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PAW Patrol is a Canadian CGIanimated television series created by Keith Chapman. It is produced by Spin Master Entertainment in association with TVOntario and Nickelodeon, with animation provided by Guru Studio. In Canada, the series is primarily broadcast on TVOntario, which first ran previews of the show in August 2013. The series premiered on Nickelodeon in the United States on August 12, 2013.

PAW Patrol
PAW Patrol Logo.png
Created byKeith Chapman
Developed byScott Kraft
Directed by
  • Jamie Whitney (2013–2016)
  • Charles E. Bastien (2016–present)
Voices of
  • Jaxon Mercey
  • Lukas Engel
  • Keegan Hedley
  • Justin Paul Kelly
  • Samuel Faraci
  • Shayle Simons
  • Lilly Bartlam
  • Ron Pardo
Theme music composer
Opening theme"PAW Patrol" performed by Scott Simons
Ending theme"PAW Patrol" (instrumental)
Country of originCanada
Original language(s)English
No. of seasons6
No. of episodes136 (list of episodes)
Executive producer(s)
  • Jennifer Dodge (seasons 1–2)
  • Laura Clunie (season 3–present)
  • Ronnen Harary
  • Keith Chapman
  • Ursula Ziegler-Sullivan (season 5–present)
  • Scott Kraft
Producer(s)Patricia Burns
Running time22–23 minutes
Production company(s)Spin Master Entertainment
Original network
Picture format
Audio formatSurround
Original releaseAugust 12, 2013 (2013-08-12) –
present (present)
External links

The series focuses on a boy named Ryder who leads a pack of search and rescue dogs known as the PAW Patrol. They work together on missions to protect the shoreside community of Adventure Bay. Each dog has a specific set of skills based on a real-life profession, such as a firefighter, a police officer, and a pilot. They all reside in doghouses that can transform into customized vehicles when necessary. They are also equipped with backpacks called "pup packs" that contain tools that relate to the pups' jobs.

Spin Master has developed the show into a media franchise and released an ongoing line of toys based on it. PAW Patrol toy sales have generated millions of dollars in revenue for the corporation and increased Spin Master's presence in the preschool toy market.[1] The show, and its associated products, have received a variety of awards and nominations from associations such as the Academy of Canadian Cinema & Television and the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences.



Each episode of PAW Patrol follows a similar pattern and features recurring themes. Episodes normally open with a scene depicting the dogs going about their everyday lives, often playing with dog toys or engaging in activities at the local playground. Ryder, a ten-year-old boy, is advised of a problem by receiving a call for help or by witnessing a situation himself. His most frequent caller is an accident-prone marine biologist named Cap'n Turbot, who knows much about Adventure Bay's wildlife. Ryder always alerts the dogs via their blinking pet tags. The team members report to their base, the Lookout, and enter its elevator. Marshall typically arrives last causing a humorous mishap that makes the other dogs laugh as the elevator rises. When they reach the top floor, they arrange themselves in a line. Chase announces that the team is ready for action as Ryder tells the pups what has happened. He chooses several members of the team, normally two first responders, to help solve whatever problem has emerged. They ride a slide down to their vehicles and complete their mission. When they have finished, Ryder says his catchphrase: "Whenever you're in trouble, just yelp for help!", and congratulates the pups.


SeasonSegmentsEpisodesOriginally aired
First airedLast aired
14826August 12, 2013 (2013-08-12)August 18, 2014 (2014-08-18)
24826August 13, 2014 (2014-08-13)December 4, 2015 (2015-12-04)
34826November 20, 2015 (2015-11-20)January 26, 2017 (2017-01-26)
44726February 6, 2017 (2017-02-06)March 6, 2018 (2018-03-06)
54726[2]February 6, 2018 (2018-02-06)January 25, 2019 (2019-01-25)
6TBA26February 22, 2019 (2019-02-22)TBA
SpecialNovember 12, 2018 (2018-11-12)


PAW Patrol membersEdit

The illustrated designs of the entire PAW Patrol team as of Tracker's introduction.

Original membersEdit

  • Ryder is the human leader of the PAW Patrol. He is a ten-year-old boy who gives the dogs their mission instructions and builds the vehicles and equipment they use. His vehicle is an ATV. He is the only character to be featured in every mission. He was voiced by Owen Mason from 2013 to 2015, by Elijha Hammill from 2015 to 2016, and by Jaxon Mercey from 2016 onward.
  • Marshall is a dalmatian. He serves as a firefighter and paramedic dog. His vehicle is a fire engine, which transforms into an ambulance. He is known for being exceptionally clumsy. A running gag in every episode is that Marshall will encounter some kind of humorous problem while trying to enter the PAW Patrol's elevator. His catchphrase after one of these mishaps is often "I'm good." He was voiced by Gage Munroe from 2013 to 2014, by Drew Davis from 2014 to 2019, and by Lukas Engel from 2019 onward.
  • Rubble is an English bulldog. He serves as a construction dog. His vehicle is a bulldozer. He is often a source of comic relief and usually makes jokes or comments about his love of eating. He is voiced by Devan Cohen from 2013 through 2019, and by Keegan Hedley from 2019 onward.
  • Chase is a German Shepherd. He serves as a police and spy dog. His vehicle is a cruiser. He is the most mature of the dogs, and will always announce "PAW Patrol ready for action, Ryder, sir!" when the PAW Patrol is called on a mission. He was voiced by Tristan Samuel from 2013 to 2014, by Max Calinescu from 2014 to 2018, and by Justin Paul Kelly from 2018 onward.
  • Rocky is a grey-and-white mongrel of an unspecified breed. He serves as a recycling dog. His vehicle is a recycling truck, which can also transform into a salvage tugboat. A running gag in the series is Rocky's irrational fear of water to the point where he refuses to bathe. He was voiced by Stuart Ralston from 2013 to 2015 and by Samuel Faraci from 2015 onward.
  • Zuma is a chocolate Labrador retriever. He serves as an aquatic rescue pup. His vehicle is a hovercraft, which can also convert into a submarine. He was voiced by Alex Thorne from 2013 to 2017, by Carter Thorne from 2017 to 2019, and by Shayle Simons from 2019 onward.
  • Skye is a cockapoo. She serves as an aviator. Her vehicle is a helicopter, and she has wings built into her backpack. She is voiced by Kallan Holley from 2013 through 2019, and by Lilly Bartlam from 2019 onward.

Later membersEdit

  • Cap'n Turbot is the PAW Patrol's most frequent caller, who serves as an occasional member of the team in the Merpup-themed special episodes. He is a smart marine biologist who frequently speaks in alliterations. His main vehicle is a boat called the Flounder. In the second season, an orange diving bell is introduced as his second vehicle. He is the team's best human friend and their source of information on all kinds of wildlife in the bay. He is voiced by Ron Pardo. Along with Everest, Cap'n Turbot was added to the opening theme in season three.
  • Everest is a Siberian Husky who serves as a snow rescue dog in emergencies relating to snow or ice. She was introduced in the season two episode "The New Pup". Her vehicle is a snowmobile. Like Tracker, she does not stay with the PAW Patrol and instead lives at Adventure Bay's ski resort with Jake, but will answer a call for assistance whenever her services are needed. She is voiced by Berkley Silverman. Everest, along with Cap'n Turbot, was added to the opening theme in season three.
  • Tracker is a brown-and-white chihuahua who serves as a jungle rescue pup. His vehicle is a Jeep, and he is bilingual, speaking fluently in Spanish and English. Like Everest, he does not stay with the PAW Patrol and instead resides in the jungle with his human caretaker, a boy named Carlos. He is voiced by David Lopez. As of season five, he and Robo-Dog have not been added to the opening theme.
  • Robo-Dog is a robotic dog introduced in "Pups Save Ryder's Robot". He serves as the driver of the PAW Patrol's multi-member vehicles. Unlike the other pups, Robo-Dog does not speak in sentences and only communicates through barks. His vehicle (the PAW Patroller) was added to the opening theme in season three, but Robo-Dog himself does not appear.


  • Mayor Goodway is the overdramatic but friendly mayor of Adventure Bay. She owns a pet chicken named Chickaletta, which she keeps in her purse. She shares a rivalry with Mayor Humdinger of the neighbouring town Foggy Bottom. She is voiced by Deann Degruijter.
  • Chickaletta is the mayor's pet chicken. She is not quick-witted or observant and often unintentionally causes trouble for herself and Mayor Goodway. She is introduced in "Pup Pup and Away" when she jumps into Mayor Goodway's purse during a hot air balloon race.
  • Francois Turbot is Cap'n Turbot's cousin and sidekick, who lives with him in the Seal Island lighthouse. He is very self-centered and loves to show off, but also cares deeply about animals. Francois works as a zoologist, artist, and nature photographer. He has a thick French accent and often uses French phrases in place of English words. He is voiced by Peter Cugno.
  • Wally is Cap'n Turbot's pet walrus, who lives in the waters surrounding Seal Island. He has a wife named Walinda and an unnamed baby child. Although he cannot talk, Ryder and Cap'n Turbot can understand Wally when he communicates by barking and moving his flippers.
  • Mayor Humdinger is the mayor of a neighbouring town called Foggy Bottom. He is Mayor Goodway's rival who spends most of his time devising unfair schemes to make his town seem better than Adventure Bay. He lives in a cave and leads a team of troublesome cats called the Kitten Catastrophe Crew. He is voiced by Ron Pardo.
  • The Kitten Catastrophe Crew is Mayor Humdinger's group of kittens who closely resemble the six original PAW Patrol pups. Each one is equipped with a uniform and a tool pack that mirror a particular pup's outfits and abilities.
  • Katie is a girl Ryder's age. She runs Adventure Bay's pet clinic and owns a cat named Cali. She is voiced by Katherine Forrester.
  • Mr. Porter is a grocer in Adventure Bay. He is voiced by Blair Williams.
  • Alex Porter is Mr. Porter's young grandson. He was voiced by Christian Distefano from 2013 to 2018 and by Wyatt White from 2018 onward.
  • Farmer Yumi and Farmer Al are two married farmers who live near Adventure Bay. They own a barn and have several animals, such as a pair of pigs and a cow. Farmer Yumi was voiced by Hiromi Okuyama from 2013 to 2014 and by Stephany Seki from 2014 onward. Farmer Al is voiced by Ron Pardo.
  • Jake is the owner of a ski resort near Adventure Bay. He becomes Everest's caretaker after she is introduced. He is voiced by Scott McCord in US, and Mike Cross in UK.
  • Carlos is a jungle explorer who is Tracker's caretaker. He was voiced by Lucius Hoyos and later by Jaiden Cannatelli.
  • Danny is a daredevil boy who appears in the third-season episode "Pups Save Daring Danny X".
  • Sweetie is a villainous pup and the pet of the Princess of Barkingburg. She acts as an antagonist in "Mission PAW"-themed episodes in the fourth season. She has a chew toy named Busby that she treats as a robot minion. She is voiced by Anya Cooke.
  • Sid Swashbuckle is a greedy pirate who steals almost everything he sees. He first appears in "Sea Patrol: Pups Save Puplantis."
  • Arrby is a dachshund pup and sidekick to Sid, whom he is eager to please. Despite being a thief, he is friendly towards the PAW Patrol. He first appears in "Sea Patrol: Pups Save Puplantis."


According to Spin Master, the concept for PAW Patrol stemmed from a prototype for a transforming truck toy that Spin Master co-founder Ronnen Harary designed in 2010.[3] Later the same year, the company requested proposals for a television show based on the transforming toy, and accepted one from Bob the Builder creator Keith Chapman. Chapman sketched early designs of the PAW Patrol team under the working title Raffi & the Rescue Dogs. Spin Master hired toy designers to develop the format further; after the concept was in place, they began designing merchandise.[4]

Chapman's original pitch focused on the idea that the six PAW Patrol dogs were rescued by Ryder before joining the team. Scott Kraft, the show's first writer, and Jamie Whitney, the show's first director, decided to abandon the rescued dog theme in 2012. The name of the series' protagonist, Ryder, was changed multiple times during production; he was originally called Raffi, Roddy, and Robbie before Spin Master settled on Ryder.

Early models of the PAW Patrol pups.

According to a 2017 Spin Master interview, "everything pup-related was debated endlessly: names, sizes, ages, breeds."[5] The pups' designs underwent major changes after Chapman's pitch; they were originally very realistic, with unique fur and textures based on their breeds, but they were later simplified and made more cartoonish. The visual appearance of Cap'n Turbot, mainly his distinctive bead eyes and large nose, was based on the design of Chapman's Bob the Builder character. Ryder's hairstyle was based on that of Ronnen Harary.[5]

In January 2012, Spin Master began approaching television broadcasters. The company negotiated a broadcast partnership with Nickelodeon, and the network first announced that it had picked up PAW Patrol at the 2013 Licensing Expo in Las Vegas, Nevada.[6] The series became Spin Master's first solely-owned intellectual property (IP)[7] once it was released in August 2013.[8]

Since it began production, the show's animation has been provided by Guru Studio. In a 2016 interview with Maclean's Magazine, Guru president Frank Falcone stated that his studio's animators were originally suspicious of the show's "toyetic" concept.[9] The series' rock-inspired[10] original score was composed by the Ontario-based group Voodoo Highway Music & Post. The opening theme song, and the ending song used in each episode include vocals performed by Scott Simons.

With each season of the show, new supporting characters and themes are introduced in its episodes. In a May 2016 interview for the Toronto Star, Spin Master president Ben Gadbois stated that his company would continue to introduce additional characters and concepts to increase the franchise's longevity and to expand upon the success of tie-in merchandise.[11] In August of the same year, Ronnen Harary explained that these changes were intended to keep the show's content "fresh" and "relevant".[12]



The series has been sold to TV networks in over 160 countries.[13]

In Canada, the series is primarily shown on TVOntario during the TVOKids block.[14] Knowledge Kids, Le Skwat and SCN also air reruns of the show in different Canadian provinces. In the United States, the series is aired on Nickelodeon's Nick Jr. block with reruns on the Nick Jr. channel.

As required for Canadian programs aired on federally-funded networks, PAW Patrol has been dubbed in French for Quebec broadcasts and for its broadcast in France on TF1.[15] Canal Panda airs a European Portuguese dub.[16] and it aired on MBC3 in the Middle East. A British English dub, which uses the same scripts as the Canadian version with minor changes, is shown on Channel 5 and Nick Jr. UK.[17] Anione, JEI TV, and KBS have all broadcast the Korean-dubbed version.[18] The show has been aired in the Icelandic language on Iceland's public broadcaster RÚV since 2015.[19] The first two seasons were shown in Finnish on Yle TV2.[20] The video on demand platform obtained broadcast rights for a Mandarin Chinese-dubbed version of PAW Patrol in April 2016.[21] it will air on MiniMini+ in Poland, e-Junior in the United Arab Emirates, and Clan TVE in Spain. On April 6, 2019, TV Tokyo will premiere a Japanese dub of the show, starring Megumi Han as Ryder. [22]

DVD releasesEdit

Title Region 1 Region 2
PAW Patrol May 13, 2014 March 30, 2015
Winter Rescues October 7, 2014[23] October 19, 2015
Marshall and Chase On the Case! March 3, 2015[24] July 27, 2015
Pups and the Pirate Treasure N/A March 4, 2016
Meet Everest! September 1, 2015[25] July 18, 2016
Brave Heroes, Big Rescues March 1, 2016[26] February 13, 2017
All Wings on Deck N/A October 24, 2016
Sports Day!
Game On!
August 2, 2016[27] May 22, 2017
Pups Save Christmas November 1, 2016[28] October 31, 2016
Pups Save the Bunnies
Easter Egg Hunt
March 7, 2017[29] March 13, 2017
Air Pups N/A July 17, 2017
The Great Pirate Rescue! September 5, 2017[30] N/A
The Great Snow Rescue October 24, 2017[31]
Sea Patrol March 6, 2018[32] Feb 28, 2019
Summer Rescues May 1, 2018[33]
Mighty Pups September 11, 2018[34]
Ultimate Rescue April 9, 2019

Video gameEdit

In June 2018, Nickelodeon and Outright Games announced a game based on the series, titled PAW Patrol: On a Roll. It was released for PlayStation 4, Xbox One, Nintendo Switch, and Microsoft Windows in North America on October 23, 2018, but the Nintendo 3DS version is postponed until further notice due to transfer issues on the system.[35]


Critical receptionEdit

PAW Patrol has received largely positive reviews from critics. Common Sense Media reviewer Emily Ashby gave the show a four-star rating, stating that "perhaps the show's best attribute is how it demonstrates the value of thoughtful problem-solving".[36] Randy Miller of DVD Talk recommended the show, calling it "packed with all the harmless action and cornball jokes that kids ... can't help but snicker at".[37] reviewer Pattie Pegler also wrote favourably of the series, but felt that some of the characters "seem rather arbitrary, like Rocky the Recycling Pup".[38] The About Group's Carey Bryson gave the series a mixed review, criticizing its "formulaic" nature but affirming that the "show is not without funny moments".[10]

A research study, commissioned by Sky in March 2016, reported that 16 per cent of surveyed British and Irish children named PAW Patrol as their favourite program.[39]

Criticism had been directed toward the show's unequal gender representation, because initially the team of dogs is primarily male and included only one female character. Brandy King of the Center on Media and Child Health "found the gender imbalance immediately noticeable" while watching the program.[40] Today's Parent noted in April 2015 that PAW Patrol images appeared frequently on Twitter with the hashtag "#IncludeTheGirls".[41] In response to these criticisms, the writers added an additional female character named Everest, a Siberian Husky and snow rescue dog, starting in season 2.

Some of the pups were also accused of behaving manipulatively towards younger viewers in a 2018 study which focused on app-based advertising techniques.[42]


PAW Patrol has received consistently high ratings on Nickelodeon. Viacom CEO Philippe Dauman cited the series as a source of Nickelodeon's 2014 ratings growth.[43] It ranked as the highest-rated, preschool TV program in the United States in November 2013[44] and held that position throughout the spring 2014 season.[45] The spot was briefly overtaken by Team Umizoomi reruns in July 2016, but PAW Patrol reclaimed the title later the same month.[46] Bloomberg L.P. described PAW Patrol as part of a "creative resurgence" that increased the Nick Jr. channel's viewership in 2016.[47] At Nickelodeon's 2016 upfront presentation for future advertisers, Cyma Zarghami named PAW Patrol one of two preschool shows to have significantly helped boost ratings for the network (the other being Blaze and the Monster Machines).[48]

In March 2015, two back-to-back premieres of the show ranked among the top twenty weekday showings (among total viewers) in Australia.[49] In May 2015, it was reported that PAW Patrol broadcasts on TF1 had been viewed by 45 per cent of households in France with preschool-aged children.[50]

Cultural impactEdit

The show has received recognition from public figures and celebrities. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and his children are fans of the show; Trudeau mentioned the characters by name in a 2017 speech.[51] After performing at the Super Bowl LII halftime show, Justin Timberlake filmed a segment for The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon in which he named Chase as his favourite PAW Patrol character and held a Chase plush toy.[52] During his opening monologue for the 90th Academy Awards, host Jimmy Kimmel joked that a young nominee was missing PAW Patrol to attend the ceremony.[53]

The show was satirized by The Onion in regards to police brutality in the United States, where the writers defend the character Chase for shooting an unarmed black lab 17 times in the back.[54]


In 2014, the series' theme song was nominated for Outstanding Original Song – Main Title and Promo in the 41st Daytime Creative Arts Emmy Awards.[55] In 2016, the season two episode "Pups Save a Mer-Pup" was nominated for Best Animated Television/Broadcast Production for Preschool Children in the 43rd Annie Awards.[56] As of 2018, PAW Patrol has received seven Canadian Screen Award nominations with six wins.

Year Award Category Nominee Result Ref.
2014 41st Daytime Creative Arts Emmy Awards Outstanding Original Song – Main Title and Promo Scott Krippayne
Smidi Smith
Nominated [57]
Parents' Choice Foundation "Fun Stuff" Award Spin Master Won [58]
Environmental Media Awards Environmental Media Award in Children's Television Spin Master [59]
2015 Toy of the Year Awards Property of the Year, 2015 Spin Master Nominated [60]
Preschool Toy of the Year, 2015 Spin Master [60]
2016 Toy of the Year Awards Property of the Year, 2016 Spin Master [61]
43rd Annie Awards Best Animated Television/Broadcast Production for Preschool Children Spin Master [56]
4th Canadian Screen Awards Best Pre-School Program or Series Spin Master [62]
Best Direction in an Animated Program or Series Jamie Whitney Won [62] People Awards Licensee Team of the Year Spin Master [63]
Australian Toy Association Preschool License of the Year Spin Master [64]
Canadian Cinema Editors Awards Best Editing in Animation Tom Berger Nominated [65]
SOCAN Awards International TV Series Music Award Voodoo Highway Music & Post Won [66]
2017 5th Canadian Screen Awards Best Pre-School Program or Series Spin Master [67]
Best Direction in an Animated Program or Series Jamie Whitney [67]
2018 6th Canadian Screen Awards Best Pre-School Program or Series Spin Master [68]
Best Direction in an Animated Program or Series Charles E. Bastien [68]
Best Sound in an Animated Program or Series Spin Master [68]

Related mediaEdit


In November 2017, Ronnen Harary confirmed that Spin Master is "currently considering whether to extend the PAW Patrol franchise into feature films at some point in the next 12 to 24 months." Animation tests were conducted in 2017 to measure how the characters "would translate onto the big screen" and the company is currently in the process of developing a film script.[69]

Tara Brady in their review of 'Mighty Pups' described it as "shadowy attempt to normalise state-sponsored thuggery." [70]


On May 18, 2014, Spin Master introduced a toy line based on the television series at Toys "R" Us locations across Canada.[71] The line was not distributed to international markets until June 22 of the same year.[72] Dion Vlachos, a representative from Nickelodeon, was in charge of the U.S. product launch.[73]

PAW Patrol has since become one of Spin Master's most profitable brands. Analysts for the National Bank of Canada reported that toys and games based on the show accounted for approximately $245 million U.S. (or 25 per cent) of Spin Master's gross product sales for 2015.[1] Spin Master chairman Anton Rabie noted in August 2016 that the "continuing strength" of PAW Patrol toys, in addition to new acquisitions and movie licenses, made up 40.5 per cent of the firm's second quarter revenue.[74] Marketing manager Emma Eden said that the toys were responsible for increasing the company's presence in the preschool market.[75] Throughout 2016, Spin Master's revenue grew more in this market than in any other toy category. PAW Patrol has been cited as the sole reason for this.[76]

The NPD Group named PAW Patrol the top new toy brand of 2015 in the United Kingdom.[77] The group also reported that it was the best-selling preschool license in France in the first quarter of 2015.[50] Dave Brandon, the chief executive officer of Toys "R" Us, listed the PAW Patroller vehicle toy as one of the 2015 holiday season's "hottest" items.[78][79] Argos the U.K. catalogue retailer included the PAW Patrol Air Patroller vehicle on its list of the toys it predicts will be bestsellers during the Christmas 2016 season.[80] In 2018, it was estimated that total retail sales to date were approximately US$7 billion.[81][82][83]

Live eventsEdit

In April 2016, a stage show titled PAW Patrol Live: Race to the Rescue was announced.[84] The show features the PAW Patrol characters competing in a race. It toured Canada, the United States, Mexico, New Zealand, Australia and the Philippines.[85][86] A sequel show, titled PAW Patrol Live: The Great Pirate Adventure, was announced in June 2017. It follows the PAW Patrol as they rescue Cap'n Turbot from a cavern, and it will tour the same countries as its predecessor.[87] The shows are produced by VStar Entertainment Group, which is best known for producing the popular Sesame Street Live touring shows for 37 years.

Mascots based on the PAW Patrol characters have appeared at events across Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. They joined an "Etch A Sketch Day" celebration at Spin Master's office in Toronto on July 26, 2016.[88] The characters, along with replicas of the Lookout tower from the program, were included as part of the Nick Jr. Play Date Tour in autumn 2015.[89] Marshall and Chase made appearances at shopping malls throughout Nottingham, Suffolk, and Somerset in the U.K. in the summer of 2016.[90] Multiple meet-and-greet events attracted far more attendees than expected, with some reaching over 5,000 visitors.[91][92] They appeared for the first time in Northern Ireland at Glenarm Castle on July 13, 2016.[93] They are scheduled to appear regularly in a Nickelodeon-themed area of the Thurrock's Lakeside Shopping Centre located on the outskirts of London, England.[94]

Unauthorized productions and events featuring the show's characters have attracted the attention of the show's distributor. In February 2016, several Greene King pubs in the U.K. scheduled breakfast events with costumed characters modelled after the pups. Nickelodeon forced the chain to stop every event by threatening a lawsuit if they went ahead.[95] There was some consumer backlash as a result, but the events were not held.[96]


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