Pío de Tristán
Juan Pío de Tristán y Moscoso (July 11, 1773, Arequipa – August 24, 1860, Lima) was a Peruvian general and politician who served as the second President of South Peru from October 12, 1838 to February 23, 1839. He was nominally the last viceroy of Peru, serving in that capacity from December 1824 to January 23, 1826, but not exercising power.
Pío de Tristán
|President of South Peru|
October 12, 1838 – February 23, 1839
|Viceroy of Peru|
December 9, 1824 – January 23, 1826
|Born||July 11, 1773|
|Died||August 24, 1860 (aged 87)|
|Relatives||Flora Tristan, niece|
|Known for||Last Spanish viceroy of Peru, last president of South Peru|
Born in Peru, Tristán y Moscoso went to Spain, where he fought the French in the War of the Convention (1793–1795). On his return to Peru he was elected alcalde (mayor) of Arequipa (1808). He was a general in the Royalist army in Peru. In June 1811 he fought as part of the victorious Royalist forces in the Battle of Guaqui.
Battle of SaltaEdit
He led a Royalist force into the territory of present-day Argentina after the Battle of Guaqui. He was defeated at Tucumán and again at Salta, by one of his classmates at Salamanca, rebel General Manuel Belgrano. The Battle of Salta took place on February 20, 1813. Belgrano had been sent by the Second Triumvirate (of insurgents in Buenos Aires) to attack the city, at the northern extremity of the old Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata. This he did, completely defeating the troops of Tristán. It was the first military victory achieved under the flag of Argentina.
After his defeat, Tristán signed a 40-day truce and returned to Peru. The defeat of the Royalists at Salta gave the insurgents domination over the northern part of the old viceroyalty and also led to revolts against the Spanish in Charcas, Potosí and, later, Cochabamba, Alto Perú (now Bolivia). At the expiration of the truce, General Belgrano followed Tristán into Alto Perú, entering the territory of Charcas on May 7, 1813. However, Belgrano was defeated at Vilcapugio on November 1, and again at Ayohuma on November 14.
The December 1824 defeat of Viceroy José de la Serna in the Battle of Ayacucho effectively ended Spanish power in Peru. Tristán was the most senior Spanish military officer in the colony, and as such he assumed the office of provisional viceroy, solely for the purpose of transferring power to the nationalists.
After this, he chose to stay in Peru, and was active in Peruvian politics. He exercised the functions of prefect and commander in Arequipa. Then he was Peruvian minister of war and marine. He was Minister of Finance of Peru in 1836. He participated in the creation of the Peruvian-Bolivian Confederation and served as its foreign minister. From October 12, 1838 to February 23, 1839 he was president of the state of South Peru within the Confederation. He died in Lima in 1860.
He is described by his niece, Flora Tristan, in her travel book Pérégrinations d'une paria (Peregrinations of a Pariah, 1838). Flora Tristan was a feminist and socialist writer, and, incidentally, the maternal grandmother of French painter Paul Gauguin.
José de la Serna
| Viceroy of Peru
Ramón Herrera y Rodado
| President of South Peru