Open main menu

Panthera is a genus within the Felidae family that was named and described by Lorenz Oken in 1816 who placed all the spotted cats in this group.[3][2]Reginald Innes Pocock revised the classification of this genus in 1916 as comprising the species lion (P. leo), tiger (P. tigris), jaguar (P. onca), and leopard (P. pardus) on the basis of common cranial features.[4] Results of genetic analysis indicate that the snow leopard (P. uncia) also belongs to the Panthera, a classification that was accepted by IUCN Red List assessors in 2008.[5][6]

Panthera[1]
Temporal range: Late Miocene – present, 5.95–0 Ma
An Indian tiger in the wild. Royal, Bengal tiger (27466438332).jpg
Tiger (Panthera tigris), the largest species of the genus Panthera
Panthera leo cf fossilis - radius - Ambrona.JPG
Radial bone of Panthera fossilis
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae
Subfamily: Pantherinae
Genus: Panthera
Oken, 1816
Type species
Felis pardus[2]
Extant species

Panthera tigris
Panthera uncia
Panthera onca
Panthera leo
Panthera pardus

The tiger, lion, leopard, and jaguar are the only cat species with the anatomical structure that enables them to roar. The primary reason for this was formerly assumed to be the incomplete ossification of the hyoid bone. However, new studies show the ability to roar is due to other morphological features, especially of the larynx. The snow leopard does not roar. Although its hyoid bone is incompletely ossified, it lacks the special morphology of the larynx.[7]

Contents

EtymologyEdit

The word panther derives from classical Latin panthēra, itself from the ancient Greek pánthēr (πάνθηρ).[8] The phonetically similar Sanskrit word पाण्डर pând-ara means 'pale yellow, whitish, white'.[9]

CharacteristicsEdit

In Panthera species, the dorsal profile of the skull is flattish or evenly convex. The frontal interorbital area is not noticeably elevated, and the area behind the elevation is less steeply sloped. The basicranial axis is nearly horizontal. The inner chamber of the bullae is large, the outer small. The partition between them is close to the external auditory meatus. The convexly rounded chin is sloping.[10] All Panthera species have an incompletely ossified hyoid bone. Specially adapted larynx with proportionally larger vocal folds are covered in a large fibro-elastic pad. These characteristics enable all Panthera species except snow leopard to roar.[11]Panthera species can prusten, which is a short, soft, snorting sound; it is used during contact between friendly individuals. The roar is an especially loud call with a distinctive pattern that depends on the species.[12]

EvolutionEdit

Panthera probably evolved in Asia, but the roots of the genus remain unclear. Genetic studies indicate that the pantherine cats diverged from the subfamily Felinae between six and ten million years ago.[5]

The snow leopard was initially seen at the base of Panthera, but newer molecular studies suggest that it is nestled within Panthera and is a sister species of the tiger.[13] Many place the snow leopard within the genus Panthera, but there is currently no consensus as to whether the snow leopard should retain its own genus Uncia or be moved to Panthera uncia.[5][14][15][16]

The genus Neofelis is generally placed at the base of the Panthera group, but is not included in the genus itself.[5][15][16][17] The clouded leopard appears to have diverged about 8.66 million years ago. Panthera diverged from other cat species about 11.3 million years ago and then evolved into the species tiger about 6.55 million years ago, snow leopard about 4.63 million years ago and leopard about 4.35 million years ago. Mitochondrial sequence data from fossils suggest that the American lion (P. l. atrox) is a sister lineage to P. spelaea that diverged about 0.34 million years ago.[18] Results of a mitogenomic study suggest the phylogeny can be represented as Neofelis nebulosa (Panthera tigris (Panthera onca (Panthera pardus, (Panthera leo, Panthera uncia)))).[19]

The prehistoric Panthera onca gombaszogensis, often called the European jaguar, is probably closely related to the modern jaguar. The earliest evidence of the species was obtained at Olivola in Italy, and dates 1.6 million years.[20] Fossil remains found in South Africa that appear to belong within the Panthera are about 2.0 to 3.8 million years old.[21]

ClassificationEdit

During the 19th and 20th centuries, various explorers and staff of natural history museums suggested numerous subspecies, or at times called races, for all Panthera species. The taxonomist Pocock reviewed skins and skulls in the zoological collection of the Natural History Museum, London and grouped subspecies described, thus shortening the lists considerably.[22][23][24] Since the mid-1980s, several Panthera species became subject of genetic research, mostly using blood samples of captive individuals. Study results indicate that many of the lion and leopard subspecies are questionable because of insufficient genetic distinction between them.[25][26] Subsequently, it was proposed to group all African leopard populations to P. p. pardus and retain eight subspecific names for Asian leopard populations.[27]

Based on genetic research, it was suggested to group all living sub-Saharan lion populations into P. l. leo.[28] Results of phylogeographic studies indicate that the Western and Central African lion populations are more closely related to those in India and form a different clade than lion populations in Southern and East Africa; southeastern Ethiopia is an admixture region between North African and East African lion populations.[29][30]

Black panthers do not form a distinct species, but are melanistic specimens of the genus, most often encountered in the leopard and jaguar.[31][32]

PhylogenyEdit

 
Two cladograms proposed for Panthera. The upper one is based on phylogenetic studies by Johnson et al. (2006),[5] and by Werdelin et al. (2010).[33] The lower cladogram is based on a study by Davis et al. (2010)[34] and by Mazák et al. (2011).[35]

The cladogram below follows Mazák, Christiansen and Kitchener (2011).[35]


Pantherinae

Neofelis 

Panthera

Panthera uncia 

Panthera palaeosinensis

Panthera onca 

Panthera atrox

Panthera spelaea 

Panthera leo 

Panthera pardus 

Panthera tigris 

Panthera zdanskyi

In 2018, results of a phylogenetic study on living and fossil cats were published. This study was based on the morphological diversity of the mandibles of saber-toothed cats, their speciation and extinction rates. The generated cladogram indicates a different relation of the Panthera species, as shown below:[36]

Panthera

Panthera palaeosinensis

Panthera blytheae

Panthera uncia  

Panthera zdanskyi

Panthera tigris  

Panthera gombaszoegensis

Panthera onca  

Panthera pardus  

Panthera leo  

Panthera spelaea  

Panthera atrox

Contemporary speciesEdit

The following list of the genus Panthera is based on the taxonomic assessment in Mammal Species of the World and reflects the taxonomy revised in 2017 by the Cat Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group:[1][37]

Species Subspecies IUCN Red List status and distribution
Tiger P. tigris (Linnaeus, 1758)[38]

 

Tigers of mainland Asia P. t. tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) including:

Sunda Island tiger P. t. sondaica Temminck, 1844)[40] including

EN[45]

 

Lion P. leo (Linnaeus, 1758)[38]

 

P. l. leo (Linnaeus, 1758)[38] including:

P. l. melanochaita (Smith, 1842)[47] including:

VU[49]

 

Jaguar P. onca (Linnaeus, 1758)[38]

 

Monotypic[50][37] NT[51]

 

Leopard P. pardus (Linnaeus, 1758)[38]

 

African leopard P. p. pardus (Linnaeus, 1758)[38]

Indian leopard P. p. fusca (Meyer, 1794)[52]
Javan leopard P. p. melas (G. Cuvier, 1809)[53]
Arabian leopard P. p. nimr (Hemprich and Ehrenberg), 1833[54]
Anatolian leopard and Persian leopard P. p. tulliana (Valenciennes, 1856),[55] syn. P. p. ciscaucasica (Satunin, 1914),[56] P. p. saxicolor Pocock, 1927[57]
Amur leopard P. p. orientalis (Schlegel, 1857),[58] syn. P. p. japonensis (Gray, 1862)[59]
Indochinese leopard P. p. delacouri Pocock, 1930[60]
Sri Lankan leopard P. p. kotiya Deraniyagala, 1956[61]

VU[62]

 

Snow leopard P. uncia[37] (Schreber, 1775)[63]

 

Monotypic[37] VU[64]

 

Fossil species and subspeciesEdit

Species Fossil distribution Notes
Panthera atrox North America, dubious remains in South America.[65] P. atrox is thought to have descended from a basal P. spelaea cave lion population isolated south of the North American continental ice sheet, and then established a mitochondrial sister clade circa 200,000 BP.[66] It was sometimes considered a subspecies either under the nomenclature of P. leo[66] or P. spelaea.[67]
Panthera balamoides[68] Mexico
Panthera blytheae Tibetan Plateau One of the oldest known Panthera species, possibly closely related to the snow leopard.
Panthera crassidens South Africa No longer a valid species due to being described based on a mixture of leopard and cheetah fossils.
Panthera gombaszoegensis Europe Panthera schreuderi and Panthera toscana are considered junior synonyms of P. gombaszoegensis. It is occasionally classified as subspecies of the P. onca.[69][70]
Lion ssp.
Panthera leo fossilis[71]
Europe
Lion ssp.
Panthera leo sinhaleyus
Sri Lanka This lion subspecies is only known by two teeth.[72]
Jaguar ssp.
Panthera onca augusta[73]
North America May have lived in temperate forests across North America.[74]
Jaguar ssp.
Panthera onca mesembrina[75]
South America May have lived in grasslands in South America, unlike the modern jaguar.
Leopard ssp.
Panthera pardus spelaea
Europe Closely related to Asiatic leopard subspecies,[76] with at least one study suggesting closely related to the Persian leopard P. p. tulliana according to genetic work[77]
Panthera palaeosinensis Northern China It was initially thought to be an ancestral tiger species, but several scientists place it close to the base of the genus Panthera.[35][78]
Panthera shawi Laetoli site in Tanzania A leopard-like cat.[79]
Panthera spelaea Much of Eurasia[80] Originally spelaea was classified as a subspecies of the extant lion P. leo.[81] Results of recent genetic studies indicate that both belong to a distinct species, namely P. spelaea.[82][83] Other genetic results indicate that the fossilis cave lion warrants status of a species.[84][85]
Tiger ssp.
Panthera tigris acutidens
Much of Asia Not closely related to modern tiger subspecies.[86]
Tiger ssp.
Panthera tigris soloensis
Java, Indonesia Not closely related to modern tiger subspecies.
Tiger ssp.
Panthera tigris trinilensis
Java, Indonesia Not closely related to modern tiger subspecies.
Panthera youngi[87] China, Japan
Panthera zdanskyi Gansu province of northwestern China Possibly a close relative of the tiger.[35]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Genus Panthera". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 546–548. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ a b Allen, J. A. (1902). "Mammal names proposed by Oken in his 'Lehrbuch der Zoologie'" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 16 (27): 373−379.
  3. ^ Oken, L. (1816). "1. Art, Panthera". Lehrbuch der Zoologie. 2. Abtheilung. Jena: August Schmid & Comp. p. 1052.
  4. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1916). "The Classification and Generic Nomenclature of F. uncia and its Allies". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History: Including Zoology, Botany, and Geology. Series 8. XVIII (105): 314–316.
  5. ^ a b c d e Johnson, W. E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E. & O'Brien, S. J. (2006). "The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. Bibcode:2006Sci...311...73J. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.
  6. ^ McCarthy, T., Mallon, D., Jackson, R., Zahler, P. & McCarthy, K. (2017). "Panthera uncia". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T22732A50664030. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T22732A50664030.en.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  7. ^ Peters, G.; Hast, M. H. (1994). "Hyoid structure, laryngeal anatomy, and vocalization in felids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Felidae)" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 59 (2): 87−104.
  8. ^ Liddell, H. G. & Scott, R. (1940). "πάνθηρ". A Greek-English Lexicon (Revised and augmented ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  9. ^ Macdonell, A. A. (1929). "पाण्डर pând-ara". A practical Sanskrit dictionary with transliteration, accentuation, and etymological analysis throughout. London: Oxford University Press. p. 95.
  10. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1939). "Panthera". The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. – Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 196–239.
  11. ^ Hast, M. H. (1989). "The larynx of roaring and non-roaring cats". Journal of Anatomy. 163: 117–121. ISSN 0021-8782. PMC 1256521. PMID 2606766.
  12. ^ Weissengruber, G. E.; Forstenpointner, G.; Peters, G.; Kübber-Heiss, A.; Fitch, W. T. (2002). "Hyoid apparatus and pharynx in the lion (Panthera leo), jaguar (Panthera onca), tiger (Panthera tigris), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and the domestic cat (Felis silvestris f. catus)". Journal of Anatomy. 201 (3): 195–209. doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00088.x. PMC 1570911. PMID 12363272.
  13. ^ Davis, B. W.; Li, G.; Murphy, W. J. (2010). "Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56 (1): 64–76. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.036. PMID 20138224.
  14. ^ Yu, L.; Zhang, Y. P. (2005). "Phylogenetic studies of pantherine cats (Felidae) based on multiple genes, with novel application of nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 to carnivores". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 35 (2): 483–495. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.01.017. PMID 15804417.
  15. ^ a b Janczewski, D. N.; Modi, W. S.; Stephens, J. C.; O'Brien, S. J. (1996). "Molecular Evolution of Mitochondrial 12S RNA and Cytochrome b Sequences in the Pantherine Lineage of Felidae". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 12 (4): 690–707. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a040232. PMID 7544865. Retrieved 6 August 2006.
  16. ^ a b Johnson, W. E.; O'Brien, S. J. (1997). "Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 44 (S1): S98–S116. Bibcode:1997JMolE..44S..98J. doi:10.1007/PL00000060. PMID 9071018.
  17. ^ Yu, L. & Zhang, Y. P. (2005). "Phylogenetic studies of pantherine cats (Felidae) based on multiple genes, with novel application of nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 to carnivores". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 35 (2): 483–495. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.01.017. PMID 15804417.
  18. ^ Barnett, R.; Shapiro, B.; Barnes, I.; Ho, S. Y. W.; Burger, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Higham, T. F. G.; Wheeler, H. T.; Rosendahl, W.; Sher, A. V.; Sotnikova, M.; Kuznetsova, T.; Baryshnikov, G. F.; Martin, L. D.; Harington, C. R.; Burns, J. A.; Cooper, A. (2009). "Phylogeography of lions (Panthera leo ssp.) reveals three distinct taxa and a late Pleistocene reduction in genetic diversity" (PDF). Molecular Ecology. 18 (8): 1668–1677. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04134.x. PMID 19302360.
  19. ^ Wei, L.; Wu, X.; Zhu, L.; Jiang, Z. (2010). "Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera". Science China Life Sciences. 54 (10): 917–930. doi:10.1007/s11427-011-4219-1. PMID 22038004.
  20. ^ Hemmer, H.; Kahlke, R. D.; Vekua, A. K. (2001). "The Jaguar – Panthera onca gombaszoegensis (Kretzoi, 1938) (Carnivora: Felidae) in the late lower Pleistocene of Akhalkalaki (south Georgia; Transcaucasia) and its evolutionary and ecological significance". Geobios. 34 (4): 475–486. doi:10.1016/s0016-6995(01)80011-5.
  21. ^ Turner, A. (1987). "New fossil carnivore remains from the Sterkfontein hominid site (Mammalia: Carnivora)". Annals of the Transvaal Museum. 34 (15): 319–347.
  22. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1930). "The panthers and ounces of Asia". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 34 (1): 65–82.
  23. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1932). "The leopards of Africa". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 102 (2): 543–591. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1932.tb01085.x.
  24. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1939). "The races of jaguar (Panthera onca)". Novitates Zoologicae. 41: 406–422.
  25. ^ O'Brien, S. J.; Martenson, J. S.; Packer, C.; Herbst, L.; de Vos, V.; Joslin, P.; Ott-Joslin, J.; Wildt, D. E. & Bush, M. (1987). "Biochemical genetic variation in geographic isolates of African and Asiatic lions" (PDF). National Geographic Research. 3 (1): 114–124. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 May 2013.
  26. ^ Miththapala, S.; Seidensticker, J.; O'Brien, S. J. (1996). "Phylogeographic subspecies recognition in leopards (Panthera pardus): Molecular genetic variation". Conservation Biology. 10 (4): 1115–1132. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10041115.x.
  27. ^ Uphyrkina, O.; Johnson, W. E.; Quigley, H. B.; Miquelle, D. G.; Marker, L.; Bush, M. E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2001). "Phylogenetics, genome diversity and origin of modern leopard, Panthera pardus". Molecular Ecology. 10 (11): 2617–2633. doi:10.1046/j.0962-1083.2001.01350.x. PMID 11883877.
  28. ^ Dubach, J.; Patterson, B. D.; Briggs, M. B.; Venzke, K.; Flamand, J.; Stander, P.; Scheepers, L.; Kays, R. W. (2005). "Molecular genetic variation across the southern and eastern geographic ranges of the African lion, Panthera leo". Conservation Genetics. 6 (1): 15–24. doi:10.1007/s10592-004-7729-6.
  29. ^ Bertola, L. D.; Van Hooft, W. F.; Vrieling, K.; Uit De Weerd, D. R.; York, D. S.; Bauer, H.; Prins, H. H. T.; Funston, P. J.; Udo De Haes, H. A.; Leirs, H.; Van Haeringen, W. A.; Sogbohossou, E.; Tumenta, P. N.; De Iongh, H. H. (2011). "Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (Panthera leo) in West and Central Africa" (PDF). Journal of Biogeography. 38 (7): 1356–1367. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02500.x.
  30. ^ Bertola, L. D., Jongbloed, H., Van Der Gaag, K. J., De Knijff, P., Yamaguchi, N., Hooghiemstra, H., Bauer, H., Henschel, P., White, P. A., Driscoll, C. A. and Tende, T. (2016). "Phylogeographic patterns in Africa and High Resolution Delineation of genetic clades in the Lion (Panthera leo)". Scientific Reports. 6: 30807. Bibcode:2016NatSR...630807B. doi:10.1038/srep30807. PMC 4973251. PMID 27488946.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  31. ^ Robinson, R. (1970). "Inheritance of black form of the leopard Panthera pardus". Genetica. 41 (1): 190–197. doi:10.1007/bf00958904. PMID 5480762.
  32. ^ Eizirik, E.; Yuhki, N.; Johnson, W. E.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Hannah, S. S.; O'Brien, S. J. (2003). "Molecular Genetics and Evolution of Melanism in the Cat Family". Current Biology. 13 (5): 448–453. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00128-3. PMID 12620197.
  33. ^ Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W. E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids: 59–82.
  34. ^ Davis, B. W., Li, G. and Murphy, W. J. (2010). "Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56 (1): 64–76. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.01.036. PMID 20138224.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  35. ^ a b c d Mazák, J. H.; Christiansen, P.; Kitchener, A. C. (2011). "Oldest Known Pantherine Skull and Evolution of the Tiger". PLOS ONE. 6 (10): e25483. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...625483M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025483. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3189913. PMID 22016768.
  36. ^ Piras, P.; Silvestro, D.; Carotenuto, F.; Castiglione, S.; Kotsakis, A.; Maiorino, L.; Melchionna, M.; Mondanaro, A.; Sansalone, G., Serio, C. and Vero, V.A. (2018). "Evolution of the sabertooth mandible: A deadly ecomorphological specialization". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 496: 166−174. Bibcode:2018PPP...496..166P. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2018.01.034.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  37. ^ a b c d Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O’Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z.; Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 11): 66−75.
  38. ^ a b c d e f Linnaeus, C. (1758). "Felis". Caroli Linnæi Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I (decima, reformata ed.). Holmiae: Laurentius Salvius. pp. 41−42.
  39. ^ Illiger, C. (1815). "Überblick der Säugethiere nach ihrer Verteilung über die Welttheile". Abhandlungen der Königlichen Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 1804−1811: 39−159.
  40. ^ a b c Temminck, C. J. (1844). "Aperçu général et spécifique sur les Mammifères qui habitent le Japon et les Iles qui en dépendent". In Siebold, P. F. v.; Temminck, C. J.; Schlegel, H. (eds.). Fauna Japonica sive Descriptio animalium, quae in itinere per Japoniam, jussu et auspiciis superiorum, qui summum in India Batava imperium tenent, suscepto, annis 1825 - 1830 collegit, notis, observationibus et adumbrationibus illustravit Ph. Fr. de Siebold. Leiden: Lugduni Batavorum.
  41. ^ Hilzheimer, M. (1905). "Über einige Tigerschädel aus der Straßburger zoologischen Sammlung". Zoologischer Anzeiger. 28: 594–599.
  42. ^ Mazák, V. (1968). "Nouvelle sous-espèce de tigre provenant de l'Asie du sud-est". Mammalia. 32 (1): 104−112. doi:10.1515/mamm.1968.32.1.104.
  43. ^ Luo, S. J.; Kim, J. H.; Johnson, W. E.; Walt, J. v. d.; Martenson, J.; Yuhki, N.; Miquelle, D. G. (2004). "Phylogeography and Genetic Ancestry of Tigers (Panthera tigris)". PLOS Biology. 2 (12): e442. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020442. PMC 534810. PMID 15583716.
  44. ^ Schwarz, E. (1912). "Notes on Malay tigers, with description of a new form from Bali". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Series 8 Volume 10 (57): 324–326. doi:10.1080/00222931208693243.
  45. ^ Goodrich, J.; Lynam, A.; Miquelle, D.; Wibisono, H.; Kawanishi, K.; Pattanavibool, A.; Htun, S.; Tempa, T.; Karki, J.; Jhala, Y.; Karanth, U. (2015). "Panthera tigris". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T15955A50659951. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T15955A50659951.en. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  46. ^ Meyer, J. N. (1826). Dissertatio inauguralis anatomico-medica de genere felium (Doctoral thesis). Vienna: University of Vienna.
  47. ^ Smith, C. H. (1842). "Black maned lion Leo melanochaitus". In Jardine, W. (ed.). The Naturalist's Library. Vol. 15 Mammalia. London: Chatto and Windus. p. Plate X, 177.
  48. ^ Mazak, V. (1975). "Notes on the Black-maned Lion of the Cape, Panthera leo melanochaita (Ch. H. Smith, 1842) and a Revised List of the Preserved Specimens". Verhandelingen Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (64): 1–44.
  49. ^ Bauer, H.; Packer, C.; Funston, P. F.; Henschel, P.; Nowell, K. (2016). "Panthera leo". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T15951A107265605.en.
  50. ^ Larson, S. E. (1997). "Taxonomic re-evaluation of the jaguar". Zoo Biology. 16 (2): 107–120. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1997)16:2<107::AID-ZOO2>3.0.CO;2-E.
  51. ^ Quigley, H.; Foster, R.; Petracca, L.; Payan, E.; Salom, R.; Harmsen, B. (2017). "Panthera onca". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T15953A123791436. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T15953A50658693.en. Retrieved 22 October 2018.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  52. ^ Meyer, F. A. A. (1794). "Über de la Metheries schwarzen Panther". Zoologische Annalen. Erster Band. Weimar: Im Verlage des Industrie-Comptoirs. pp. 394–396.
  53. ^ Cuvier, G. (1809). "Recherches sur les espėces vivantes de grands chats, pour servir de preuves et d'éclaircissement au chapitre sur les carnassiers fossils". Annales du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Tome XIV: 136–164.
  54. ^ Hemprich, W.; Ehrenberg, C. G. (1830). "Felis, pardus?, nimr". In Dr. C. G. Ehrenberg (ed.). Symbolae Physicae, seu Icones et Descriptiones Mammalium quae ex Itinere per Africam Borealem et Asiam Occidentalem Friderici Guilelmi Hemprich et Christiani Godofredi Ehrenberg. Decas Secunda. Zoologica I. Mammalia II. Berolini: Officina Academica. pp. Plate 17.
  55. ^ Valenciennes, A. (1856). "Sur une nouvelles espèce de Panthère tué par M. Tchihatcheff à Ninfi, village situé à huit lieues est de Smyrne". Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences. 42: 1035–1039.
  56. ^ Satunin, K. A. (1914). Opredelitel' mlekopitayushchikh Rossiiskoi Imperii [Guide to the mammals of the Russian Empire]. Tiflis: Tipographia Kantzelyarii Namestnichestva.
  57. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1927). "Description of two subspecies of leopards". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Series 9 (20): 213–214. doi:10.1080/00222932708655586.
  58. ^ Schlegel, H. (1857). "Felis orientalis". Handleiding Tot de Beoefening der Dierkunde, Ie Deel. Breda: Boekdrukkerij van Nys. p. 23.
  59. ^ Gray, J. E. (1862). "Description of some new species of Mammalia". Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of London. 30: 261−263, plate XXXIII. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1862.tb06524.x.
  60. ^ Pocock, R. I. (1930). "The Panthers and Ounces of Asia". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 34 (2): 307–336.
  61. ^ Deraniyagala, P. E. P. (1956). "The Ceylon leopard, a distinct subspecies". Spolia Zeylanica. 28: 115–116.
  62. ^ Stein, A. B.; Athreya, V.; Gerngross, P.; Balme, G.; Henschel, P.; Karanth, U.; Miquelle, D.; Rostro, S.; Kamler, J. F. & Laguardia, A. (2016). "Panthera pardus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: 15954/102421779. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T15954A50659089.en.
  63. ^ Schreber, J. C. D. (1777). "Die Unze". Die Säugethiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen. Erlangen: Wolfgang Walther. pp. 386–387.
  64. ^ McCarthy, T.; Mallon, D.; Jackson, R.; Zahler, P.; McCarthy, K. (2017). "Panthera uncia". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: e.T22732A50664030. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T22732A50664030.en.
  65. ^ Chimento, N. R.; Agnolin, F. L. (2017). "The fossil American lion (Panthera atrox) in South America: Palaeobiogeographical implications". Comptes Rendus Palevol. 16 (8): 850–864. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2017.06.009.
  66. ^ a b Barnett, R.; Shapiro, B.; Barnes, I.; Ho, S. Y. W.; Burger, J.; Yamaguchi, N.; Higham, T. F. G.; Wheeler, H. T.; Rosendahl, W. (2009). "Phylogeography of lions (Panthera leo ssp.) reveals three distinct taxa and a late Pleistocene reduction in genetic diversity" (18): 1668−1677.
  67. ^ Sotnikova, M. and Nikolskiy, P. (2006). "Systematic position of the cave lion Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss) based on cranial and dental characters". Quaternary International. 142–143: 218–228. Bibcode:2006QuInt.142..218S. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2005.03.019. ISSN 1040-6182.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  68. ^ Stinnesbeck, S. R.; Stinnesbeck, W.; Frey, E.; Olguín, J. A.; Sandoval, C. R.; Morlet, A. V.; González, A. H. (2018). "Panthera balamoides and other Pleistocene felids from the submerged caves of Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico". Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. in press: 1–10. doi:10.1080/08912963.2018.1556649.
  69. ^ Hemmer, H.; Kahlke, R. D.; Vekua, A. K. (2010). "Panthera onca georgica ssp. nov. from the Early Pleistocene of Dmanisi (Republic of Georgia) and the phylogeography of jaguars (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae)". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 257 (1): 115–127. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2010/0067.
  70. ^ Mol, D.; van Logchem, W.; de Vos, J. (2011). "New record of the European jaguar, Panthera onca gombaszoegensis (Kretzoi, 1938), from the Plio-Pleistocene of Langenboom (The Netherlands)". Cainozoic Research. 8 (1–2): 35–40. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  71. ^ Harington, C. R. (1996). Pleistocene mammals of the Yukon Territory (Ph.D). Edmonton: University of Alberta.
  72. ^ Manamendra-Arachchi, K., Pethiyagoda, R., Dissanayake, R., Meegaskumbura, M. (2005). A second extinct big cat from the late Quaternary of Sri Lanka. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement 12: 423–434.
  73. ^ Ruiz-Garcia, M.; Payan, E.; Murillo, A. & Alvarez, D. (2006). "DNA microsatellite characterization of the jaguar (Panthera onca) in Colombia". Genes & Genetic Systems. 81 (2): 115–127. doi:10.1266/ggs.81.115. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
  74. ^ Moreno, A.; Lima-Ribeiro, M. (2015). "Ecological niche models, fossil record and the multi-temporal calibration for Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia: Felidae)" (PDF). Brazilian Journal of Biological Sciences. 2 (4): 309–319.
  75. ^ Roth, S. (1899). "Descripción de los restos encontrados en la caverna de Última Esperanza". Revista del Museo la Plata. 9: 381–388.
  76. ^ Paijmans, J. L. A.; Barlow, A.; Förster, D. W.; Henneberger, K.; Meyer, M.; Nickel, B.; Nagel, D.; Havmøller, R. W.; Baryshnikov, G. F.; Joger, U.; Rosendahl, W.; Hofreiter, M. (2018). "Historical biogeography of the leopard (Panthera pardus) and its extinct Eurasian populations". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 18 (1): 156. doi:10.1186/s12862-018-1268-0. PMC 6198532. PMID 30348080.
  77. ^ Diedrich, C. G. (2013). "Late Pleistocene leopards across Europe – northernmost European German population, highest elevated records in the Swiss Alps, complete skeletons in the Bosnia Herzegowina Dinarids and comparison to the Ice Age cave art". Quaternary Science Reviews. 76: 167–193. Bibcode:2013QSRv...76..167D. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.05.009.
  78. ^ Tseng, Z. J.; Wang, X.; Slater, G. J.; Takeuchi, G. T.; Li, Q.; Liu, J.; Xie, G. (2013). "Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1774): 20132686. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.2686. PMC 3843846. PMID 24225466.
  79. ^ Sabol, M. (2011). "Masters of the lost world: a hypothetical look at the temporal and spatial distribution of lion-like felids". Quaternaire. 4: 229–236.
  80. ^ Stuart, A. J., Lister, A .M. (2011). "Extinction chronology of the cave lion Panthera spelaea". Quaternary Science Reviews. 30 (17): 2329–2340. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.04.023.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  81. ^ Sala, B. (1990). "Panthera leo fossilis (v. Reichenau, 1906) (Felidae) de Iserna la Pineta (Pléistocene moyen inférieur d'Italie)". Géobios. 23 (2): 189–194. doi:10.1016/S0016-6995(06)80051-3.
  82. ^ Marciszak, A.; Stefaniak, K. (2010). "Two forms of cave lion: Middle Pleistocene Panthera spelaea fossilis Reichenau, 1906 and Upper Pleistocene Panthera spelaea spelaea Goldfuss, 1810 from the Bísnik Cave, Poland". Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen. 258 (3): 339–351. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2010/0117.
  83. ^ Marciszak, A.; Schouwenburg, C.; Darga, R. (2014). "Decreasing size process in the cave (Pleistocene) lion Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) evolution – A review". Quaternary International. Fossil remains in karst and their role in reconstructing Quaternary paleoclimate and paleoenvironments. 339–340: 245–257. Bibcode:2014QuInt.339..245M. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2013.10.008.
  84. ^ Sotnikova, M. V.; Foronova, I. V. (2014). "First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia". Integrative Zoology. 9 (4): 517–530. doi:10.1111/1749-4877.12082. PMID 24382145.
  85. ^ Barnett, R.; Mendoza, M. L. Z.; Soares, A. E. R.; Ho, S. Y. W.; Zazula, G.; Yamaguchi, N.; Shapiro, B.; Kirillova, I. V.; Larson, G.; Gilbert, M. T. P. (2016). "Mitogenomics of the Extinct Cave Lion, Panthera spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810), resolve its position within the Panthera cats". Open Quaternary. 2: 4. doi:10.5334/oq.24.
  86. ^ Hasegawa, Y.; Tomida, Y.; Kohno, N.; Ono, K.; Nokariya, H.; Uyeno, T. (1988). "Quaternary vertebrates from Shiriya area, Shimokita Pininsula, northeastern Japan". Memoirs of the National Science Museum. 21: 17–36.
  87. ^ Pei, W. C. (1934). "On the Carnivora from Locality 1 of Choukoutien". Palaeontologica Sinica Series C, Fascicle 1: 1−166.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit