Palladium on carbon

Palladium on carbon, often referred to as Pd/C, is a form of palladium used as a catalyst.[1] The metal is supported on activated carbon in order to maximize its surface area and activity.

Palladium on carbon
Names
IUPAC name
Palladium
Other names
Palladium on carbon, Pd/C, Pd-C
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
EC Number
  • 231-115-6
UNII
Properties
Pd
Molar mass 106.42
Appearance Black powder
Solubility Aqua regia
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

UsesEdit

Catalytic hydrogenationEdit

Palladium on carbon is used for catalytic hydrogenations in organic synthesis. Examples include reductive amination,[2] carbonyl reduction, nitro compound reduction, the reduction of imines and Schiff bases[1] and debenzylation reactions.

Coupling reactionsEdit

Palladium on carbon is also used for coupling reactions. Examples include the Suzuki reaction and Stille reaction.[3]

PreparationEdit

Palladium chloride and hydrochloric acid are added to a warmed, aqueous suspension of activated carbon.[4] Formaldehyde is then added to the solution followed by neutralization with sodium hydroxide. Finally the catalyst filtered, washed with distilled water, and dried over potassium hydroxide. Palladium loading is typically between 5% and 10%.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Nishimura, Shigeo (2001). Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalytic Hydrogenation for Organic Synthesis (1st ed.). Newyork: Wiley-Interscience. pp. 34–38. ISBN 9780471396987.
  2. ^ Romanelli, Michael G.; Becker, Ernest I. (1967). "Ethylp-dimethylaminophenylacetate". Organic Syntheses. 47: 69. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.047.0069.
  3. ^ Liebeskind, Lanny S.; Peña-Cabrera, Eduardo (2000). "Stille couplings catalyzed by palladium-on-carbon with CuI as a co-catalyst: synthesis of 2-(4'-Acetylhenyl)thiophene". Organic Syntheses. 77: 138. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.077.0135.
  4. ^ Mozingo, Ralph (1946). "Palladium catalysts". Organic Syntheses. 26: 77. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.026.0077.