Patria AMV (Armored Modular Vehicle) is an 8×8 multi-role military vehicle produced by the Finnish defence company Patria.

There are numerous sub-versions of the different main versions, e.g. armored personnel carriers, ambulance, communications, surface-to-air missile carrier, radar vehicle, headquarters, fire-fighting[4] and anti-tank versions among others.

OperatorsEdit

 
Map of Pasi operators in blue with former operators in red
 
An Estonian XA-180 in Afghanistan
 
A Sisu Pasi in use by the Finnish police during the Kauhajoki school shooting
 
A Swedish XA-203 of South Scanian Regiment (P 7), Scania, Sweden

There are five original customers of the Pasi: Estonia, Finland, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden, while a large number have been leased to other military forces of the world.

Current operatorsEdit

  •   Austria: Austrian Army, in UNDOF service.[5]
  •   Denmark: Danish Army
    • Leased eleven XA-185s (including ambulance versions) for use with UN troops.[6]
  •   Estonia: Estonian Army
    • XA-180EST, modernized variant of the XA-180
    • In 2010, Estonia purchased an additional 81 units of XA-188 from the Netherlands.
  •   Finland: Finnish Army, Finnish Navy, Finnish Air Force, Finnish Police. 425 XA-180s and 185s, 148 XA-200s
    • XA-180, most upgraded to 185 specs, and configured with special communications equipment
    • XA-181 built for Crotale NG independent air defence unit
    • XA-182, equipped with Jantronic J-1000/Giraffe IV radar
    • XA-185, the most common version, some equipped with TOW turret, most of the Finnish vehicles are armed with a 12.7 mm NSV machine gun.
    • XA-202 command and signals vehicle, configured with special communications equipment
    • XA-203, the last generation APC replacing the oldest vehicles of the XA-185 series, except for regular APCs and ambulances, there are also the following versions:
      • VIPA (ViestiPasi, communication vehicle using the YVI-2, Yhtymän Viestijärjestelmä, "brigade and corps level communication system")
        • ELSO (ELektroninen SOdankäynti, ELINT, electronic warfare) sub-version of VIPA.
      • EPA (EsikuntaPAsi, brigade command post vehicle)
      • KOPA (KOmentoPAsi, battalion command post vehicle)
      • SUTI (SUojeluTIedustelu), NBC reconnaissance vehicle
      • TUPA (TUlenjohtoPAsi, fire observer and artillery command post vehicle)
      • Ambulance
    • Units used by the Finnish police are on loan from Finnish military to police special unit and used in extreme situations
  •   Ghana: In UN service.
  •   Norway: Norwegian Armed Forces. 75 vehicles.
  •   Sweden: Swedish Army. ~200 vehicles in total.
    • Pansarterrängbil XA-180/XA-185, XA-180(/185) armed with 12,7x99mm HMG. 70 vehicles delivered from 1988, mainly in UN service.[7]
    • Pansarterrängbil 202, XA-202S as command and control vehicles, Swedish special variant[citation needed]
    • Pansarterrängbil 203A, XA-203 armed with the 20 mm gunhood from Pbv 302, in 7 configurations like ambulance (unarmed), AT-missile, CBRN-detection, field repairs and so forth.[8]
    • Pansarterrängbil 203B, the gunhood is replaced with the weapon-station Protector Nordic.
  •   UN: A large number of Sisu XA-180 vehicles is used by UNIFIL forces in southern Lebanon.

Former operatorsEdit

  •   Ireland: The Irish Army had two XA-180s, formerly as training vehicles for soldiers preparing for service in South Lebanon. Retired in 2012.
  •   Netherlands: Dutch Army and Netherlands Marine Corps. 90 units. (sold to Estonia)
    • XA-188 GVV (early 200-series variant) Used by army and marines, equipped with GPS and satcom, armament MG or .50cal
    • XA-188 GWT Ambulance

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.armyrecognition.com/finland_finnish_army_wheeled_armoured_vehicle_uk/xa-188_sisu_patria_wheeled_armoured_vehicle_technical_data_sheet_specifications_description_uk.html Archived 16 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine Profile of the XA-188
  2. ^ https://news.err.ee/849604/estonian-infantry-unit-to-deploy-to-mali-in-august
  3. ^ http://www.armyrecognition.com/finland_finnish_army_wheeled_armoured_vehicle_uk/xa-188_sisu_patria_wheeled_armoured_vehicle_technical_data_sheet_specifications_description_uk.html Profile of the XA-188
  4. ^ "Image of fire-fighting Pasi". Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  5. ^ "Die Fahrzeuge der UNDOF". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  6. ^ "SIPRI Arms Transfers Database". Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

External linksEdit