The P-270 Moskit (Russian: П-270 «Москит»; English: Mosquito) is a Soviet supersonic ramjet powered anti-ship cruise missile. Its GRAU designation is 3M80, air launched variant is the Kh-41 and its NATO reporting name is SS-N-22 Sunburn. The missile system was designed by the Raduga Design Bureau during the 1970s as a follow up to the P-120 Malakhit (NATO reporting name "SS-N-9 Siren"). The Moskit was originally designed to be ship-launched, but variants have been adapted to be launched from land (modified trucks), underwater (submarines) and air (reportedly the Sukhoi Su-33, a naval variant of the Sukhoi Su-27), as well as on the Lun-class ekranoplan. The missile can carry conventional and nuclear warheads. The exact classification of the missile is unknown, with varying types reported. This uncertainty is due to the secrecy surrounding an active military weapon. The missile has been purchased and exported to the People's Liberation Army Navy (China) and Indian Navy (India).
Moskit missile at MAKS, Zhukovskiy, 1999. Note that the fins are folded for storage. When deployed, they protrude at 90 degrees from the missile centerline.
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||1984, the first ship with 3M80 missiles was actually ready in 1978, formally adopted in 1981|
|Used by||Soviet Union, Russia, China, Egypt|
|Mass||4,500 kg (9,900 lb)|
|Length||9.745 m (31.97 ft)|
|Diameter||0.8 m (2.6 ft)|
|Warhead||300 KG (660 lb) overall 150 kg (330 lb) explosive or 120 kt of TNT fission-fusion thermonuclear weapon|
|Engine||Four ramjets (solid fuel rocket on air-to-surface version)|
|Wingspan||2.10 m (6.9 ft)|
|120–250 km (75–155 mi)|
|Flight altitude||20 m (66 ft) above sea level|
|Speed||Mach 3 (3,675 km/h; 2,284 mph)|
|inertial guidance plus terminal active radar homing|
|naval ships, fixed-wing aircraft, coastal and road mobile TEL|
It reaches a speed of Mach 3 (3,675 km/h; 2,284 mph) at high altitude and Mach 2.2 at low-altitude. This speed is 4.25 to 3 times more than speed of the subsonic American Harpoon. When slower missiles, like the Harpoon or the French Exocet are used, the maximum theoretical response time for the defending ship is 120 to 150 seconds. This long response time provides time to launch countermeasures and employ jamming before deploying "hard" defense systems such as missiles and close-in weapon systems. But the high speed of the 3M82 "Mosquito" missiles reduce the maximum theoretical response time for the defending ship to 25 to 30 seconds. This short response time makes jamming and countermeasures very difficult, and firing missiles and quick-firing artillery even more difficult. The Moskit was designed to be employed against smaller NATO naval groups in the Baltic Sea (Danish and German) and the Black Sea (Turkish) and non-NATO vessels in the Pacific (Japanese, South Korean, etc.), and to defend the Russian mainland against NATO amphibious assault. The missile can perform intensive anti-defense maneuvers with overloads in excess of 10g, which completed for 9 km before the target.
Variants of the missile have been designated 3M80M, 3M82 (Moskit M). The P-270 designation is believed to be the initial product codename for the class of missile, with the Russian Ministry of Defense GRAU indices (starting with 3M) designating the exact variant of the missile. The 3M80 was its original model. The 3M80M model (also termed 3M80E for export) was a 1984 longer range version of the missile, with the latest version with the longest range being the 3M82 Moskit M. The ASM-MSS / Kh-41 variant is the 1993 air-launched version of the missile.
The 3M80MVE variant has an optional longer 240 km range through a second, high-altitude flight profile setting, however using the higher altitude profile would make the missile detectable at much greater distances.
- Launch range:
- min: 10–12 km (6.2–7.5 mi; 5.4–6.5 nmi)
- Maximum firing range:
- 3M80E – 120 km (75 mi; 65 nmi) (surface ship)
- 3M80MVE – 140 km (87 mi; 76 nmi) (surface ship, low-altitude trajectory); 240 km (150 mi; 130 nmi) (surface ship, combined trajectory)
- Missile flight speed: 2,800 km/h (1,700 mph; Mach 2.3)
- Missile cruising altitude: 10 – 20 m (low-altitude trajectory), under 7 m for the attack at the target.
- Launch sector relative to ship’s lateral plane, ang.deg: ±60
- Launch readiness time:
- From missile power-on till first launch: 50 seconds
- From combat-ready status: 11 seconds
- Inter-missile launch time (in a salvo): 5 seconds
- Launch weight:
- 3M-80E missile 4,150 kg (9,150 lb)
- 3M-80E1 missile 3,970 kg (8,750 lb)
- Warhead type: penetrator
- Warhead weight: 300 kg (explosives 150)
- Length: 9.385 m
- Body diameter: 0.8 m
- Wing span: 2.1 m
- Folded wing/empennage span: 1.3 m
- P-80 Zubr shorter dimensions and range.
- P-270 Moskit ' Sunburn ' longer range and dimensions, maybe faster.
- Kh-41 air launched AGM (air-to-ground missile) or AShM (anti-ship missile).
- 3M-80MVE Coastal Anti-Ship, GLCM (ground launch cruise missile), LACM (land attack cruise missile) variants, SSC-7/12 .
- Russia the main user, under VMF, GLCM in coastal missile defence (raketnjy berezhnjy\govaja okhrana), ALCM in VVS
- Egypt Used on P-32 Molniya class missile boat
- People's Republic of China
- North Korea (unknown)
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- "Moskit / SS-N-22 Sunburn". Retrieved 1 October 2014.
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- "Х-41". Retrieved 8 October 2015.
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