Parmelia (fungus)

Parmelia is a genus of medium to large foliose lichens.[1]:78 The ends of the leaf-like lobes are often squarish-tipped.[1]:78 The upper surface is pale bluish-gray to light brown in direct sunlight, with a network web-like ridges and depressions.:78 The lower surface is black and has rhizines anchoring it to the substrate.[1]:78

Parmelia saxatilis - Flickr - pellaea.jpg
Parmelia saxatilis
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Lecanoromycetes
Order: Lecanorales
Family: Parmeliaceae
Genus: Parmelia
Ach. (1803)
Type species
Parmelia saxatilis
(L.) Ach. (1803)

It has a global distribution, extending from the Arctic[2] to the Antarctic continent[3][4] but concentrated in temperate regions.[5] There are about 40 species in Parmelia.[6] It is a foliaceous lichen, resembling a leaf in shape. In recent years, the genus Parmelia has been divided into a number of smaller genera according to thallus morphology.


Parmelia was circumscribed by Swedish lichenologist Erik Acharius in 1803.[7] His idea of the genus, which included foliose species with lecanorine apothecia, was quite broad and included species that are now dispersed in many different genera and families, such as the Lobariaceae (Lobaria), the Pannariaceae (Pannaria, Parmeliella), the Physciaceae (Physcia, Heterodermia, Physconia), the Teloschistaceae (Xanthoria), as well as the Parmeliaceae (Cetraria, Hypogymnia, and Parmeliopsis).[8] In 2016, sixteen mostly Australasian species were segregated into a new genus Notoparmelia, which phylogenetic analysis had shown to form a monophyletic lineage in Parmelia.[9]

Description and ecologyEdit

In general, Parmelia have a dark lower side with rhizines ('rootlets') that attach the lichen to its substrate. The upper side may be several colours - grey, yellow, brown - and may have reproductive organs on it. These may be apothecia (spore producing bodies), isidia or soralia (both vegetative structures). In between these two layers is the medulla which contains the algal component of the lichen.

Parmelia lichens are food for the caterpillars of certain Lepidoptera, such as the bagworm moth Taleporia tubulosa.


Parmelia sulcata


  1. ^ a b c Field Guide to California Lichens, Stephen Sharnoff, Yale University Press, 2014, ISBN 978-0-300-19500-2
  2. ^ Skult H (1985) A New Subspecies of Parmelia omphalodes Ascomycetes Described from the Arctic. Annales Botanici Fennici 22, 201-6.
  3. ^ D.C. Lindsay (1973) Notes on Antarctic lichens: IV. The genera Cetraria Hoffm., Hypogymnia (Nyl.) Nyl., Menegazzia Massal, Parmelia Ach. and Platismatia Culb. et Culb. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 36, 105-114.
  4. ^ J. Hooker (1847) The Botany of the Antarctic voyage. Vol. 1. Flora Antarctica. Part 2 Botany of Fuegia, the Falklands, Kerguelens land, etc. Reeve Bros., London.
  5. ^ Bisby, Guy Richard; Ainsworth, G. C.; Kirk, P. M.; Aptroot, André (2001). Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the fungi / by P. M. Kirk... [et al.]; with the assistance of A. Aptroot... [et al.] Oxon: CAB International. p. 378. ISBN 978-0-85199-377-5.
  6. ^ Ossowska, Emilia; Guzow-Krzemińska, Beata; Kolanowska, Marta; Szczepańska, Katarzyna; Kukwa, Martin (2019). "Morphology and secondary chemistry in species recognition of Parmelia omphalodes group – evidence from molecular data with notes on the ecological niche modelling and genetic variability of photobionts". MycoKeys. 61: 39–74. doi:10.3897/mycokeys.61.38175.
  7. ^ Acharius, E. (1803). Methodus qua Omnes Detectos Lichenes Secundum Organa Carpomorpha ad Genera, Species et Varietates Redigere atque Observationibus Illustrare Tentavit Erik Acharius (in Latin). Stockholm: Impensis F.D.D. Ulrich. p. 153.
  8. ^ Hale 1987, p. 1.
  9. ^ Ferencova, Zuzana; Cubas, Paloma; Divakar, Pradeep Kumar; Molina, M. Carmen; Crespo, Ana (2014). "Notoparmelia, a new genus of Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) based on overlooked reproductive anatomical features, phylogeny and distribution pattern". Lichenologist. 46 (1): 51–67. doi:10.1017/S0024282913000649.
  10. ^ a b Poinar, G. O.; Peterson, E. B.; Platt, J. L. (2000). "Fossil Parmelia in new world amber". The Lichenologist. 32 (3): 263–269. doi:10.1006/lich.1999.0258.
  11. ^ Lumbsch, H.T.; Ahti, T.; Altermann, S.; De Paz, G.A.; Aptroot, A.; Arup, U.; et al. (2011). "One hundred new species of lichenized fungi: a signature of undiscovered global diversity". Phytotaxa. 18 (1): 1–127. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.18.1.1.
  12. ^ Divakar, Pradeep K.; Molina, M. Carmen; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Crespo, Ana (2005). "Parmelia barrenoae, a new lichen species related to Parmelia sulcata (Parmeliaceae) based on molecular and morphological data". The Lichenologist. 37 (1): 37–46. doi:10.1017/S0024282904014641.
  13. ^ Brenner, M. (1886). "Bidrag till kännedom af Finska vikens övegetation. IV. Hoglands lafvar". Meddelanden af Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica (in Latin). 13: 40.
  14. ^ a b Molina, Maria del Carmen; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Millanes, Ana M.; Sánchez, Edinson; Del-Prado, Ruth; Hawksworth, David L.; Crespo, Ana (2011). "Parmelia sulcata (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae), a sympatric monophyletic species complex". The Lichenologist. 43 (6): 585–601. doi:10.1017/S0024282911000521.
  15. ^ Feuerer, T.; Thell, A. (2002). "Parmelia ernstiae Feuerer & Thell – a new macrolichen from Germany". Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Allgemeine Botanik Hamburg (in German). 30–32: 49–60.
  16. ^ Divakar, Pradeep K.; Upreti, D.K.; Sinha, G.P.; Elix, John A. (2003). "New species and records in the lichen family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota) from India". Mycotaxon. 88: 149–154.
  17. ^ a b Molina, M. Carmen; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Goward, Trevor; Millanes, Ana M.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Crespo, Ana (2016). "Neogene diversification in the temperate lichen-forming fungal genus Parmelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)". Systematics and Biodiversity. 15 (2): 166–181. doi:10.1080/14772000.2016.1226977.
  18. ^ Øvstedal, D.O.; Lewis Smith, R.I. (2009). "Further additions to the lichen flora of Antarctica and South Georgia". Nova Hedwigia. 88 (1–2): 157–168.
  19. ^ Nylander, W. (1885). "Parmeliae exoticae novae". Flora (Regensburg) (in Latin). 68: 605–615.
  20. ^ Elix, John A.; Johnston, Jen (1988). "New species in the lichen family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycotina) from the southern hemisphere". Mycotaxon. 31 (2): 491–510.
  21. ^ Crespo, Ana; Rico, Víctor J.; Garrido, Elisa; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Divakar, Pradeep K. (2020). "A revision of species of the Parmelia saxatilis complex in the Iberian Peninsula with the description of P. rojoi, a new potentially relict species". The Lichenologist. 52 (5): 365–376. doi:10.1017/S0024282920000341.
  22. ^ Molina, María del Carmen; Crespo, Ana; Blanco, Oscar; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Hawksworth, David L. (2004). "Phylogenetic relationships and species concepts in Parmelia s. str. (Parmeliaceae) inferred from nuclear ITS rDNA and β-tubulin sequences". The Lichenologist. 36 (1): 37–54. doi:10.1017/S0024282904013933.

Cited literatureEdit