Islamic Consultative Assembly

(Redirected from Parliament of Iran)

The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Persian: مجلس شورای اسلامی, romanizedMajles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majles (Arabicised spelling Majlis) or ICA, is the national legislative body of Iran. The parliament currently consists of 290 representatives, an increase from the previous 272 seats since the 18 February 2000 election.

Islamic Consultative Assembly

مجلس شورای اسلامی

Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī
12th term
Coat of arms or logo
Logo
Type
Type
History
Founded16 November 1906; 117 years ago (1906-11-16)
14 March 1980 (current form)
Preceded byNational Consultative Assembly
Leadership
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
since 28 May 2020
First Vice
Hamid-Reza Haji Babaee
since 28 May 2024
Second Vice
Ali Nikzad
since 28 May 2024
Structure
Seats290[1]
Political groups
Length of term
4 years[1]
Elections
Qualified majority two-round system[1]
Last election
1 March and 10 May 2024
Next election
2028
Meeting place
Islamic Consultative Assembly
Baharestan
Tehran
Iran
Website
https://en.parliran.ir/
Constitution
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran

History edit

Islamic Republic of Iran edit

Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the Senate of Iran was abolished and effectively succeeded by the Guardian Council, maintaining the bicameral structure of the Iranian legislature. In the 1989 constitutional revision, the National Consultative Assembly was renamed the Islamic Consultative Assembly.

Since the Iranian Revolution, the Parliament of Iran has been led by six chairmen. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani served as the inaugural chairman from 1980 to 1989. Subsequently, Mehdi Karroubi held the position in two separate terms (1989–1992 and 2000–2004), followed by Ali Akbar Nategh-Nouri (1992–2000), Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel (2004–2008), Ali Larijani (2008–2020), and, since 2020, Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf.

Throughout its history, the Parliament's character has evolved from being a "debating chamber for notables" to a "club for the shah's placemen" during the Pahlavi era. In the era of the Islamic Republic, it has shifted to being a body primarily influenced by members of the "propertied middle class."[2][3]

2017 attack edit

On 7 June 2017, there were shootings at the Iranian parliament and at the shrine of Ayatollah Khomeini.[4] Gunmen opened fire at the Iranian Parliament and the mausoleum of religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini in Tehran. The attack on the mausoleum reportedly left 17 persons dead and more than 30 people injured. The parliament was attacked by four gunmen which left seven to eight people injured. Both attacks took place around the same time and appear to have been coordinated.

Functions edit

The Islamic Consultative Assembly holds the authority to legislate laws on all matters within the boundaries defined by the Constitution.[5] Nevertheless, it is restricted from enacting laws that contradict the fundamental principles of the official religion of the nation (Islam) or the Constitution itself.[6]

Government bills are submitted to the Islamic Consultative Assembly only after obtaining the approval of the Council of Ministers.[7]

The Islamic Consultative Assembly possesses the prerogative to investigate and scrutinize all matters concerning the country.[8]

International treaties, protocols, contracts, and agreements necessitate approval from the Islamic Consultative Assembly.[9]

Sanctioning and obtaining national or international loans or grants by the government requires ratification from the Islamic Consultative Assembly.[10]

The President must secure a vote of confidence from the Assembly, through a Council of Ministers approval, upon forming the government and prior to conducting any other business.[11]

In the event that at least one-fourth of the total members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly raise a question to the President, or if any Assembly member poses a question to a minister regarding their duties, the President or the minister is obligated to attend the Assembly and address the query.[12]

All legislation endorsed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly must be submitted to the Guardian Council. Within a maximum of ten days from its receipt, the Guardian Council must review the legislation to ensure its compatibility with Islamic criteria and the Constitution. If any incompatibility is identified, the legislation is returned to the Assembly for further review. Otherwise, the legislation is deemed enforceable.[13]

Eligibility edit

People need to sign up online and upload their university degree document. Candidates need to be 30 at least and 75 years maximum, have a master's degree or equal Level 3 Islamic seminary, and be Iranian born.[14]

Membership edit

 
Composition of the parliament by province (excluding seats reserved for religious minority groups).

Currently, there are 290 members of Parliament, elected for a four-year term. There are five seats reserved for religious minorities (1.7% of the total members), with two for the Armenians and one each for the Assyrians, Jews and Zoroastrians. MPs are popularly elected for four-year terms. About 8% of the parliament are women, while the global average is 13%.[15]

The parliament can force the dismissal of cabinet ministers through no-confidence votes and can impeach the president for misconduct in office. Although the executive proposes most new laws, individual deputies of the parliament also may introduce legislation. Deputies also may propose amendments to bills being debated. The parliament also drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget.[citation needed]

All candidates running for election, and proposed legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Guardian Council. Candidates must pledge in writing that they are committed, in theory and in practice, to the Iranian constitution.[citation needed]

Constituencies edit

The parliament currently has 207 constituencies, including the five reserved seats for religious minorities. The remaining 202 constituencies are territorial, each covering one or more of Iran's 368 counties.

Leadership edit

Members of Parliament elect their speaker and deputy speakers during the first session of Parliament for a one-year term. Every year, almost always in May, elections for new speakers are held in which incumbents may be re-elected.

The current Speaker of Parliament is Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, with First Deputy Speaker Hamid-Reza Haji Babaee and Second Deputy Speaker Ali Nikzad.

Commissions/Fractions edit

Privileged commissions
Expert commissions
  1. Education, Research and Technology Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
  2. Social Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
  3. Economy Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
  4. National-Security and Foreign-Policy Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
  5. Energy Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
  6. Program, Budget and Accounting Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
  7. Health and Medical Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
  8. Internal Affairs of the Country and Councils Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
  9. Industries and Mines Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
  10. Civil Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
  11. Cultural Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
  12. Judiciary and Legal Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
  13. Agriculture, Water, Natural Resources and Environment Commission of the Islamic Consultative Assembly

Fractions edit

  • AI and Data governance[16]

Hack edit

Prior to the 1 March legislative election, on February 14, 2024, the Assembly servers were hacked, revealing monthly payments of 270 million tomans to members. The following day, the voting system was hacked, and journalists were barred from entering.[17][18][19]

Current composition edit

The last election of Parliament of Iran were held on 1 March 2024 and a second round was held on 10 May 2024 in those 22 districts where no candidate received 20% or more of the votes cast. More than 48,000 candidates registered,[20] but leaving about 15,000 candidates to run for the 290 seats representing the 31 provinces.[21] The final results showed that principlists won 233 of 290 seats in the assembly.[22]

Term Composition
3rd
Left Right
4th
Left Right
5th
Hezbollah Assembly Ind. Hezbollah
6th
2nd of Khordad Ind. Minority
7th
Imam's Line Harmony Transform. Principlists
8th
Imam's Line Principlists Islamic Revolution
9th
Ind. Followers of Wilayat Principlists
10th
Hope Wilayi Ind. Wilayi
11th
Ind. Islamic Revolution

Building edit

 
Exterior view of the parliament building

After 1979, the Parliament convened at the building that used to house the Senate of Iran. A new building for the Assembly was constructed at Baharestan Square in central Tehran, near the old Iranian Parliament building that had been used from 1906 to 1979. After several debates, the move was finally approved in 2004. The first session of the Parliament in the new building was held on 16 November 2004.

The old building is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 100 rial banknote.[23]

Gallery edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d Nohlen, Dieter; Grotz, Florian; Hartmann, Christof (2001). "Iran". Elections in Asia: A Data Handbook. Vol. I. Oxford University Press. p. 64. ISBN 0-19-924958-X.
  2. ^ Abrahamian, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p. 179
  3. ^ Islamic Majles, Ashnai-ye Ba Majles-e Showra-ye Islami, Vol.ii (Guide to the Islamic Majles, Tehran, 1992, p. 205
  4. ^ "Iran shootings: Parliament and Khomeini shrine attacked". BBC News. 7 June 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  5. ^ Article 71 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28), Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran wipo.int (accessed 2017-02-25)
  6. ^ Article 72 of the Constitution of Iran
  7. ^ Article 74 of the Constitution of Iran
  8. ^ Article 76 of the Constitution of Iran
  9. ^ Article 77 of the Constitution of Iran
  10. ^ Article 80 of the Constitution of Iran
  11. ^ Article 87 of the Constitution of Iran
  12. ^ Article 88 of the Constitution of Iran
  13. ^ Article 94 of the Constitution of Iran
  14. ^ https://www.sharghdaily.com/%D8%A8%D8%AE%D8%B4-%D8%B3%DB%8C%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA-6/890361-%D8%B4%D8%B1%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%B7-%D8%AB%D8%A8%D8%AA-%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%85-%D9%86%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%B2%D8%AF%D9%87%D8%A7%DB%8C-%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%AE%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%85%D8%AC%D9%84%D8%B3-%D8%A7%D8%B9%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%85-%D8%B4%D8%AF [bare URL]
  15. ^ "On Women's Day, struggle for equality remains". Kyiv Post. 8 March 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012.
  16. ^ "وزیر سابق ارتباطات: فراکسیون هوش مصنوعی مجلس به دنبال حکمرانی «نداده‌ها» است". 4 March 2024.
  17. ^ "هک وب‌سایت‌های مجلس؛ هکرها «حقوق ۲۰۰ میلیونی» نمایندگان و مزایایی مانند «آجیل شب یلدا» را فاش کردند". 13 February 2024.
  18. ^ "پس لرزه حمله سایبری به مجلس؛ اجازه ورودِ خبرنگاران به مجلس داده نشد". 14 February 2024.
  19. ^ فردا, رادیو (13 February 2024). "روابط عمومی مجلس هک وب‌سایت‌ها و «دسترسی» هکرها به اسناد مجلس را تأیید کرد". رادیو فردا.
  20. ^ "پرونده ثبت نام اولیه مجلس با ۴۸ هزار و ۸۴۷ متقاضی بسته شد". dolat.ir (in Persian). 13 August 2023. Retrieved 1 March 2024.
  21. ^ "Campaigning begins for Iran's legislative election". France 24. 22 February 2024.
  22. ^ "A parliamentary election runoff puts hard-liners firmly in charge of Iran's parliament". Associated Press. 13 May 2024.
  23. ^ Central Bank of Iran Archived 3 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine. Banknotes & Coins: 100 Rials Archived 7 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine. – Retrieved on 24 March 2009.

  This article incorporates text from the Constitution of Iran, which is in the public domain.

External links edit

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