Pashalik of Berat

The Pashalik of Berat was a pashalik created in modern-day central Albania by Ahmet Kurt Pasha in 1774 and dissolved after Ahmet's ally, Ibrahim Pasha of Berat was defeated by Ali Pasha in 1809, thus incorporating the pashalik, with the Pashalik of Janina. This pashalik was one of the three pashaliks created by Albanians in the period of Albanian Pashaliks.

Pashalik of Berat
Pashallëku Beratit
1774–1809
Flag of Berat
Flag
StatusAutonomous pashalik of the Ottoman Empire
CapitalBerat
Common languagesAlbanian, Ottoman Turkish
Religion
Sunni Islam, Eastern Orthodoxy
GovernmentPashalik
Pasha 
• 1774–1787
Ahmet Kurt Pasha
• 1787–1809
Ibrahim Pasha of Berat
Historical eraEarly modern
• Established
1774
• Disestablished
1809
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ottoman Empire
Pashalik of Janina
Today part ofAlbania

Creation and rule of Ahmet PashaEdit

The Pashalik of Berat was created after Ahmet Kurt Pasha managed to complot with the Sublime Porte against Mehmed Pasha Bushati in 1774. For his service, the sultan gave him territories in central Albania. He managed to grow his pashalik until his death in 1787, incorporating territories of all central Albania, bordering to the north with the Pashalik of Scutari and to the south with the Pashalik of Janina. Ahmet Kurt Pasha was the grandfather of Ali Pasha, and father of Ali's mother, Hanka.

The sanjakbey of Avlona was also the Pasha of Berat until 1809.[1]

Conquest by Ali PashaEdit

After the death of Ahmet Kurt Pasha, the territory of the pashalik was ruled by a close ally of him, Ibrahim Pasha of Berat. As this territory belonged to the Middle Albania, Ibrahim Pasha was roused at this encroachment. This made Ali Pasha start a war with the Pashalik of Berat. After some fruitless negotiation, Ibrahim Pasha sent a body of troops under the command of his brother Sephir, bey of Avlona. Against these, Ali summoned the armatoles of Thessaly; and after villages had been burnt, peasants robbed and hanged, and flocks carried off on both sides, peace was made. Ibrahim gave his daughter in marriage to Mukhtar, the eldest son of Ali, and the disputed territory as her dower. As Sephir bey had displayed qualities which might prove formidable hereafter, Ali contrived to have him poisoned by a physician; and, after his usual fashion, he hanged the agent of the crime, that no witness might remain of it.[2] Ali Pasha has said that he should prevail over the pasha of Berat, become vizir of Epirus, fight with the Sultan, and go to Constantinople.[3] In 1808, Ali Pasha defeated Ibrahim Pasha, incorporating its territory in the Pashalik of Janina.

EconomyEdit

Whether Mahometan or Christian the Albanians of that tract are equally independent and unruly. They pay neither capitation nor any other tax; nominally they acknowledge the authority of the Pasha of Berat; and by their bravery and their poverty they have hitherto escaped subjection to Ali of Janina. The local population and the tradesmen neither pay the kharatj nor any other tax, except a contribution of thirty paras a head per annum to Ibrahim Pasha of Berat, for the liberty of trading to his ports. The right of pasturage on the lands of the town of Himara, that of gathering velanidhi[clarification needed] on the mountains, and that of fishing in the northern bay of Palermo are enjoyed in common by all the inhabitants. Maize is grown in the plain adjacent to the northern beach, where the two torrents, which embrace the town, overflow in the winter, and prepare the land for receiving that grain.[4]

PashaEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1842). The Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Longman. p. 145. OCLC 499852560. Retrieved 12 September 2011. In 1809...Ibrahim Pasha of Avlona... The pretext of this war was the secret negotiations which had been carried on between Ibrahim and the French, but the real object was the possession of the sanjak of Avlona, the most extensive in Albania, and which commands the entrance...
  2. ^ Thomas Keightley (1830). History of the War of Independence in Greece. Vol. 1. Edinburgh: Constable.
  3. ^ Christianity And Islam Under The Sultans Vol II (1929) Author: Hasluck, F.W. Subject: RELIGION. THEOLOGY; Prehistoric and primitive religions Publisher: Oxford At The Clarendon Press.
  4. ^ Travels in Epirus, Albania, Macedonia, and Thessaly, F. Pouqueville.

SourcesEdit