Sir Owen Tudor (Welsh: Owain ap Maredudd ap Tudur,[nb 1] c. 1400 – 2 February 1461) was a Welsh courtier and the second husband of Catherine of Valois (1401–1437), widow of King Henry V of England. He was the grandfather of Henry VII, founder of the Tudor dynasty. Owen was a descendant of a prominent family from Penmynydd on the Isle of Anglesey, which traces its lineage back to Ednyfed Fychan (d. 1246), a Welsh official and seneschal to the Kingdom of Gwynedd. Tudor's grandfather, Tudur ap Goronwy, married Margaret, daughter of Thomas ap Llywelyn ab Owain of Cardiganshire, the last male of the princely house of Deheubarth. Margaret's elder sister married Gruffudd Fychan of Glyndyfrdwy, whose son was Owain Glyndŵr. Owen's father, Maredudd ap Tudur, and his uncles were prominent in Owain Glyndŵr's revolt against English rule, the Glyndŵr Rising.
|Sir Owen Tudor|
Owen ap Maredudd ap Tudur
|Died||2 February 1461|
|Buried||Greyfriars Church, Hereford, Herefordshire|
|Spouse||Catherine of Valois|
|Father||Maredudd ap Tudur|
|Mother||Margaret ferch Dafydd|
Historians consider the descendants of Ednyfed Fychan, including Owen Tudor, one of the most powerful families in 13th to 14th-century Wales. The descendants of his many sons would form a wealthy 'ministerial aristocracy', acting as leading servants to the princes of Gwynedd, and play a key role in the attempts to create a single Welsh principality. This privilege endured after the Conquest of Wales by Edward I with the family continuing to exercise power in the name of the king of England, within Wales. However, there remained an awareness of the family's Welsh heritage and the accompanying loyalties led them to take part in the suppressed Glyndŵr Rising.
The fact that little is known about Tudor's early life and that it has instead become largely mythologized is attributed to his family's part in the Glyndŵr Rising. At various times it has been said that he was the bastard son of an alehouse keeper, that his father was a fugitive murderer, that he fought at Agincourt, that he was keeper of Queen Catherine's household or wardrobe, that he was an esquire of Henry V, and that his relationship with Catherine began when he fell into the queen's lap while dancing or caught the queen's eye when swimming. The sixteenth-century Welsh chronicler Elis Gruffydd did note that he was her sewer (someone who places dishes on the table and tastes them ) and servant. However, it is known that after the Glyndŵr Rising several Welshmen secured positions at court, and in May 1421 an ‘Owen Meredith’ joined the retinue of Sir Walter Hungerford, 1st Baron Hungerford, the steward of the king's household from 1415 until 1421.
Catherine of ValoisEdit
Henry V of England died on 31 August 1422, leaving his wife, Queen Catherine of Valois, widowed. The Queen initially lived with her infant son, King Henry VI, before moving to Wallingford Castle early in his reign. In 1427, it is believed that Catherine began an affair with Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset. The evidence of this affair is questionable; however the liaison prompted a parliamentary statute regulating the remarriage of queens of England. The historian G. L. Harriss suggested that it was possible that the affair resulted in the birth of Edmund Tudor. Harriss wrote: "By its very nature the evidence for Edmund ‘Tudor's’ parentage is less than conclusive, but such facts as can be assembled permit the agreeable possibility that Edmund ‘Tudor’ and Margaret Beaufort were first cousins and that the royal house of ‘Tudor’ sprang in fact from Beauforts on both sides." Despite the statute it is accepted that Catherine married Owen at some unknown later date.
An ancient pedigree chart of the English royal family dated c.1500 states Owen Tudor and Queen Katherine had three sons, Edmund, Jasper, and Edward: "Owyn tedder marrydd wt queen Kateryn yt was wyffe un to kyng henry ye vth & had by har Edmunde yerle of rychemond Jaspar & Edward the sayd Edmund maryed wt Margarete yt was dawter & eyer un to John duke of Somersett." The 15th-century Chronicle of London sounds a similar note. It states that "... Oweyn [Tudor] hadde prevyly wedded the quene Katerine, and hadde iij or iiijor children be here."
- Edmund (1430–1 November 1456) was born at either Much Hadham Palace in Hertfordshire or at Hadham in Bedfordshire. Edmund became the 1st Earl of Richmond in 1452 and later married Margaret Beaufort. In 1456 he died of plague in Carmarthen, just three months before the birth of the couple's son at Pembroke Castle. That son, Henry, later became king of England and founded the Tudor dynasty.
- Jasper (1431–26 December 1495) was born at Hatfield. He became the 1st Earl of Pembroke in 1452 but was branded as a traitor in 1461. However he became the 1st Duke of Bedford in 1485. He was the second husband of Catherine Woodville, widow of the Duke of Buckingham and sister of Elizabeth Woodville, wife of Edward IV. They had no issue. Jasper had one illegitimate daughter named Ellen Tudor. Ellen married (1st) William Gardiner, of London, skinner [died testate 1485], by whom she had five children, Thomas [King's chaplain, Prior of Blyth, Nottinghamshire, Prior of Tynemouth, Northumberland), Philippe, Margaret, Beatrice, and Anne. Ellen married (2nd) before 1493 William Sibson (or Sybson), of London, skinner. In the period, 1501–2, Peter Watson, of London, draper, and William Sybson, husband of Ellen, late the wife of William Gardiner, sued the mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs of London in Chancery on behalf of the children of William Gardiner, to recover the portion of William’s son, Thomas Gardiner, who had entered Westminster Abbey.
- Edward Tudor. Very little is known of this child’s life. The Tudor historian Polydore Vergil stated this child, whom he did not name, became "a monke of the order of St. Benet, and lived not longe after". William Camden referred to this child as Edward Tudor, and indicated that he lies buried in the chapel of St Blaise in Westminster Abbey, near the tomb of Abbot Nicholas Litlington. Even so, he is called Owen Tudor in most published sources, the reasons for which are not clear. The modern historian Pearce has shown, however, that no monk named either Edward or Owen Tudor existed at Westminster Abbey in this time period. An alternative theory advanced by Pearce is that Edward Tudor is the same person as Edward Bridgewater, a known monk at Westminster Abbey, who died c.1471. This theory appears to be groundless.
- Polydore Vergil says Owen and Queen Katherine also had a daughter who became a nun, though no other source corroborates this.
Owen Tudor had at least one illegitimate child, by an unknown mistress:
Life after Catherine's deathEdit
Following Queen Catherine's death, Owen Tudor lost the protection from the statute on dowager queens' remarriage and was imprisoned in Newgate Prison. In 1438 he escaped but was later recaptured and held in the custody of the constable of Windsor Castle. In 1439 Henry VI of England granted him a general pardon, restoring his goods and lands. In addition, Henry VI granted him a pension of £40 per annum, provided him with a position in court, and appointed him the Keeper of the King's Parks in Denbigh. In 1442 Henry VI welcomed his two half-brothers, Edmund and Jasper, to court. In November 1452, Owen's sons Edmund and Jasper were created earls of Richmond and Pembroke with the acknowledgement to be the king's half-brothers. In 1459 Tudor's pension was increased to £100 per annum. Owen and Jasper were commissioned to arrest a servant of John Dwnn of Kidwelly, a Yorkist, and later that year, Tudor acquired an interest in the forfeited estates of another Yorkist, John, Lord Clinton. On 5 February 1460 Tudor and Jasper were granted life offices in the duke of York's lordship of Denbigh, a prelude to them later seizing lordship.
Owen Tudor was an early casualty of the Wars of the Roses (1455–1487) between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. He joined his son Jasper's army in Wales in January 1461, a force that was defeated at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross by Edward of York. On 2 February Tudor was captured and beheaded at Hereford. His head was placed on the market cross there, "and a madde woman kembyd hys here and wysche a way the blode of hys face" and set 100 candles about him. However Tudor expected to be imprisoned rather than executed. Moments before his execution he realized that he was to die and murmured "that hede shalle ly on the stocke that wass wonte to ly on Quene Katheryns lappe." His body was buried in a chapel on the north side of the Greyfriars' Church in Hereford. He had no memorial until his illegitimate son, David, paid for a tomb before the friary was dissolved.
Ednyfed Fychan and Gwenllian ferch Rhys were the parents of Goronwy ab Ednyfed, Lord of Tref-gastell (d. 1268). Goronwy was married to Morfydd ferch Meurig, daughter of Meurig of Gwent. Meurig was the son of Ithel, grandson of Rhydd and great-grandson of Iestyn ap Gwrgant, the last king of Morgannwg (reigned 1081–1091) before its conquest by the Normans.
Goronwy and Morfydd were parents of Tudur Hen, Lord of Penmynydd (d. 1311). Tudur Hen married Angharad ferch Ithel Fychan, daughter of Ithel Fychan ap Ithel Gan, Lord of Englefield. They were the parents of Goronwy ap Tudur Hen, Lord of Penmynydd (d. 1331).
Goronwy ap Tudur was married to Gwerfyl ferch Madog, daughter of Madog ap Dafydd, Baron of Hendwr. They were the parents of Tudur ap Goronwy, also known as Tudur Fychan ("Tudur the Little") to distinguish him from his grandfather Tudur Hen ("Tudur the Old"), Lord of Penmynydd (d. 1367).
Tudur Fychan married Margaret ferch Thomas of Is Coeod, of the native and Ancient Royal Houses of Wales. Margaret and her sisters, Ellen and Eleanor, were descended from Angharad ferch Llywelyn, daughter of Llywelyn the Great.
Maredudd ap Tudur and Margaret ferch Dafydd were the parents of Owen Tudor.
There is little doubt that Owen was of gentle birth. Queen Catherine, upon being denied permission by her son's regents to wed Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, allegedly said upon leaving court, "I shall marry a man so basely, yet gently born, that my lord regents may not object." The objection to Somerset was that he was a second cousin of Henry V through the legitimised Beaufort line sired by John of Gaunt.
- Tudur is sometimes given as Tewdwr, an etymologically unrelated name, see House of Tudor#Ascent to the throne for details.
- Griffiths 2004, p. 1
- Glyn Roberts (1959). "EDNYFED FYCHAN ( EDNYFED ap CYNWRIG ) and his descendants". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. The National Library of Wales.
- Carr 2004, p. 1
- Le Morte D'Arthur. pp. Glossary Volume 2.
- Griffiths 1998, p. 11.
- Richmond 2008, p. 1
- Cheetham, Life & Times of Richard III (1992): frontispiece.
- Nicolas & Tyrrell, Chronicle of London from 1089 to 1483 (1823): 123.
- Chrimes 1999, p. 3.
- Ellis, Three Books of Polydore Vergil's English History, Camden Society, 29 (1844): 62 (sub Historie of England)
- Camden, Reges, Reginæ, Nobiles (1603)
- Gunn 2018, p. 124.
- Griffiths 1998, p. 62.
- Chrimes 1999, p. 9-10.
- Loades 2012, p. 2
- Chrimes 1999, p. 12.
- Chrimes 1999, p. 11.
- Gairdner, James (1876). The Historical Collections of a Citizen of London in the Fifteenth Century. Camden society.
- Ross 1974, p. 31
- Gairdner, James (1876). The Historical Collections of a Citizen of London in the Fifteenth Century. Camden society.
- Carr, A. D. (2004). "Tudor family, forebears of (per. c.1215–1404)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/77357.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Chrimes, S.B (1999). Henry VII. Yale University Press.
- Griffiths, R. A. (2004). "Tudor, Owen (c.1400–1461)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/27797.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Griffiths, R.A. (1998). The Reign of King Henry VI. Sutton Publishing.
- Gunn, Steven (2018). The English People at War in the Age of Henry VIII. Oxford University Press.124
- Loades, David (2012). The Tudors – The History of a Dynasty. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1441136909.
- Richmond, Colin (2008). "Beaufort, Edmund, first duke of Somerset (c.1406–1455)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/1855.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Ross, Charles Derek (1974). Edward IV. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520027817.