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Ottoman dynasty

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The Ottoman dynasty was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (Ottoman Turkish: خاندان آل عثمان‎, Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān; Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı). According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe[nb 1] branch of the Oghuz Turks,[2] under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia in the district of Bilecik Söğüt. The Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire from c. 1299 to 1922.

House of Osman
Osmanli-nisani.svg
Country  Ottoman Empire
Titles
Founded c. 1299
Founder Osman I
Final ruler
Current head Dündar Ali Osman
Deposition
Ethnicity Turkish

During much of the Empire's history, the sultan was the absolute regent, head of state, and head of government, though much of the power often shifted to other officials such as the Grand Vizier. During the First (1876–78) and Second Constitutional Eras (1908–20) of the late Empire, a shift to constitutional monarchy was enacted, with the Grand Vizier taking on a prime ministerial role as head of government and heading an elected General Assembly.

The imperial family was deposed from power and the sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922 after the Turkish War of Independence. The Republic of Turkey was declared the following year. The living members of the dynasty were initially sent into exile as persona non gratae, though some have been allowed to return and live as private citizens in Turkey. In its current form, the family is known as the Osmanoğlu family.

Ottoman Ceremonial Barbering Cape (detail), early 18th century, Turkey. Each day, the Sultan wore a different elaborately embroidered cape for his daily barbering.[citation needed] Public displays of extraordinary splendor were considered essential to the maintenance of Ottoman imperial authority.[citation needed] LACMA textile collection.

Contents

OriginEdit

HistoryEdit

Early historyEdit

ExpansionEdit

End of a dynastyEdit

Chronology of SultansEdit

Portrait Sultan Lifespan Reign start Reign end Tughra Notes
Rise of the Ottoman Empire
(1299 – 1453)
1   Osman I
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
b. Unknown
d. c. 1323/4
c. 1299 1323/4
[c]
2   Orhan
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
b. c. 1281
d. March 1362
Aged 81
c. 1323/4 March 1362  
3   Murad I
SULTAN-İ AZAM (The Most Exalted Sultan)
HÜDAVENDİGÂR
(The devotee of God)
ŞEHÎD (Martyr) [6][b]
b. 29 August 1362
d. 14 June 1389
Aged 26
1362 15 June 1389  
4   Bayezid I
SULTAN-İ RÛM (Sultan of the Roman Empire)
YILDIRIM (The Thunderbolt)
b. c. 1354
d. 8 March 1403
Aged 48/9
15 June 1389 20 July 1402  
Ottoman Interregnum
(20 July 1402 – 5 July 1413)
5   Mehmed I
ÇELEBİ (The Affable)
KİRİŞÇİ (lit. The Bowstring Maker for his support)
b. c. 1381
d. 26 May 1421
Aged 40
5 July 1413 26 May 1421  
6   Murad II
KOCA (The Great)
b. June 1404
d. 3 February 1451
Aged 46
25 June 1421 1444  
7   Mehmed II
FĀTİḤ (The Conqueror)
فاتح
b. 30 March 1432
d. 3 May 1481
Aged 49
1444 1446  
  • Son of Murad II and Hüma Hatun.[4]
  • Surrendered the throne to his father after having asked him to return to power, along with rising threats from Janissaries.[10]
  Murad II
KOCA (The Great)
b. June 1404
d. 3 February 1451
Aged 46
1446 3 February 1451  
  • Second reign;
  • Forced to return to the throne following a Janissary insurgence;[11]
  • Reigned until his death.
Growth of the Ottoman Empire
(1453 – 1550)
  Mehmed II
KAYSER-İ RÛM (Caesar of the Roman Empire)
FĀTİḤ (The Conqueror)
فاتح
b. 30 March 1432
d. 3 May 1481
Aged 49
3 February 1451 3 May 1481  
8   Bayezid II
VELÎ (The Saint)
b. 3 December 1447
d. 26 May 1512
Aged 64
19 May 1481 25 April 1512  
9   Selim I
YAVUZ (The Strong)
Hadim'ul Haramain'ish-Sharifain
(Servant of Mecca and Medina)
b. c. 1470/1
d. 21/22 September 1520
Aged 49
25 April 1512 21 September 1520  
10   Suleiman I
MUHTEŞEM (The Magnificent)

or KANÛNÎ (The Lawgiver)
قانونى

b. 6 November 1494
d. 6 September 1566
Aged 71
30 September 1520 6 or 7 September 1566  
Transformation of the Ottoman Empire
(1550 – 1700)
11   Selim II
SARI (The Blond)
b. 28 May 1524
d. 12/15 December 1574
Aged 50
29 September 1566 21 December 1574  
12   Murad III b. 4 July 1546
d. 15/16 January 1595
Aged 48
22 December 1574 16 January 1595  
13   Mehmed III
ADLÎ (The Just)
b. 26 May 1566
d. 21/22 December
Aged 37
27 January 1595 20 or 21 December 1603  
14   Ahmed I
BAḪTī (The Fortunate)
b. 18 April 1590
d. 22 November 1617
Aged 27
21 December 1603 22 November 1617  
15   Mustafa I
DELİ (The Deranged)
b. 24 June 1591
d. 20 January 1639
Aged 47
22 November 1617 26 February 1618  
16   Osman II
GENÇ (The Young)
ŞEHÎD (The Martyr)

شهيد
b. 3 November 1604
d. 20 May 1622
Aged 17
26 February 1618 19 May 1622  
  Mustafa I
DELİ (The Deranged)
b. 24 June 1591
d. 20 January 1639
Aged 47
20 May 1622 10 September 1623  
  • Second reign;
  • Returned to the throne after the assassination of his nephew Osman II;
  • Deposed due to his poor mental health and confined until his death in Istanbul on 20 January 1639.[20]
17   Murad IV
SAHİB-Î KIRAN
The Conqueror of Baghdad
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)

غازى
b. 26 July 1612
d. 8 February 1640
Aged 27
10 September 1623 8 or 9 February 1640  
18   Ibrahim
DELİ (The Deranged)
The Conqueror of Crete
ŞEHÎD
b. 5 November 1615
d. 18 August 1648
Aged 32
9 February 1640 8 August 1648  
19   Mehmed IV
AVCI (The Hunter)
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
غازى
b. 2 January 1642
d. 6 January 1693
Aged 51
8 August 1648 8 November 1687  
20   Suleiman II
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
b.15 April 1642
d. 22/23 June 1691
Aged 49
8 November 1687 22 June 1691  
21   Ahmed II
ḪĀN ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior Prince)
b. 25 February 1643
d. 6 February 1695
Aged 51
22 June 1691 6 February 1695  
22   Mustafa II
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
b. 6 February
d. 29/30 December 1703
Aged 39
6 February 1695 22 August 1703  
Stagnation and reform of the Ottoman Empire
(1700 – 1827)
23   Ahmed III
Tulip Era Sultan
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
b. 6 February 1664
d. 29/30 December 1703
Aged 39
22 August 1703 1 or 2 October 1730  
24   Mahmud I
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
KAMBUR (The Hunchback)
b. 2 August 1696
d. 13 December 1754
Aged 58
2 October 1730 13 December 1754  
25   Osman III
SOFU (The Devout)
b. 2/3 January 1699
d. 30 October 1757
Aged 58
13 December 1754 29 or 30 October 1757  
26   Mustafa III
YENİLİKÇİ (The First Innovative)
b. 28 January 1717
d. 21 January 1774
Aged 56
30 October 1757 21 January 1774  
27   Abdülhamid I
Abd ūl-Hāmīd (The Servant of God)
ISLAHATÇI (The Improver)
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
b. 20 March 1725
d. 7 April 1789
Aged 64
21 January 1774 6 or 7 April 1789  
28   Selim III
BESTEKÂR (The Composer)
NİZÂMÎ (Regulative - Orderly)
ŞEHÎD (The Martyr)
b. 24 December 1761
d. 28 July 1808
Aged 45
7 April 1789 29 May 1807  
29   Mustafa IV b. 8 September 1779
d. 16 November 1808
Aged29
29 May 1807 28 July 1808  
Modernization of the Ottoman Empire
(1827 – 1908)
30   Mahmud II
İNKILÂPÇI (The Reformer)
ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
b. 20 July 1784
d. 1 July 1839
Aged 54
28 July 1808 1 July 1839  
31   Abdülmecid I
TANZİMÂTÇI
(The Strong Reformist or
The Advocate of Reorganization)

ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)
b. 25 April 1823
d. 25 June 1861
Aged 38
1 July 1839 25 June 1861  
32   Abdülaziz I
BAḪTSIZ (The Unfortunate)
ŞEHĪD (The Martyr)
b. 9 February 1830
d. 4 June 1876
Aged 46
25 June 1861 30 May 1876  
  • Son of Mahmud II and Pertevniyal;
  • Deposed by his ministers;
  • Found dead (suicide or murder) five days later.[37]
33   Mehmed Murad V b. 21 September 1840
d. 29 August 1904
Aged 63
30 May 1876 31 August 1876  
  • Son of Abdülmecid I and Shevkefza;
  • Deposed due to his efforts to implement democratic reforms in the empire;
  • Ordered to reside in Çırağan Palace where he died on 29 August 1904.[38]
34   Abdülhamid II
Ulû Sultân Abd ūl-Hāmīd Khan

(The Sublime Khan)

b. 21 September 1842
d. 10 February 1918
Aged 75
31 August 1876 27 April 1909  
Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire[e]
(19081922)
35   Mehmed V
REŞÂD (Rashād)

(The True Path Follower)|

b.2 November 1844
d. 3 July 1918
Aged 73
27 April 1909 3 July 1918  
36   Mehmed VI
VAHDETTİN (Wāhīd ād-Dīn)

(The Unifier of Religion (Islam) or The Oneness of Islam)

b. 14 January 1861
d. 16 May 1926
Aged 65
4 July 1918 1 November 1922  
Republican Caliphate
(1 November 1922 – 3 March 1924)
  Abdülmecid II b. 30 May 1868
d. 23 August 1944
Aged 76
18 November 1922 3 March 1924
[c]

Interregnum period (1402–1413)Edit

Portrait Sultan Lifespan Reigned from Reigned until Tughra Notes
Ottoman Interregnum[d]
(20 July 14025 July 1413)
İsa Çelebi
The Co-Sultan of Anatolia
b. 1380
d. 1406
Aged 26
1403–1405
(Sultan of the Western Anatolian Territory)
1406
  Emir (Amir)
Süleyman Çelebi

The First Sultan of Rumelia

d. 17 February 1411
Aged 34
20 July 1402 17 February 1411[45]
  Musa Çelebi
The Second Sultan of Rumelia
b. Unknown
5 July 1413
18 February 1411 5 July 1413[47]
  Mehmed Çelebi
The Sultan of Anatolia
b. 1381
d. 26 May 1421
Aged 40
1403–1406
(Sultan of the Eastern Anatolian Territory)

1406–1413
(The Sultan of Anatolia)
5 July 1413


TitlesEdit

Before Orhan's proclamation of the dynasty, the tribe was known as the Bilecik Söğüt Beylik or Beys but was renamed Osmanlı in honor of Osman.[citation needed]

The Ottoman dynasty is known in modern Turkish as Osmanlı Hanedanı, meaning "House of Osman"; in Ottoman Turkish it was known as Hanedan-ı Âl-i Osman, meaning "Dynasty of the Family Osman".

The first rulers of the dynasty did not take the title of Sultan, but rather Bey, a title roughly the Turkic equivalent of Lord, which would itself become a gubernatorial title and even a common military or honorific rank. Thus they still formally acknowledged the sovereignty of the Seljuk Empire and its successor, the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.

The first Ottoman ruler to actually claim the title of Sultan was Murad I, who ruled from 1362 to 1389. The holder of the title Sultan (سلطان in Arabic) was in Arabic-Islamic dynasties originally the power behind the throne of the Caliph in Bagdad and it was later used for various independent Muslim Monarchs. This title was senior to and more prestigious than that of Amir; it was not comparable to the title of Malik 'King', a secular title not yet common among Muslim rulers, or the Persian title of Shah, which was used mostly among Persian or Iranian related rulers.

The Ottoman sultans also claimed the title of Caliph starting with Murad I,[50] who transformed the Ottoman state into a transcontinental empire.

With the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Sultan Mehmed II Fatih (1451 - 1481) claimed the title Kaysar-i-Rûm "Emperor of Rome" and proclaimed himself the protector of the Orthodox Church. He appointed the Patriarch of Constantinople Gennadius Scholarius, whom he protected and whose status he elevated into leader of all the Eastern Orthodox Christians. As Emperor of Rome he laid claim to all Roman territories, which at the time before the Fall of Constantinople, however, extended to little more than the city itself plus some areas in Morea (Peloponnese).

Sultan Mehmed II also took the title of Padishah (in Turkish 'Padişah') (پادشاه), a Persian title meaning "Master of Kings" and ranking as "Emperor", claiming superiority among the other kings. His full style was Sultan Mehmed II Khan, Fatih Ghazi 'Abu'l Fath (Victorious Conqueror, Father of Conquest), Padishah, Sovereign of the House of Osman, Emperor of Rome, Grand Sultan of Anatolia and Rumelia, Khan of Khans of the Two Lands and the Two Seas, Emperor of the three Cities of Constantinople, Edirne and Bursa. He was the first Ottoman ruler to adopt the imperial title of Padishah.[citation needed]

The Ottoman claim to caliphate was strengthened when they defeated the Mamluks in 1517 and annexed Egypt during the rule of Selim I. Selim also received the title "Custodian of the Two Noble Sanctuaries", Khadim al-Haramayn ash-Sharifayn in Arabic, from Barakat Effendi Grand Sharif of Mecca when conquering Hijaz and with it the Muslim Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina. Selim I full style was: Sovereign of the House of Osman, Khan of Khans of the Two Lands and the Two Seas, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe, Custodian of the Two Noble Sanctuaries, Emperor of the Three Cities of Constantinople, Adrianople and Bursa, Conqueror of the two Armies (i.e. the European and Persian armies).[citation needed]

In Europe, all Ottoman Emperors were commonly referred to by the title of Sultan, rather than by those of Padishah or Caliph, which had a higher rank than that of Sultan, and were also often informally referred to by such terms unrelated to the Ottoman protocol as the Grand Turk and the Grand Seigneur or Gran Signore.

The sultans further adopted in time many secondary formal titles as well, such as "Sovereign of the House of Osman", "Sultan of Sultans", and "Khan of Khans", these two meaning King of Kings and roughly ranking as "Emperor". These titles were known in Ottoman Turkish respectively as Hünkar-i Khanedan-i Âl-i Osman, Sultan us-Salatin and Khakan (the latter enlarged as Khakan ül-Berreyn vel-Bahreyn by Mehmet II, Bayezid II and Selim I, meaning "Khan of Khans of the Two Lands (Europe and Asia) and the Two Seas (Mediterranean and Indian)".[citation needed]

As the empire grew, sultans adopted secondary titles expressing the empire's claim to be the legitimate successor of the absorbed states. Furthermore, they tended to enumerate even regular provinces, not unlike the long lists of -mainly inherited- feudal titles in the full style of many Christian European monarchs.

Some early Ottoman Sultans even had to accept the vassal status in the eyes of a foreign overlord. For example, Tamerlane appointed in 1402 the Ottoman Sultan Süleyman Çelebi (deposed in 1411), who was styled as-Sultan ul-Azam, Sayyid us-Saladin ul-Arab wal Ajam, Malik ur-Rikaab ul-Umam, Ghiyas ud-Daula wa ud-Dunya, Sultan ul-Islam wal-Muslimin, as-Sultan ibni us-Sultan, Hasib-i-Nasib-I-Zaman, Amir ul-Rumelia (Grand Sultan, Righteous Lord of Arabs, Helper of the State and the People, Sultan of Islam and the Muslims, Sultan son of Sultans, Prince of Rumelia). Again his brother, Mehmed I, who ended the Ottoman Interregnum, also held his post with a fief from Tamerlane; he took the title Sovereign of the House of Osman, Khan of Khans, Grand Sultan of Anatolia and Rumelia, and of the Cities of Adrianople and Philipopolis. However, the vassalage of the Ottoman Sultanate ended with the death of Tamerlane during the reign of the next Ottoman ruler, Sultan Murad II, who took the style Sultan ul-Mujahidin, Sovereign of the House of Osman, Khan of Khans, Grand Sultan of Anatolia and Rumelia, and of the Cities of Adrianople and Philipopolis.[citation needed]

After the fall of the Ottoman dynasty as Emperors of the Ottoman State (Padishah-ı Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmaniyye in Ottoman Turkish), Abdulmecid II (1922) was still proclaimed Caliph with the title Caliph ("Halife", in modern Turkish) by the republican Government of the Grand National Assembly of the city of Ankara on November 19, 1922. However, the Ottoman Caliphate too was abolished soon afterwards, and Abdulmecid II was utterly deposed and expelled from Turkey with the rest of the Ottoman dynasty on 3 March 1924. He officially continued to hold the title of the throne as the Head of the House of Osman ("Osmanlı Hanedanı Reisi", in modern Turkish) until his death.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ A claim which has come under criticism from many historians, who argue either that the Kayı genealogy was fabricated in the fifteenth century, or that there is otherwise insufficient evidence to believe in it.[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-520-20600-7. That they hailed from the Kayı branch of the Oğuz confederacy seems to be a creative "rediscovery" in the genealogical concoction of the fifteenth century. It is missing not only in Ahmedi but also, and more importantly, in the Yahşi Fakih-Aşıkpaşazade narrative, which gives its own version of an elaborate genealogical family tree going back to Noah. If there was a particularly significant claim to Kayı lineage, it is hard to imagine that Yahşi Fakih would not have heard of it 
    • Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-7914-5636-6. Based on these charters, all of which were drawn up between 1324 and 1360 (almost one hundred fifty years prior to the emergence of the Ottoman dynastic myth identifying them as members of the Kayı branch of the Oguz federation of Turkish tribes), we may posit that... 
    • Shaw, Stanford (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. The problem of Ottoman origins has preoccupied students of history, but because of both the absence of contemporary source materials and conflicting accounts written subsequent to the events there seems to be no basis for a definitive statement. 
  2. ^ Shaw, Stanford (1976). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. 
  3. ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. pp. 60, 122. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. p. 153. 
  5. ^ "Sultan Orhan Gazi". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  6. ^ Lambton, Ann; Lewis, Bernard (1995). The Cambridge History of Islam: The Indian sub-continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim west. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 320. ISBN 9780521223102. Retrieved 14 March 2015. 
  7. ^ "Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  8. ^ "Sultan Yıldırım Beyezid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  9. ^ "Sultan Mehmed Çelebi Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  10. ^ a b "Chronology: Sultan II. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  11. ^ Kafadar 1996, p. xix
  12. ^ "Chronology: Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2010-07-15. 
  13. ^ "Sultan II. Bayezid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  14. ^ "Yavuz Sultan Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  15. ^ "Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  16. ^ "Sultan II. Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  17. ^ "Sultan III. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  18. ^ "Sultan III. Mehmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  19. ^ "Sultan I. Ahmed". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  20. ^ a b "Sultan I. Mustafa". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  21. ^ "Sultan II. Osman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  22. ^ "Sultan IV. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  23. ^ "Sultan İbrahim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  24. ^ "Sultan IV. Mehmed". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  25. ^ "Sultan II. Süleyman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  26. ^ "Sultan II. Ahmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  27. ^ "Sultan II. Mustafa Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  28. ^ "Sultan III. Ahmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  29. ^ "Sultan I. Mahmud Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  30. ^ "Sultan III. Osman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  31. ^ "Sultan III. Mustafa Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  32. ^ "Sultan I. Abdülhamit Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  33. ^ "Sultan III. Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  34. ^ "Sultan IV. Mustafa Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  35. ^ "Sultan II. Mahmud Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  36. ^ "Sultan Abdülmecid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  37. ^ "Sultan Abdülaziz Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  38. ^ "Sultan V. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  39. ^ "Sultan II. Abdülhamid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  40. ^ "Sultan V. Mehmed Reşad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  41. ^ "Sultan VI. Mehmed Vahdettin Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  42. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 13
  43. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 17
  44. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 14
  45. ^ Nicholae Jorga: Geschishte des Osmanichen (Trans :Nilüfer Epçeli) Vol 1 Yeditepe yayınları, İstanbul,2009,ISBN 975-6480 17 3 p 314
  46. ^ Nicholae Jorga: Geschishte des Osmanichen (Trans :Nilüfer Epçeli) Vol 1 Yeditepe yayınları, İstanbul, 2009, ISBN 975-6480 17 3 p 314
  47. ^ Joseph von Hammer:Osmanlı Tarihi cilt I (condensation: Abdülkadir Karahan), Milliyet yayınları, İstanbul. p 58-60.
  48. ^ Prof. Yaşar Yüce-Prof. Ali Sevim: Türkiye tarihi Cilt II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, İstanbul, 1991 p 74-75
  49. ^ Joseph von Hammer:Osmanlı Tarihi cilt I (condensation: Abdülkadir Karahan), Milliyet yayınları, İstanbul. p. 58-60.
  50. ^ Lambton, Ann; Lewis, Bernard (1995). The Cambridge History of Islam: The Indian sub-continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim west. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 320. ISBN 9780521223102. 

External linksEdit