Ottoman–Persian War (1821–1823)

The Ottoman–Persian War of 1821–1823[a] was fought between the Ottoman Empire and Qajar Iran from 1821 to 1823.[3]

Ottoman–Persian War of 1821–1823
Part of Ottoman–Persian Wars
A Persian Cavalier smoking (Letters from the Caucasus and Georgia).jpg
Persian cavalry troops at the Caucasus front.
Date10 September 1821– 23 July 1823
Location
Iranian–Turkish Border, Erzurum, Eastern Anatolia
Result

Persian victory[1]

Territorial
changes
status quo ante bellum
Belligerents
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg Qajar Iran Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
War Flag of Fath Ali Shah.svg Abbas Mirza Ottoman Empire Mahmud II

BackgroundEdit

Tensions between the two empires had been rising due to the Ottoman Empire's harboring of rebellious tribesmen from the Iranian Azerbaijan Province.[4] The issues concerning the Kurdish borderland tribes such as the Haydaran and Sipki tribes had complicated the relations between the two empires. For instance, Iran launched a military campaign against Dervish Pasha, the muhafiz of Van, when he refused to return the Sipki Kurdish who took refuge and settled in Ercish.[5]

The Ottoman-Persian War that began in 1821 was also part of a series of wars between the two empires, which was attributed to the influences of foreign powers, particularly Great Britain and the Russian Empire.[6] The Persians and the Ottomans were within their respective spheres of influence and were drawn to their rivalry. The Russian Empire was attempting to put pressure on the Ottoman Empire, which was then at war with the Greeks.[4]

WarEdit

Crown Prince Abbas Mirza of Persia, at the instigation of the Russian Empire, invaded Western Armenia and the areas surrounding the Iranian province of Azerbaijan.[4] On 10 September 1821, the Iranian forces marched out of Tabriz towards the border.[7] On 16 September, Iranian forces crossed the border at Gürbulak and them stormed the Bayezid Fortress in November 1821, securing Persian supply routes. The governor of Baghdad's invasion of Persia is defeated by Mohammed Ali Mirza who then besieges Baghdad, his untimely death ends the siege.[8] Meanwhile, Abbas Mirza marched into eastern Anatolia with 30,000 troops and met an Ottoman army of 50,000 at the Battle of Erzurum. Abbas Mirza scored a crushing defeat over the Ottomans despite being severely outnumbered and his army suffering from a cholera epidemic.[4]

ResultEdit

Peace was not concluded until the Treaty of Erzurum two years later;[9] both sides recognized the previous borders established by the Treaty of Zuhab in 1639,[10] with no territorial changes. Also included in the treaty, was the guaranteed access for Persian pilgrims to holy sites within the Ottoman Empire.[4]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Also known as the Ottoman–Iranian War of 1821–1823, or Turko–Persian War 1821–1823.[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Williamson 2008, p. 88-97.
  2. ^ Williamson 2008, p. 88.
  3. ^ Sicker 2001, p. 118.
  4. ^ a b c d e Tucker 2010, p. 1140.
  5. ^ Ateş 2013, p. 49.
  6. ^ Sorkhabi 2017, p. 43-44.
  7. ^ Keçeci, Serkan (October 2016). The grand strategy of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus against its southern rivals (1821-1833) (phd thesis). The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).
  8. ^ Ward 2009, p. 76.
  9. ^ Williamson 2008, p. 108.
  10. ^ Mikaberidze 2011, p. 301.

SourcesEdit

  • Ateş, Sabri (2013). Ottoman-Iranian Borderlands: Making a Boundary, 1843–1914. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107033658.
  • Williamson, Graham (2008). "The Turko-Persian War of 1821-1823: winning the war but losing the peace". In Farmanfarmaian, Roxane (ed.). War and Peace in Qajar Persia: Implications Past and Present. Routledge. ISBN 9781134103089.
  • Mikaberidze, Alexander (2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598843361.
  • Sicker, Martin (2001). The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Praeger.
  • Sorkhabi, Rasoul (2017). Tectonic Evolution, Collision, and Seismicity of Southwest Asia: In Honor of Manuel Berberian's Forty-Five Years of Research Contributions. Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America. ISBN 9780813725253.
  • Tucker, Spencer C., ed. (2010). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle. III. ABC-CLIO.
  • Ward, Steven R. (2009). Immortal: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces. Georgetown University Press.