Pakistani community of London
The Pakistani community of London (also called London Pakistanis) consist of Pakistani emigrants and their descendants who have settled in London, the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. Pakistanis in London form the largest concentrated community of British Pakistanis; immigration from regions which now form Pakistan predate Pakistan's independence.
|Estimated at around 223,797
2.7% of London's population
(20% of the total Pakistani population in the UK)
|Regions with significant populations|
Newham, Waltham Forest, Redbridge, Hounslow, Brent, Ealing, Croydon, Harrow, Barking & Dagenham, Wandsworth, Hillingdon, Barnet
|English (British English, Pakistani English) · Punjabi · Urdu and others|
|Islam 92% and Christianity 2%|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Asian British · Overseas Pakistanis · Pakistani people|
Pakistanis in London represent a diverse mixture of South Asian subgroups including Punjabis, Kashmiris, Pashtuns, Muhajirs and smaller numbers of Sindhis and Balochis among others. A substantial number of British Pakistanis who arrived to London in the 1960s were qualified teachers, doctors and engineers.
Pakistanis in London are mostly Muslims who speak Urdu and Punjabi amongst other languages. The main concentrations of Pakistani settlement in London are found in Outer London with the boroughs of Redbridge, Newham and Waltham Forest accounting for nearly a third of Londoners of Pakistani Descent.
|Top 10 London Boroughs with largest population claiming Pakistani Descent|
|Rank||Borough||Inner / Outer London||Population||Percentage|
|3||Waltham Forest||Outer London||26,347||10.20%|
|10||Barking and Dagenham||Outer London||8,007||4.31%|
|Inner and Outer London Totals|
|-||All Inner London Boroughs||Inner London||59,890||1.85%|
|-||All Outer London Boroughs||Outer London||163,907||3.32%|
|London Boroughs with population claiming Pakistani ehtnicity of more than 2 percent|
|Source: Census 2011. Percentage indicates borough population of Pakistan descent|
The main industries which the Pakistani community of London are employed in include wholesale and retail (including self-owned grocery stores or newsagents). In 2001, 0.6% of businesses in London were owned by British Pakistanis. 20% of London's Pakistani population are self-employed.
The percentage of London Pakistanis employed in managerial, senior official or professional occupations is 25%, which is lower than the London average of 32%. However it is higher than the percentage of London Bangladeshis (22%) but lower than Indians (34%) and Other Asians communities (31%).
The unemployment rate for Pakistani males and females in London is lower than the national average British Pakistanis living in other regions of Britain. Pakistanis are the only ethnic group (along with White Britons) who have a lower worklessness rate in London than in other areas of Britain.
Middle class by Borough
|Borough||Pakistani middle class||Overall middle class|
Between 1991 and 2001, out of the total growth in the London Pakistani population, 52.7% of the growth was in the middle classes.
Growth in the middle class as a proportion of all growth
|England & Wales||36.4%|
Growth in managers and professionals as a proportion was 22.8% between 1991 and 2001.
Growth in managers and professionals as a proportion of all growth
|England & Wales||15.8%|
There are stark social differences in Pakistanis living in different boroughs of London. Whilst in Brent and Harrow London Pakistanis are fairly prosperous and mostly Middle Class. The opposite is true in Newham, where they are mostly working class and more likely to suffer from deprivation.
Key Stage 2
Latest figures available, regarding London Pakistanis, by local authority, dated: year 2004. At Key Stage 2 Pakistani children in London have higher attainment rates in both English and Maths, when compared with the British Pakistani average.
In contrast to Pakistanis from other regions of Britain. Pakistanis in London achieve above average GCSE Pass Rates. For example, in 2004, 50.2% of London Pakistani boys achieved five or more A*-C grades, compared with the national average of 46.8%. Furthermore, 63.3% of Pakistani girls in London reached that threshold compared to the national average of 57%.
The achievement of Pakistanis in London at GCSE level is 10 percentage points higher than that of Pakistanis throughout England. The highest attainment within London was found in the borough of Redbridge.
Degree Level Qualifications
Pakistani applicants to universities are over-represented by 7.5% from Greater London. In education, Pakistanis in London performed the highest out of all British Pakistanis in the 2001 census. This is not just reflected in above average GCSE pass rates but also in degree level qualifications, with 32% of London Pakistanis having degree level or higher qualifications. This is marginally higher than the London average of 31% and is more than twice as high as the figure for London Bangladeshis (15%), equal to the figure for "Other Asians" and comparable to the figure of 34% for London Indians. Pakistanis in Inner London do slightly better than those in Outer London, with 33% reaching the benchmark compared to 32% in Outer London. The figure is higher than the national average of 20% and almost twice as high as the figure for Pakistanis throughout the UK (18%). Pakistani men are better qualified than the average Londoner, with 37% possessing a degree level or higher qualification, although Pakistani women have fewer educational qualifications, with 27% having the same qualifications. The figure for Pakistani women in London is still higher than the national or British Pakistani national average.
In similarity to Pakistanis living in other parts of the UK, 91% of Pakistanis in London are Muslims. The other 6% are made up of people who did not declare their religion, Christians made up 2% and those with no religion made up 1%. Pakistanis make up only 22% of London's Muslim population, in contrast to 43% for British Pakistanis living throughout the UK.
Notable Londoners of Pakistani originEdit
- Nazir Ahmed, Baron Ahmed (born 1957) - member of the British House of Lords
- Riz Ahmed - also known as Riz MC; British Pakistani actor and rapper from Wembley, London; lead performances in The Road to Guantanamo, Shifty, Britz, Four Lions , The Reluctant Fundamentalist and "Rogue One: A Star Wars Story"
- Tariq Ali - British Pakistani historian, novelist, journalist, filmmaker, public intellectual, political campaigner, activist, and commentator
- James Caan (born Nazim Khan) - British Pakistani entrepreneur and television personality, best known as a former investor on the BBC programme Dragons' Den
- Anjem Choudary - British Pakistani radical and former head of Islam4UK, which was proscribed by the UK Government in 2010
- Altaf Hussain - British Pakistani politician and fugitive, wanted terrorist in Pakistan; one of the founders and for many years lead the Karachi based Muttahida Qaumi Movement
- Hasnat Khan - British Pakistani heart and lung surgeon identified as an "ex-lover" of Diana, Princess of Wales, who is said to have described him as "Mr Wonderful"
- Sadiq Khan - British Pakistani Labour Party politician; has been the Mayor of London since 2016. Previously, he was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Tooting since 2005, succeeding Tom Cox as the Labour MP for the seat
- Hanif Kureishi - playwright, screenwriter, filmmaker, novelist and short story writer
- Riz Lateef - news reader for BBC London News; BBC Deputy News Manager
- Mazhar Majeed - British Pakistani sporting agent and bookmaker; arrested by Scotland Yard for allegedly fixing a Test match between England and Pakistan at Lord's
- Sir Anwar Pervez - Pakistan-born businessman; estimated by The Times to be Britain’s richest Muslim in 2010; founder of the Bestway Group
- Owais Shah - cricketer who plays for Middlesex and has appeared for England in a number of One Day Internationals and test matches
- "Pakistani London". BBC. 2005-05-26. Retrieved 2009-05-30.
- "The Pakistani Muslim Community in England" (PDF). The Change Institute, Department for Communities and Local Government. March 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-09-19. Retrieved 2009-05-30.
- Richardson, Robin; Angela Wood (2004). The Achievement of British Pakistani Learners (PDF). Trentham Books, in association with the Uniting Britain Trust, Ltd. Retrieved 2009-05-30.
- "20thcentury Pakistani London". Renaissance London. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- "Pakistani London". Museum of London. Retrieved 2009-05-30.
- "Pakistani community of London" (PDF). London Assembly. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- Meadows, Pamela (2006). Worklessness in London: explaining the difference between London and the UK (PDF). London: Greater London Authority. p. 8. ISBN 1-85261-818-3. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- Philip Cohen and Michael J. Rustin. London's turning: Thames Gateway London's turning, The Making of Thames Gateway. Ashgate. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- "Pakistan Mapping Exercise" (PDF). IOM London. p. 11. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- Dominiczak, Peter (10 September 2009). "Pervez Musharraf's London pad surrounded by kebab joints". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
- "Baroness Warsi calls on Nawaz Sharif". Daily Times. 19 May 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
- Vision for London 2008-2011: London education on the way to world class (PDF). Nottingham: Department for Children, Schools and Families. 2008. ISBN 978-1-84775-180-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- Piggott, Gareth (4 January 2005). "2001 Census Profiles: Pakistanis in London" (PDF). Data Management and Analysis Group. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
- "Round Ethnic Group Projections" (PDF). Greater London Authority. 2007. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- Tariq Ali Biography, Contemporary Writers, accessed 31 October 2006
- "As 250 Killed in Clashes Near Afghan Border, British-Pakistani Author Tariq Ali on Pakistan, Afghanistan, and the Ongoing U.S. Role in Regional Turmoil Archived 2007-11-14 at the Wayback Machine.". Democracy Now!. 10 October 2007. Retrieved on 11 October 2007.
- "Princess Diana's 'Mr Wonderful' Hasnat Khan Still Haunted by her Death". Sky News. 13 January 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- Hasan Suroor (28 May 2011). "Pakistan is in terminal decline". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Riz Lateef BBC London Presenter Profile, 8 June 2009
- Catherine Boyle (27 March 2010). "Asian entrepreneurs present best way to succeed". London: Times Newspapers. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Paul Kelso (17 June 2002). "The winners". London: Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- "ASIAN OF THE YEAR 1997-98 Sir Mohammed Anwar Pervez OBE". Asian who's who. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- Stephen Brenkley (10 February 2002). "Shah happy in look and learn mode". London: The Independent. Retrieved 15 July 2011.