Pan European Game Information
Pan European Game Information (PEGI) is a European video game content rating system established to help European consumers make informed decisions when buying video games or apps through the use of age recommendations and content descriptors. It was developed by the Interactive Software Federation of Europe (ISFE) and came into use in April 2003; it replaced many national age rating systems with a single European system. The PEGI system is now used in 39 countries and is based on a code of conduct, a set of rules to which every publisher using the PEGI system is contractually committed. PEGI self-regulation is composed by five age categories and eight content descriptors that advise the suitability and content of a game for a certain age range based on the games content. The age rating is not intended to indicate the difficulty of the game or the skill required to play it.
|Formation||9 April 2003|
|Purpose||Video game classification|
|Interactive Software Federation of Europe|
PEGI has five age categories.
|Games with this rating contain content which PEGI believes is generally suitable for all ages. They can contain mild forms of cartoon violence in a fantasy context, and do not contain imagery that may frighten players.|
|Games with this rating contain content which PEGI believes is generally suitable for those aged 7 years and older. They can contain "very mild" violence of low detail, and imagery that can be considered frightening to younger audiences.|
|Games with this rating contain content which PEGI believes is generally suitable for those aged 12 years and older. They can contain mild violence of a higher detail involving non-realistic or fantasy characters, mild violence of low detail involving realistic characters, sexually suggestive content, mild language and simulated gambling.|
|Games with this rating contain content which PEGI believes is generally suitable for those aged 16 years and older. They can contain more realistic portrayals of violence than the 12 rating accommodates, more frequent use of strong language, and references to alcohol, illegal drugs, and tobacco.|
|Games with this rating contain content which PEGI believes is generally suitable for those aged 18 years and older. They can contain extreme portrayals of violence (including "gross violence, apparently motiveless killing, or violence towards defenceless characters"), sexually explicit material, and "glamorisation" or use of illegal drugs.|
The current design was introduced at the end of 2009. Black and white icons were used until June 2009, when the colour-coded PEGI icons were announced, with green for 3 and 7, orange for 12 and 16, and red for 18. Plus signs were removed from the icons, and the background text changed from 'ISFE' from the old, black-and-white icons to 'PEGI' from the new, colour-coded PEGI icons. That design was slightly altered at the end of 2009, by removing the watermark and locking the URL bar underneath the age rating icon. Reprinted games from 2009 or before often still display the old designs.
In Portugal, two of the PEGI categories were aligned with the age ratings of the film classification system to avoid confusion; 3 was changed to 4 and 7 was changed to 6. Finland also used a modified scale, where 12 became 11 and 16 became 15. Finland fully adopted PEGI on 1 January 2007, and the standard ratings were fully enforced as well.
|Standard||PEGI 3||PEGI 7|
The nine content descriptors are:
|Icon||Content descriptor||Explanation||Corresponding age ratings|
|Violence||Depending on the age category, the game may contain scenes of people getting injured or dying, often by use of weapons, whether realistically or not, in a fantastical or cartoonish manner. May also contain gore, injury detail, and blood-letting.|
|Bad Language||May contain profanity and all manner of slurs, insults, and epithets.|
|Fear||May contain scenes and plot elements too disturbing, overly suspenseful, or frightening to younger/sensitive players at PEGI 7 or horrifying content in the absence of violence at PEGI 12.|
|Sex||Depending on the age category, the game may contain scenes or references to sexual nudity, sexual posturing, characters wearing suggestive clothing, or sexual intercourse. This descriptor is not needed for non-sexual nudity.|
|Drugs||Depending on the age category, the game may contain references to or consumption of illegal drugs (or a fictional substance similar in effect to real-life illegal drugs).|
|Gambling||May contain elements that encourage or teach gambling.|
|Discrimination||May contain scenes, behavior, or references to cruelty or harassment to a group of specific people based on race, religion, ethnicity, gender, ability, or sexual identity/preferences.|
|Online||May contain online interactions. This descriptor was discontinued by PEGI in 2015, with the majority of present-day games and all consoles allowing for online interactions. Still appears for games classified before July 2015.|
|In-Game Purchases||Introduced in 2018. May contain additional paid content, such as microtransactions or downloadable content, that can be purchased with real money inside the game.|
As of December 2015, PEGI has rated more than 25,300 games. 42.2% of these games were rated 3, 15.8% rated 7, 22.3% rated 12, 12.7% rated 16 and only 7% were rated 18.
Of all the games that were rated in 2015 (1855 games in total):
- 64.7% (1201) have the Violence content descriptor.
- 25.4% (472) have the Online content descriptor.
- 18.4% (341) have the Bad Language content descriptor.
- 7.7% (142) have the Fear content descriptor.
- 4.7% (88) have the Sex content descriptor.
- 1.4% (26) have the Gambling content descriptor.
- 1.2% (23) have the Drugs content descriptor.
- Overall 5 games have the Discrimination content descriptor.
PEGI and the European UnionEdit
A consumer survey commissioned by ISFE in 2012 demonstrated that the PEGI age rating labels are recognised on average by 51% of respondents in 16 different countries (highest: France 72%; lowest: Czech Republic 28%), while 86% of all respondents found them to be clear and 89% found them useful.
PEGI is an example of European harmonisation. The European Commission supports the PEGI self-regulation: "PEGI appears to have achieved good results and PEGI On-line is also a promising initiative, making of PEGI a good example of self-regulation in line with the better regulation agenda." Moreover, the European Parliament in its last report on protection of consumers "takes the view that the PEGI system for rating games is an important tool which has improved transparency for consumers, especially parents, when buying games by enabling them to make a considered choice as to whether a game is suitable for children".
To obtain the ratings for any piece of interactive software, the applicant submits the game with other supporting materials and completes a content declaration, all of which is evaluated by an independent administrator called the Netherlands Institute for the Classification of Audiovisual Media (NICAM). It is based on the Dutch Kijkwijzer system as well. Following the evaluation the applicant will receive a license to use the rating logos. If the applicant disagrees with the rating, they can ask for an explanation or make a complaint to the complaints board. Consumers may also make complaints to this board.
Although PEGI was established by an industry body (ISFE) the ratings are given by a body independent of the industry and the whole system is overseen by a number of different Boards and Committees. There is the PEGI Council, composed mainly by national representatives for PEGI, that recommends adjustments to the code in light of social, legal and technological developments. Members of the PEGI Council are recruited for their skill and experience from among parent/consumer body representatives, child psychologists, media specialists, civil servants, academics and legal advisers versed in the protection of minors in Europe.
There is also a Complaints Board with experts from various European countries. They deal with complaints related to breaches of requirements of the code of conduct or to age rating recommendations. Should a complaint be received from a consumer or publisher regarding a rating given to a game and no satisfactory settlement can be reached by the PEGI administrator through discussion, explanation or negotiation the complainant may formally request the Complaints Board to mediate. Three board members will then convene, hear the complaint and decide on a ruling. Publishers using the PEGI system are bound by the decision of the Complaints Board. Consequently, they are obliged to carry out any corrective actions required and, in cases of non-compliance, are subject to sanctions as laid out by the code.
Global cooperation in IARCEdit
In 2013, PEGI co-founded the International Age Rating Coalition with USK and the ESRB. IARC aims to streamline the rating of digitally distributed games and apps by providing a single online system that produces age ratings for all participating regions. By filling out one questionnaire, a publisher instantaneously receives ratings from PEGI, USK, ESRB, ACB and others.
There are a number of committees to ensure the system keeps functioning properly.
- Experts Group: The PEGI Experts Group is made up of academics working in the fields of psychology and sociology, and representatives from NICAM, VSC, and the games industry. It works on adapting and modifying the PEGI questionnaire and the underlying criteria to take account of technological and content developments and recommendations made by the PEGI Council or circumstances brought to light by the complaints procedure.
- Legal Committee: Since PEGI is a voluntary system it runs in conjunction with, and is subordinate to, existing national laws, whether they prohibit certain content or establish mandatory rating systems. The Legal Committee's role is to advise PEGI s.a. of any changes to national legislation within participating countries that could affect the voluntary age rating system.
- Enforcement Committee: The Enforcement Committee is charged with implementing the recommendations of the PEGI Council and, more generally, of ensuring the enforcement of the provisions of the PEGI Code of Conduct, including conclusion of the Complaints Board.
In 2007, the PEGI Online division of PEGI was formed as an addition to the PEGI system for online games. Goals include giving young people in Europe improved protection against unsuitable online gaming content and educating parents on how to ensure safe online play. This project is supported directly by the European Commission:
PEGI On-line, which was launched in June 2007 and co-funded by the Safer Internet Programme, is the logical development of the PEGI system, designed to better protect young people against unsuitable gaming content and to help parents to understand the risks and potential for harm within this environment.
PEGI Online is based on four principles:
- The PEGI Online Safety Code and Framework Contract which is signed by all participants
- The PEGI Online Logo which will be displayed by holders of a licence
- The website for applicants and for the general public
- An independent administration, advice, and dispute settlement process
The licence to display the PEGI Online Logo is granted by the PEGI Online Administrator to any online gameplay service provider that meets the requirements set out in the PEGI Online Safety Code (POSC).
PEGI is the standard age rating system for video games in 38 European countries and Israel, but products with PEGI labels can be found across the globe alongside other rating systems as a result of import for linguistic reasons (e.g.: English versions in South Africa and the United Arab Emirates, Spanish or Portuguese versions in Latin America). The official status of PEGI ratings varies from country to country, depending on the way national legislation deals with age classification and the protection of minors. In some countries, PEGI is the de facto standard without specific regulation, other countries have officially acknowledged PEGI as the sole system for age ratings, while yet another number of countries have incorporated the PEGI rating system into laws governing the age classification of media, making the labels enforceable in retail.
|Albania||De facto use of the PEGI labels, no specific legislative basis or official support.|
|Austria||PEGI is legally adopted and enforceable in the regions of Vienna and Carinthia. In the latter region, USK labels are also allowed. Represented in the PEGI Council.|
|Belgium||Officially supports PEGI, but there is no specific legislative basis.|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||De facto use of the PEGI labels, no specific legislative basis or official support.|
|Bulgaria||Officially supports PEGI and is represented in the PEGI Council, but there is no specific legislative basis.|
|Croatia||De facto use of the PEGI labels, no specific legislative basis or official support.|
|Cyprus||Officially supports PEGI, but there is no specific legislative basis.|
|Czech Republic||Officially supports PEGI, but there is no specific legislative basis.|
|Denmark||Officially supports PEGI and is represented in the PEGI Council, but there is no specific legislative basis.|
|Estonia||Officially supports PEGI, but there is no specific legislative basis.|
|Finland||In Finland, games with PEGI ratings are exempt from mandatory classification with national age symbols. Both classifications are enforced by the penal code. Represented in the PEGI Council.||KAVI|
|France||France has adopted legislation making classification of video games with age labels mandatory. Represented in the PEGI Council.|
|Greece||Officially supports PEGI and is represented in the PEGI Council, but there is no specific legislative basis.|
|Germany||The USK system is adopted and enforced. PEGI is not formally recognised, although PEGI labelling can be found on games along with the USK rating. Not represented on the PEGI Council.||USK|
|Hungary||De facto use of the PEGI labels, no specific legislative basis or official support.|
|Iceland||PEGI is officially supported and age classifications are mandatory for video games by law.|
|Ireland||PEGI ratings are exempt from mandatory classification by IFCO, which adopts PEGI. IFCO is still legally empowered to ban certain video game content from the market. Represented in the PEGI Council.|
|Israel||PEGI has been adopted by law as the mandatory classification system for video games in Israel.|
|Latvia||De facto use of the PEGI labels, no specific legislative basis or official support.|
|Lithuania||Lithuanian legislation has adopted PEGI which is exempt from mandatory classification with national age symbols. Both classifications are enforced by the penal code as of November 2010.|
|Malta||Officially supports PEGI and is represented in the PEGI Council, PEGI is the legally enforceable system for game classification in Malta since January 2016.|
|Montenegro||De facto use of the PEGI labels, no specific legislative basis or official support.|
|Netherlands||PEGI is officially adopted and legislation is in place to enforce age classification in shops where video games are sold.|
|North Macedonia||De facto use of the PEGI labels, no specific legislative basis or official support.|
|Portugal||PEGI has officially been adopted by the Portuguese Classification Board IGAC.||IGAC|
|Romania||Officially supports PEGI, but there is no specific legislative basis.|
|Serbia||De facto use of the PEGI labels, no specific legislative basis or official support.|
|Slovakia||De facto use of the PEGI labels, but Slovak media law obliges distributors to add national age labels (generally using stickers).|
|Slovenia||Officially supports PEGI, but there is no specific legislative basis.|
|Switzerland||Switzerland is preparing national legislation to make classification of video games with age labels legally binding.|
|Turkey||De facto use of the PEGI labels, no specific legislative basis or official support.|
|Ukraine||De facto use of the PEGI labels, no specific legislative basis or official support.|
|United Kingdom||PEGI is the legally enforceable system for game classification in the UK since 30 July 2012. Has official support for PEGI, and is represented in the PEGI Council.||BBFC|
Viral leak claimEdit
On March 1, 2019, a PC Gamer article stated that PEGI "leaked" a confirmation of a remaster of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 as the next game. It was said that the game was released the previous day as "Modern Warfare 4", available for pre-ordering for PlayStation 4 and given a PEGI 18 rating.
- "PEGI Website". Pegi.info. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- "PEGI Pan European Game Information – What do the labels mean?". Pegi.info. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- "What do the labels mean?". PEGI. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- Tom Ivan (17 June 2009). "PEGI Unveils New Ratings Symbols". Edge. Future Publishing. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011.
- "PEGI announces new content descriptor: in-game purchases | Pegi Public Site". pegi.info. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- "PEGI 2015 annual report, page 13" (PDF). Pegi.info. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
- "Search | Pegi Public Site". pegi.info. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
- "Videogames in Europe: Consumer Study - European Summary Report" (PDF). isfe.eu. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Communication from the commission of the European parliament, the council, the European economic and social committee and the committee of the regions, on the protection of consumers, in particular minors, in respect of the use of video games, Brussels, 2008, p.9
- Toine Manders, Report of the European Parliament on the protection of the consumers, in particular minors, in respect of the use of video games, 2009, p.6. article 24
- "PEGI Assessment Form" (PDF). Pegi.info. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2011. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
- NICAM website Archived 21 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Website PEGI". Pegi.info. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- "Getting Digitally-Distributed Games Classified in Australia to Be Cost-Free - IGN". au.ign.com. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
- "New International Age Ratings System Launching Worldwide Next Year | Video Game Deals & UK News | Dealspwn.com". dealspwn.com. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
- "PEGI Online Website". Pegionline.info. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- Communication from the commission of the European parliament, the council, the European economic and social committee and the committee of the regions, on the protection of consumers, in particular minors, in respect of the use of video games, Brussels, 2008, p.3.
- "PEGI Online Safety Code". Pegionline.info.
- "Austrian government page explaining PEGI and its status".
- "Article explaining plans for legal change in France".
- "Text of the amendment proposing the change".
- "Statutes of the USK system" (PDF).
- "Icelandic Media Act (2006)".
- "Article detailing legal requirement to use PEGI in Israel".
- "Legislative text specifying PEGI as the labelling system for video games in Lithuania".
- "Penal code text specifying enforcement of sales restriction of certain media content to minors".
- "Government document outlining the role of PEGI in legal context" (PDF).
- "Swiss federal government announcement".
- "MCV: PEGI ratings come into force today".
- "BBC News: UK enforces PEGI video game ratings system".
- Brown, Fraser (1 March 2019). "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 Remastered leaked by PEGI". PC Gamer. Retrieved 1 March 2019.