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President Donald J. Trump addresses the nation on June 14, 2017 about the Congressional Baseball shooting that occurred earlier in the day.

An Oval Office address is a speech made from the White House by the President of the United States, so named because it is traditionally made from the Oval Office.[1] It is considered among the most solemn settings for an address made by the President, and is most often delivered to announce a major new policy initiative, on the occasion of a President's departure from office, or during times of national emergency (natural disaster, war, etc.).[1]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Presidents use Oval Office addresses as a way to directly communicate with the American people. It is considered to be a major address and it functions as a way to move public opinion by having a direct connection with the President of the United States.[2] Presidential historian, Robert Dallek stated, “The Oval Office invokes the center of the presidential authority. That's the president's office, that's where he supposedly makes decisions, where he governs.”[3] The tone of the speech is set when Presidents decide to make a speech in the Oval Office. It lets the American people know who is really in charge when it comes time to make executive decisions regarding the United States of America. The Oval Office is where the President spends a large amount of time and it is where he makes a lot of tough decisions regarding the country. It is also where the President will communicate national news such as terrorist attacks and each President usually gives their Farewell Speech in the Oval Office.

The first Oval Office address was delivered to the nation by President Herbert Hoover, who spoke on peace efforts and arms reduction throughout the world.[4] President Dwight D. Eisenhower used the format in 1957 to inform the United States of his decision to send troops to Little Rock to enforce school desegregation.[5] Being only the second ever televised address directly from the president's office, Eisenhower had to explain as much to the audience, saying, "in speaking from the house of Lincoln, of Jackson, of Wilson, my words would better convey both the sadness I feel today in the actions I feel compelled to make, and the firmness with which I intend to pursue this course."[5]

Some previous addresses include John F. Kennedy's 1962 news of the Cuban Missile Crisis,[6] Jimmy Carter's 1979 "Malaise" speech,[7] Ronald Reagan's speech following the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986,[8] George W. Bush's Address to the Nation on the evening of the 2001 September 11 terrorist attacks[9] and Barack Obama's June 2010 speech addressing the issue of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.[10]

Traditionally, the addresses are delivered with the President sitting at the Resolute desk speaking into the camera. Occasionally, however, the President will stand at a lectern on the opposite side of the Oval Office and give the address. Previously, it was also common for an artificial background to be placed behind the President, ordinarily consisting of plain blue fabric. Since the administration of Jimmy Carter, the preference has instead been for the natural backdrop of the Office's windows.

There have been suggestions that the traditional Oval Office address is falling out of favor in the Information Age, with White House aide Daniel Pfeiffer describing it as "an argument from the 80s" when President Ronald Reagan would draw tens of millions of viewers per address (40 in all, the second-most of any president; Nixon ranks first, having given 43).[11] Television networks are increasingly reluctant to sacrifice airtime for a political purpose.[4] President Obama preferred to use the East Room, as in his announcement of the death of Osama bin Laden;[4][11] Trump prefers to use the Diplomatic reception room.[citation needed]

The tradition of the prime-time Oval Office address has continued into the Trump Presidency, with the address of January 8, 2019 during the government shutdown being the first time that Trump requested airtime.[12]

List of Oval Office addressesEdit

President Date Subject
Donald Trump July 4, 2019 Observance of Independence Day
May 16, 2019 On Immigration Reform
Feb. 15, 2019 Announcing a national emergency over security at the United States-Mexico border
Jan. 25, 2019 Announcing an end to the government shutdown
Jan. 19, 2019 Announcing a new immigration proposal to end the government shutdown
Jan. 8, 2019 On the Government Shutdown and the Proposed United States-Mexico Border wall
Nov. 1, 2018 On Illegal Immigration and the Central American Migrant Crisis
July 9, 2018 Nomination of Brett Kavanaugh to the United States Supreme Court
May 24, 2018 Cancellation of a Summit With North Korean Leader Kim Jong Un
May 8, 2018 Termination of the Iran Nuclear Deal
April 13, 2018 Allied Airstrikes on Damascus and Homs
Feb. 15, 2018 On the Stoneman Douglas High School Shooting
Dec. 18, 2017 On National Security
Dec. 6, 2017 Recognition of Jerusalem as the Israeli capital and moving of US embassy
Oct. 13, 2017 On United States Policy towards Iran
Oct. 2, 2017 On the Mandalay Bay Shooting
August 21, 2017 On the situation in Afghanistan
August 14, 2017 On the Charlottesville Race Riots
June 14, 2017 On the Congressional baseball shooting
June 1, 2017 Withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Climate Agreement
April 6, 2017 US Strike on Shayrat airfield
Jan. 31, 2017 Nomination of Neil Gorsuch to the United States Supreme Court
Barack Obama Jan. 10, 2017 Farewell address
Dec. 6, 2016 On the results of the national security policies of the Obama Administration
March 16, 2016 Nomination of Merrick Garland to the United States Supreme Court
Dec. 12, 2015 On the Paris Climate Agreement
Dec. 6, 2015 On the San Bernardino shooting
July 14, 2015 On the Iran Nuclear Deal
Dec. 17, 2014 Re-establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba
Nov. 20, 2014 On Immigration Reform
Sep. 10, 2014 On the war in Iraq
Sep. 10, 2013 On the war in Syria
June 28, 2012 On the Affordable Care Act
May 1, 2012 On United States Policy towards Afghanistan
July 25, 2011 On the Debt Crisis
June 22, 2011 On Afghanistan
May 1, 2011 On the Killing of Osama Bin Laden
March 28, 2011 On the war in Libya
August 31, 2010 On United States Policy towards Iraq
June 15, 2010 On the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
March 21, 2010 On Healthcare Reform
Dec. 1, 2009 On Afghanistan
George W. Bush Jan. 15, 2009 Farewell Address
Nov. 5, 2008 On Barack Obama's Victory in the Presidential Election
Sept. 24, 2008 On the Stock Market Crash
Sep. 25, 2007 On the War in Iraq
April 16, 2007 On the Virginia Tech Shooting
Jan. 10, 2007 On the secterian voilence in Iraq
Dec. 27, 2006 On the Death of Gerald Ford
Sept. 11, 2006 On the Five Year anniversary of the September 11th attacks
May 15, 2006 On Immigration, Border Security, drug policy, and the drug war in Mexico
Dec. 18, 2005 On the elections in Iraq
Sep. 15, 2005 On Hurricane Katrina disaster and relief efforts
July 19, 2005 Nomination of John Roberts to the United States Supreme Court
June 28, 2005 On the War On Terror
Jan. 30, 2005 Announcing preparations for elections in Iraq
June 5, 2004 On the death of Ronald Reagan
Dec. 14, 2003 On the capture of Saddam Hussein
Sept. 7, 2003 On the War on Terror
May 1, 2003 Cessation of Hostilities against Iraq
April 10, 2003 Message to the people of Iraq
March 19, 2003 Start of war against Iraq
March 17, 2003 Ultimatum to the government of Iraq
Feb. 1, 2003 On the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster
Oct. 7, 2002 On the Iraqi Threat
Sept. 11, 2002 On the One Year Anniversary of the September 11th Attacks
June 6, 2002 Announcing the Creation of the Department of Homeland Security
Nov. 8, 2001 On National Security
Oct. 7, 2001 Beginning of military operations in Afghanistan
Sept. 11, 2001 On the terrorist attacks in New York, Pennsylvania, and Washington D.C
August 9, 2001 On Stem Cell Research
Bill Clinton Jan. 18, 2001 Farewell address
June 10, 1999 On the peace agreement in Kosovo
March 24, 1999 On the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia
Dec. 19, 1998 End of Bombing Campaign against Iraq
Dec. 16, 1998 Start of a US and British Bombing Campaign against Iraq
Aug. 20, 1998 U.S Cruise missile strikes on Afghanistan and Sudan
Aug. 17, 1998 On the Monica Lewinsky affair
Nov. 27, 1995 On the Dayton Agreement
June 13, 1995 On the Federal Budget
Dec. 15, 1994 Announcing a Middle Class Bill of Rights initiative
Oct. 10, 1994 On Iraq
Sept. 18, 1994 On the peaceful capitulation of the Hatian government
Sept. 15, 1994 Ultimatum to the government of Haiti
April 22, 1994 On the death of Richard Nixon
Oct. 7, 1993 On the battle of Mogadishu
August 3, 1993 On the Balanced Budget Plan
June 26, 1993 US Strike on Iraq
Feb. 15, 1993 On the National economic program
George H. W. Bush Jan. 5, 1993 Farewell address
Dec. 4, 1992 On the crisis in Somalia
Sept. 1, 1992 On Hurricane Andrew disaster relief
June 10, 1992 On the Balanced Budget Amendment
May 1, 1992 On the riots in Los Angeles
Dec. 25, 1991 On the Collapse of the Soviet Union
Dec. 23, 1991 Observance of Christmas
Nov. 27, 1991 Observance of Thanksgiving
Nov. 9, 1991 Observance of Veterans Day
Sept. 27, 1991 On Reducing US and Soviet nuclear weapons
Sept. 13, 1991 Nomination of Robert Gates as CIA Director
Sept. 6, 1991 Nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court
April 18, 1991 On Education
Feb. 27, 1991 End of war in the Persian Gulf
Feb. 26, 1991 On Saddam Hussein’s announcing a withdrawal from Kuwait
Feb. 23, 1991 Start of ground operations in the Persian Gulf War
Jan. 16, 1991 Start of war in the Persian Gulf
Oct. 2, 1990 On the Federal Budget Agreement
Sept. 12, 1990 Message to the people of Iraq
August 8, 1990 On the crisis in the Persian Gulf
Jan. 3, 1990 On the surrender of Manuel Noriega
Dec. 20, 1989 On the United States invasion of Panama
Nov. 22, 1989 Observance of Thanksgiving
Sept. 5, 1989 On drugs
Ronald Reagan Jan. 11, 1989 Farewell address
Feb. 2, 1988 On aid to the Nicaraguan Democratic Resistance
Dec. 10, 1987 On the Soviet-United States Summit Meeting
Oct. 14, 1987 Nomination of Robert Bork to the United States Supreme Court
August 12, 1987 On the Iran Contra Affair and the Administration Goals
June 15, 1987 On the Venice Economic Summit, Arms Control, and the Deficit
March 4, 1987 On the Iran-Contra Affair
Dec. 2, 1986 On the Investigation into the Iran-Contra Affair
Nov. 13, 1986 On the Iran-Contra Affair
Nov. 2, 1986 On the Congressional and Gubernatorial Midterm Elections
Oct. 2, 1986 On meetings with Gorbachev in Iceland
Sept. 14, 1986 Start of a campaign against Drug Abuse
July 4, 1986 Observance of Independence Day
June 24, 1986 Aid to the Contras
April 14, 1986 United States airstrike against Libya
March 16, 1986 On the Situation in Nicaragua
Feb. 26, 1986 On National Security
Jan. 28, 1986 On the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster
Nov. 28, 1985 Observance of Thanksgiving
Nov. 14, 1985 On the upcoming Soviet-United States meeting in Geneva
May 25, 1985 On tax reform
April 24, 1985 On Federal Budget and Deficit Reduction
Nov. 5, 1984 On the eve of the Presidential Election
July 4, 1984 Observance of Independence Day
May 9, 1984 On United States Policy in Central America
Jan. 29, 1984 Decision to seek re-election
Jan. 16, 1984 On United States-Soviet Union relations
Oct. 27, 1983 On recent events in Lebanon and Grenada
Sept. 5, 1983 On the Soviet attack on a Korean Civilian Airliner
March 25, 1983 On Defense and National Security
Nov. 22, 1982 On Strategic Arms Reduction and Nuclear Deterrence
Oct. 13, 1982 On the economy
Sept. 20, 1982 Announcing the formation of a Multinational Force in Lebanon
Sept. 1, 1982 On United States Policy for Peace in the Middle East
August 16, 1982 On Federal Tax and Budget Reconciliation Legislation
April 29, 1982 On the 1983 Fiscal Budget
Dec. 23, 1981 Observance of Christmas and the Situation in Poland
Sept. 24, 1981 On the Program for Economic Recovery
July 27, 1981 On Federal Tax Reduction Legislation
Feb. 5, 1981 On the economy
Jimmy Carter Jan. 14, 1981 Farewell Address
Apr. 25, 1980 On the failed rescue attempt of American hostages in Iran
Jan. 4, 1980 On the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
Oct. 1, 1979 On the Strategic Arms Limitation Agreement
Jul. 15, 1979 On Consumerism and the Crisis of Confidence
April 5, 1979 On Energy
Dec. 15, 1978 Establishment of Diplomatic Relations with the People's Republic of China
Oct. 24, 1978 On Inflation
Feb. 1, 1978 On the Panama Canal Treaties
Nov. 8, 1977 Announcing a National Energy Policy
April 18, 1977 On Energy
Feb. 2, 1977 On The Goals of the Administration
Gerald Ford Oct. 6, 1975 On Federal Tax and Spending Regulations
May 27, 1975 On Energy, Inflation, and the Economy.
May 15, 1975 On the Recovery of the SS Mayaguez
March 29, 1975 On Signing the Tax Reduction Act of 1975
Jan. 13, 1975 On Energy
Sep. 16, 1974 Pardoning of Vietnam War draft evaders
Sep. 8, 1974 Pardoning of Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon August 8, 1974 Announcing the resignation of the Presidency
July 25, 1974 On Inflation and the Economy.
July 3, 1974 On Returning From the Soviet Union.
July 2, 1974 Message to the People of the Soviet Union
April 29, 1974 Announcing Answer to the House Judiciary Committee Subpoena (Watergate)
Nov. 25, 1973 Announcing a National Energy Policy
Nov. 7, 1973 Announcing Policies To Deal With the Energy Shortages
Oct. 12, 1973 Nomination of Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States
August 15, 1973 On the Watergate Investigations
June 13, 1973 Announcing Price Control Measures
April 30, 1973 On the Watergate Investigations
March 29, 1973 On Vietnam and Domestic Problems
Jan. 23, 1973 Announcing the conclusion of a Peace Agreement in Vietnam
Nov. 7, 1972 Victory Speech
Nov. 6, 1972 On the eve of the Presidential Election
Nov. 2, 1972 "Look to the Future"
July 4, 1972 Announcing Plans for America's Bicentennial Celebration
May 28, 1972 Message to the People of the Soviet Union
May 8, 1972 On the Situation in Southeast Asia
April 26, 1972 On Vietnam
March 16, 1972 On Equal Educational Opportunities and School Busing
Feb. 8, 1972 On the environment
Jan. 25, 1972 Announcing a Plan for Peace in Vietnam
Oct. 21, 1971 Nomination of Powell and Rehnquist to the United States Supreme Court
Oct. 7, 1971 On the Post-Freeze Economic Stabilization Program
Sep. 6, 1971 Observance of Labor Day
August 15, 1971 Announcing a New Economic Policy: "The Challenge of Peace"
July 15, 1971 Announcing Acceptance of an Invitation To Visit China
May 20, 1971 Annaouncing a Strategic Arms Limitation Agreement with the Soviet Union
April 7, 1971 On the Situation in Southeast Asia (Vietnam)
Feb. 25, 1971 On the Second Annual Foreign Policy Report to Congress
Feb. 18, 1971 On Healthcare
Oct. 7, 1970 Announcing a New Initiative for Peace in Southeast Asia (Vietnam)
June 17. 1970 On Economic Policy and Productivity
June 3, 1970 On the Cambodian Sanctuary Operation
April 30, 1970 On the Situation in Southeast Asia (Cambodian Incursion)
April 20, 1970 On Progress Toward Peace in Vietnam
March 23, 1970 On the Postal Strike
Dec. 15, 1969 On Progress Toward Peace in Vietnam
Nov. 3, 1969 On the War in Vietnam
Oct. 17, 1969 On the Rising Cost of Living
August 8. 1969 On Domestic Programs
May 14, 1969 On Vietnam
Lyndon B. Johnson Oct. 31, 1968 Announcing His Decision To Halt the Bombing of North Vietnam
June 5, 1968 On the Assassination of Robert Francis Kennedy
April 5, 1968 On the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr
March 31, 1968 On the war in Vietnam and the 1968 election
Jan. 26, 1968 On the Capture of the USS Pueblo by North Korean forces
July 27, 1967 On civil disorder in the United States
July 24, 1967 On the Riots in Detroit
July 12, 1966 On United States Foreign Policy in Asia
Jan. 31, 1966 On the Resumption of Bombing of North Vietnam
August 6, 1965 On the Signing of the Voting Rights Act
July 28, 1965 On Vietnam and the United States Supreme Court
May 2, 1965 On the situation in the Dominican Republic
April 28, 1965 On the Decision to send troops to the Dominican Republic
March 26, 1965 On the arrests of those involved in the murder of Violo Liuzzo
Nov. 2, 1964 On the eve of the Presidential election
Oct. 18, 1964 On recent events in China and the USSR
Oct. 7, 1964 On the Upcoming Presidential Election
August 4, 1964 On the Gulf of Tonkin Incident
July 2, 1964 On the Signing of the Civil Rights Bill
April 22, 1964 On the Railroad Strike
Nov. 28, 1963 Observance of Thanksgiving
Nov. 23, 1963 On the assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy
John F. Kennedy Sept. 18, 1963 On the Test Ban Treaty and the Tax Reduction Bill
July 26, 1963 On the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
June 11, 1963 On civil rights
Nov. 1, 1962 Encouraging the American People to Vote in the Midterm Elections
Oct. 22, 1962 On the Cuban Missile Crisis
Sept. 30, 1962 On the Situation at the University of Mississippi
August 22, 1962 On the economy
March 3, 1962 On Nuclear Testing and Deterrent
July 25, 1961 On the Berlin Crisis
June 6, 1961 On Returning from Europe
Dwight Eisenhower Jan. 17, 1961 Farewell address
June 27, 1960 On the trip to the Far East
May 25, 1960 On recent events in Paris
March 8, 1960 On the trip to South America
Feb. 21, 1960 On leaving for a trip to South America
Dec. 3, 1959 On leaving for a trip to Europe, Asia, and South America
Sept. 10, 1959 On leaving for a trip to Europe
August 6, 1959 On the Need for an effective labor bill
March 16, 1959 On security in the free world
Sept. 11, 1958 On the Formosan Straits Crisis
July 15, 1958 On the United States mission in Beirut
Dec. 23, 1957 On the NATO conference in Paris
Nov. 13, 1957 On National Security
Nov. 7, 1957 On science and national security
Sep. 24, 1957 On the Little Rock School Integration Crisis
May 21, 1957 On Mutual Security
May 14, 1957 On the Federal Budget
Feb. 20, 1957 On the Situation in the Middle East and the Eisenhower Doctrine
Oct. 31, 1956 On the Suez Crisis
Sept. 19, 1956 Start of the President's Re-election campaign
April 16, 1956 On the Farm Bill Veto
Feb. 29, 1956 Decision to seek re-election
July 25, 1955 On the Geneva Convention
July 15, 1955 On the Upcoming Convention in Geneva
August 23, 1954 On the Achievements of the 83rd Congress
April 5, 1954 On the State of the Union
March 15, 1954 On the tax Program
Jan. 4, 1954 On the Administrations Purposes and Accomplishments
August 6, 1953 On the Achievements of the 83rd Congress
July 27, 1953 On the armistice on the Korean peninsula
April 16, 1953 On National Security
Harry S. Truman Jan. 15, 1953 Farewell Address
April 8, 1952 On the steel mills crisis
March 6, 1952 On Mutual Security
Nov. 7, 1951 On International Arms Reduction
June 14, 1951 On Inflation
April 11, 1951 On the war in Korea and the removal of General Douglas MacArthur
Dec. 24, 1950 Observance of Christmas
Dec. 19, 1950 On the War in Korea and National Emergency
Sept. 9, 1950 On the Signing of the Defense Production Act
Sept. 1, 1950 On the Progress of the War
July 19, 1950 On the war in Korea
Sept. 27, 1949 Observanice of Democraitc Womens Day
July 13, 1949 On the economy
April 4, 1949 On the Signing of the North Atlanitc Treaty
Oct. 24, 1947 On Inflation, Aid to Greece and Turkey, and the Truman Doctrine
Oct. 5, 1947 Food conservation to aid post-war Europe
June 20, 1947 On the veto of the Taft-Harley Bill
Oct. 14, 1946 Ending of price controls
June 29, 1946 On price controls
May 24, 1946 On the railroad strike
Jan. 3, 1946 Status of Reconversion Program
Oct. 30, 1945 Reconversion of wartime economy to peacetime economy
Sept. 2, 1945 Cessation of hostilities with Japan
August 15, 1945 End of the war in the Pacific
August 10, 1945 On the Potsdam Conference
August 6, 1945 On the dropping of an atomic bomb on Hiroshima
June 7, 1945 Ultimatum to Japan
May 7, 1945 End of the War in Europe
April 17, 1945 On the death of Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt Jan. 6, 1945 On the State of the Union
Dec. 24, 1944 Observance of Christmas
Nov. 2, 1944 Report on the war
Oct. 5, 1944 On the Upcoming Presidential Elections
June 12, 1944 Opening of the Fifth War Loan Drive
June 6, 1944 On the D-Day Landings
June 5, 1944 On the fall of Rome
Jan. 11, 1944 On the state of the Union
Dec. 24, 1943 On the Tehran and Cairo Conferences
Sept. 8, 1943 On the Armistice with Italy and the Third War Loan Drive
July 28, 1943 On the Fall of Mussolini
May 2, 1943 On the coal crisis
Oct. 12, 1942 Report on the war
Sept. 7, 1942 On Inflation and Progress of the War
June 12, 1942 On Rubber
April 28, 1942 On national economic policy and sacrifice
Feb. 23, 1942 On the Progress of the War
Dec. 9, 1941 On the Declaration of War With Japan
Sept. 11, 1941 On Maintaining Freedom of the Seas and the Greer Incident
Sept. 1, 1941 Observance of Labor Day
May 27, 1941 Announcing Unlimited National Emergency
Dec. 29, 1940 On the "Arsenal of Democracy"
May 26, 1940 On National Defense
Sept. 3, 1939 On the European War
June 24, 1938 On the Party Primaries
April 14, 1938 On the Recession
Nov. 14, 1937 On the Unemployment Census
Oct. 12, 1937 On new legislation to be recommended to Congress
March 9, 1937 On the Reorganization of the Judiciary
Sept. 6, 1936 On Drought Conditions, Farmers, and Laborers
April 28, 1935 On the Works Relief Program and the Social Security Act
Sept. 30, 1934 On Government and Capitalism
June 28, 1934 On the Achievements of the 73rd United States Congress and Critics of the New Deal
Oct. 22, 1933 On Economic Progress
July 24, 1933 On the National Recovery Administration
May 7, 1933 On the New Deal Program
March 12, 1933 On the Banking Crisis
Herbert Hoover Nov. 7, 1932 Concession to Franklin Delano Roosevelt in the 1932 election
Oct. 16, 1932 On the Campaign for Community Funds Relief
March 6, 1932 On the Hoarding of Currency
Oct. 18, 1931 On Unemployment Relief
Sept. 18, 1929 On Peace Efforts and Arms Reduction

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Williams, Bronwyn; Zenger, Amy (2007). Popular Culture and Representations of Literacy. Routledge. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-415-36095-1. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  2. ^ Rottinghaus, Brandon (2009). "Strategic Leaders: Determining Successful Presidential Opinion Leadership Tactics Through Public Appeals". Political Communication. 26 (3): 296–316. doi:10.1080/10584600903053510.
  3. ^ Producer, By Xuan Thai, CNN White House. "Oval Office setting is message behind the message - CNN.com". Retrieved 2018-10-24.
  4. ^ a b c "Live From the Oval Office: A Backdrop of History Fades From TV". New York Times. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  5. ^ a b Greeley, Brenden. "Why Obama Doesn't Give Speeches From the Oval Office". Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  6. ^ Lu 2004, p. 147
  7. ^ Lu 2004, p. 271
  8. ^ Lu 2004, p. 28
  9. ^ Michael E. Eidenmuller. "The Rhetoric of 9/11: President George W. Bush – Address to the Nation on 9-11-01". Americanrhetoric.com. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  10. ^ Connolly, Katie (2010-06-15). "As it happened: Obama oil spill address". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  11. ^ a b "Remarks by the President on Osama Bin Laden". whitehouse.gov. 2011-05-02. Retrieved 2018-10-24.
  12. ^ Tackett, Michael; Fandos, Nicholas (January 7, 2019). "Trump Will Take Case for Border Wall to Public in National Address". The New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2018. Ted Koppel, the veteran ABC anchor, said in an interview that given that Mr. Trump had not previously requested time for an Oval Office speech, the networks ought to give him 'the benefit of the doubt.'

BibliographyEdit