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PVS-RIPO consists of a genetically modified nonpathogenic version of the oral poliovirus Sabin type 1. The internal ribosome entry site (IRES) on the poliovirus was replaced with the IRES from human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2), to avoid neurovirulence. Once administered, the virus enters and begins replicating within cells that express CD155/Necl5, which is an onco-fetal cell adhesion molecule that is common across solid tumors.
The FDA approved clinical trials with PVS-RIPO in brain tumor patients recently. Since May 2012, five brain tumor patients have been treated. Remarkably, there have been no toxic side effects with PVS-RIPO whatsoever, even at the highest possible dose (10 billion infectious virus particles).
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