# Parity progression ratios

A parity progression ratios (PPR) is a measure commonly used in demography to study fertility. The PPR is simply the proportion of women with a certain number of children who go onto have another child. Calculating the PPR, also known as ${\displaystyle a_{x}}$, can be achieved by using the following formula:

${\displaystyle a_{x}={\text{(women with at least }}x+1{\text{ children ever borne) }}/{\text{ (women with at least }}x{\text{ children ever born)}}}$[1]

In more developed countries where two child families are seen as the norm ${\displaystyle a_{2}}$ (or the proportion of women with two children who go on to have a third) is of critical importance in determining overall fertility levels.

${\displaystyle a_{0}}$ is simply the proportion of women who become mothers.

## References

1. ^ Hinde, A (1998) "Demographic Methods", Hodder Arnold Publication.