Patella vulgata, common name the common limpet or common European limpet is a species of sea snail. It is a typical true limpet; a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Patellidae, with gills. This species occurs in the waters of Western Europe.
|Live Patella vulgata on a rock in Wales|
|Shell of Patella vulgata|
The radula in this species is longer than the shell itself. It contains 1,920 teeth in 160 rows of 12 teeth each. Patella vulgata is found attached to firm substrates from the high shore to the edge of the sublittoral zone, although it predominates in areas of wave action. Its shell is conical, up to around 6 cm long, and lacks defined chirality. Common limpets are believed to be able to live for up to twenty years.
Patella vulgata has been the focus of a range of scientific investigation, as far back as 1935. Its development is well described and it has been the focus of transcriptomic investigation, providing a range of genomic sequence data in this species for analysis.
Their teeth are the strongest natural material known. A study published in the Royal Society journal in 2015 concluded that "the tensile strength of limpet teeth can reach values significantly higher than spider silk, considered to be currently the strongest biological material, and only comparable to the strongest commercial carbon fibres.” The material was able to withstand 4.9 GPa. This considerable tensile strength of limpet teeth is attributed to a high mineral volume fraction of reinforcing goethite nanofibres.
Shells of the common limpet from Wales
- Gofas, S. (2014). Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=140685 on 2014-10-29
- "Limpets". BritishSeaFishing.co.uk. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Smith, F (1935). "The Development of Patella vulgata". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 225 (520): 95–125. doi:10.1098/rstb.1935.0008.
- Damen, Peter; Dictus, Wim J.A.G. (1994). "Cell Lineage of the Prototroch of Patella vulgata (Gastropoda, Mollusca)". Developmental Biology. 162 (2): 364–383. doi:10.1006/dbio.1994.1094. PMID 8150201.
- Werner, Gijsbert D. A.; Gemmell, Patrick; Grosser, Stefanie; Hamer, Rebecca; Shimeld, Sebastian M. (2013). "Analysis of a deep transcriptome from the mantle tissue of Patella vulgata Linnaeus (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Patellidae) reveals candidate biomineralising genes". Marine Biotechnology. 15 (2): 230–243. doi:10.1007/s10126-012-9481-0.
- Asa H. Barber; Dun Lu & Nicola M. Pugno (2015). "Extreme strength observed in limpet teeth". Journal of the Royal Society Interface. Royal Society journal. 12 (105): 20141326. doi:10.1098/rsif.2014.1326. PMC 4387522. PMID 25694539.
- Webb, Jonathan. "Limpet teeth set new strength record" BBC News, 18 February 2015. Archived February 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- BBC Video, explanation
- BBC radio interview
- Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentius Salvius: Holmiae. ii, 824 pp.
- Lespinet, Nederbragt, Cassan, Dictus, Van Loon, et al. Characterisation of two snail genes in the gastropod mollusc Patella vulgata. Implications for understanding the ancestral function of the snail-related genes in Bilateria. 2002.
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