Open main menu

Otto Kandler (23 October 1920 in Deggendorf - 29 August 2017 in Munich, Bavaria[1][2]) was a German botanist and microbiologist. Until his retirement in 1986 he was professor of botany at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.[3]

Otto Kandler in 1983, with a molecular model of pseudomurein(pseudopeptidoglycan)

His most important research topics were photosynthesis, plant carbohydrate metabolism, analysis of the structure of bacterial cell walls (murein/peptidoglycan), the systematics of Lactobacillus, and the chemotaxonomy of plants and microorganisms.[1][3] His discovery of the basic differences between the cell walls of bacteria and archaebacteria (now Archaea) convinced him that archaebacteria represent an autonomous group of organisms distinct from bacteria. This was the basis for his cooperation with Carl Woese and made him the founder of research on the Archaea in Germany. Together with Woese he proposed the three-domain concept of life.[4]


Life and educationEdit

Otto Kandler was born on 23 October 1920 in Deggendorf, Bavaria, as the 6th child of the family of a market gardener. Growing up and helping in his father's garden, early on, he became interested in plant life and nature in general. He attended school for 8 years. When he was about twelve years old he had read about Charles Darwin and mentioned it to a catholic priest. The priest punished him with two strikes on his hands with a rod. However he remained interested in the origin and evolution of organisms for the rest of his life.

His parents could not afford to pay the fees for the "Gymnasium" (high school), and he was supposed to become a gardener or learn another trade. However his teachers convinced his parents that their talented son should continue school. So he attended the "Deutsche Aufbauschule" in Straubing, Bavaria, a school for the education of future teachers. His studies were, however, interrupted by the Second World War. In 1939 he and his fellow students had to join the Reichsarbeitsdienst, later he had to serve in the German army as a radio reporter in Russia. At the end of the war his group was transferred to Austria. He escaped by bicycle to the Western Front to avoid capture by the Russians. After spending a few months in an American prison camp he was allowed to return home. Between 1945 and 1946 he reconstructed his father's market garden and earned some money by growing and selling vegetable, especially cabbage, and flowers to finance his life and his future studies.[3]

Kandler was very interested in science, but only in 1946 was he able to enrol at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in botany, zoology, geology, chemistry and physics. He also attended philosophy lectures. Since much of the university of Munich had been bombed, the institute buildings were badly damaged and still in ruins. To be admitted, he and all the other students had to remove rubble and help reconstruct buildings. After three terms he found a research subject for his dissertation in botany. As the first in Germany he started to cultivate isolated plant tissues in vitro. He used these tissue cultures to study for instance metabolism and the influence of auxins under defined in vitro conditions, received his doctor's degree with honors in 1949 and became assistant professor of botany at the University of Munich. After his habilitation in 1953 he remained at the university until 1957. In 1953 he married Gertraud Schäfer, a graduate student of microbiology. They have three daughters and four grandchildren. For his early publications on photophosphorylation[5][6][7] he received a generous research fellowship from the Rockefeller Foundation and, in 1956/1957 he was able to work on basic questions of photosynthesis for one year in the USA.[3]

After his return, Kandler was dissatisfied with the poor laboratory conditions at the university at home, so he was glad to find a position as director of the Bacteriological Institute of the South German Dairy Research Center in Freising-Weihenstephan in 1957, where conditions were much better.[3] In 1960 he was appointed full professor of Applied Botany of the Technical University Munich, where research conditions still at that time were bad. So he kept his position in Weihenstephan in parallel until 1965. In 1968 he was appointed full professor and Head of the Department of Botany at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, taught and conducted research until his retirement in 1986.[8] His broad scientific interests are indicated by the titles of his more than 400 publications.[3][9]

Plant physiologyEdit

Otto Kandler was very interested in plant growth processes, photosynthesis, metabolism, especially of carbohydrates. As the first in Germany he started to grow isolated plant tissue cultures (e.g. of stems, roots, sprouts, embryos) in vitro to study metabolism and the effect of auxins under defined in vitro conditions. As mentioned above, this formed the subject of his dissertation (summa cum laude) in 1949. [10]

In his contribution „Historical perspectives on queries concerning photophosphorylation”[11] Kandler describes the beginnings of photophosphorylation research and how he became interested: In 1948, he was inspired by a lecture on the phosphate metabolism of yeast by Feodor Lynen (1964 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine). In these years, in the aftermath of World War II, the original Chemical Institute of the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich was still in ruins and Feodor Lynen and his assistant Helmut Holzer were working temporarily as guests in the Botanical Institute just next door to the laboratory where Kandler was engaged in his thesis in botany. Kandler was impressed by the experimental methods in Lynen’s laboratory and got acquainted with them; Holzer and Kandler became close friends.[12] At that time, Holzer was able to present the first evidence for ATP formation in yeast oxidizing butanol to butyric acid.[13] Kandler then decided to apply their techniques to measuring phosphorylation rates in vivo to photosynthesis in Chlorella.

So, in 1950, he was the first to present experimental evidence for the light-dependent formation of ATP (photophosphorylation) in vivo in intact Chlorella cells.[5] In 1954, Daniel I. Arnon discovered photophosphorylation in vitro using isolated chloroplasts[14] and mentioned Kandler's pioneering work.[15] Kandler's early publications on light-dependent formation of ATP[5][6][7] led the Rockefeller Foundation to offer him a one-year research fellowship in the USA. So in 1956-1957 he worked for 6 months with Martin Gibbs at the Brookhaven National Laboratory[16] and then for another 6 months with Melvin Calvin at the University of California, Berkeley on central questions of photosynthesis (e.g. the path of carbon in photosynthesis, today called the Calvin-Benson-Bassham Cycle).[17]

The method of radioactive labelling, i.e. the use of radioactive isotopes for tracing the path of e.g. carbon in photosynthesis, was brought to Germany by Kandler.

Together with his coworkers, Kandler demonstrated the occurrence of ADP-glucose, the glucose donor of starch biosynthesis, for the first time in plants. He made an essential contribution to clarify the complicated biosynthesis of branched-chain monosaccharides (hamamelose, apiose). Finally he elucidated the biosynthesis of the sugars of the raffinose family, the most frequent oligosaccharides in plants.[18] As a result of these findings, the function of galactinol, a galactoside of inositol, as a galactosyl donor, was elucidated, and hence the role of inositol as a co-factor of sugar transfer reactions in plants.[1][3][17]


In addition to his interest in plant physiology Otto Kandler focused on bacteria, above all, on the presence or absence of cell walls. In the early 1950s, together with his wife, he investigated the so-called PPLOs, (now mycoplasms), wall-less penicillin-resistant bacteria, and L-form bacteria (bacteria that lost their cell walls). They found that these organisms do not proliferate by binary fission but by a budding process.[19][20] These publications are still cited at present.[21][22][23]

During his time as director of the Bacteriological Institute of the South German Dairy Research Center in Freising-Weihenstephan, Kandler concentrated on dairy microbiology and investigated the physiology, biochemistry and systematics of lactobacilli, on which he wrote a chapter in Bergey's Manual, the ‘bible' of microbiologists.[1][3] In addition he published numerous papers on the isolation, description and taxonomy of other bacteria.[3][9]

Above all, he focused on chemotaxonomy in bacteria and investigated the chemistry and structure of bacterial cell walls. He discovered the variability of peptidoglycan and recognised, that the amino acid sequence of peptidoglycan is a valuable chemotaxonomic marker. Together with his graduate student Karl-Heinz Schleifer he found fundamental differences between the cell wall composition of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.[24] As a result, they suggested comparative cell wall chemistry as a marker for the deep branches in the phylogenetic tree of bacteria.[25]

Investigations of the composition and primary structure of the bacterial wall substance murein (peptidoglycan) lead to an improved classification of Gram-positive bacteria. This cell wall research also included methanogenic bacteria (methanogens). In October 1976 Kandler discovered that two strains of the methanogen Methanosarcina barkeri did not contain peptidoglycan - a typical cell wall component of bacteria.[26] Consequently, he came to the conclusion that methanogens are basically different from bacteria. In his group, also halobacteria were found to lack peptidoglycan, confirming the idea, that also these organisms are not bacteria and belong to a group of organisms soon classified as archaebacteria (later Archaea). In some archaebacteria Kandler and König identified pseudomurein, now also called pseudopeptidoglycan, a novel cell wall component, and elucidated its structure and biosynthesis.[27]

The methanogen Methanopyrus kandleri[28] was named in honor of Kandler by Karl O. Stetter as a present for Kandler's 70th birthday.[29]

Kandler was the founder and editor of Systematic and Applied Microbiology, co-editor of the Archives of Microbiology and Zeitschrift für Pflanzenphysiologie.

Archaea and the three domains of lifeEdit

Otto Kandler's main subject in microbiology was his research on archaebacteria (later Archaea). His discovery (October 1976) that murein (peptidoglycan), a typical cell wall component of bacteria, is missing in two strains of methanogenic bacteria (methanogens)[26] became one of the first three pieces of evidence [30] that methanogens belong to a group of organisms distinct from bacteria. Therefore, Kandler was delighted when he learned from a letter by Ralph F. Wolfe, expert on methanogens, in November 1976, that Wolfe's colleague Carl Woese (University of Illinois, Urbana) had just discovered basic differences between methanogens and bacteria with his novel 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing method. When Kandler received this letter, based on his new findings, he had already planned to investigate the cell walls of other methanogenic bacteria together with Marvin P. Bryant, also an expert on methanogens from the University of Illinois. Accidentally, Bryant was just sitting in Kandler's office when Wolfe's letter arrived.[3] In his letter Wolfe also offered to send cultures for cell wall studies since he knew Kandler was a cell wall expert. Kandler wrote back immediately how impressed he was with Woese's findings and ideas and that he looked forward to investigate Wolfe's methanogens. In his reply Kandler also mentioned that methanogens and halophiles may be "ancient relics" that have branched off from the bulk of the prokaryotes before peptidoglycan had been "invented". He asked Wolfe to send him lyophilized cells of methanogens to analyse their cell walls.[3]

In January 1977, Kandler visited Woese for the first time. He was immediately convinced of Woese's archaebacteria concept, for his cell wall analyses matched perfectly with Woese's 16S rRNA sequencing results. This was the beginning of a close and productive transatlantic complementary relationship and cooperation by the exchange of bacterial cultures, results and ideas. Kandler's group studied the cell wall composition and Woese's group the 16S rRNA gene sequences of bacteria and archaebacteria. In their frequently cited publication, Woese and Fox (November 1977)[30] introduced the term archaebacteria and presented the very first three pieces of evidence for the concept of archaebacteria, which, at that time, comprised only methanogens:

1. lack of peptidoglycan in methanogens (Kandler)

2. two unusual coenzymes in methanogens (Wolfe)

3. results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing in methanogens (Woese).

While Woese's proposal to subdivide organisms into "three lines of descent" (archaebacteria, eubacteria, and urkaryotes[30] – now archaea, bacteria, and eukarya[4]) at that time received little support – and even harsh criticism [31][32] – in the USA, Kandler called Woese "the Darwin of the 20th century"[3] and was convinced that research on archaebacteria had a great future.

With great enthusiasm Kandler founded research on archaebacteria in Germany[33] and organised funding for this novel field. In the spring of 1978, Kandler organised the very first meeting on archaebacteria in Munich. Carl Woese was invited, but was not able to participate.

Carl Woese (left), Ralph Wolfe and Otto Kandler (right), celebrating the archaebacteria on top of Mt. Hochiss in 1981

In the summer of 1979, Kandler invited Woese again to give a lecture at a meeting of the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Mikrobiologie und Hygiene" in Munich. This time Woese participated and came to Munich for the first time. He was welcomed with fanfare, a brass band concert and a dinner party in the great entrance hall of the Botanical Institute of the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich.[34]

The first international conference ever on archaebacteria was also organised by Kandler, again in Munich, in 1981. Both, Carl Woese and Ralph Wolfe took part. The resulting conference volume was the very first book on archaebacteria.[35] At this conference convincing evidence for essential structural, biochemical and molecular differences between bacteria and archaebacteria was presented leading to the gradual acceptance of the concept of the archaebacteria as an autonomous group of organisms. After the conference the archaebacteria were celebrated by Woese, Wolfe and Kandler on an excursion to the close Alps climbing the top of Hochiss (2299 m) in the Rofan mountains (see Photo).

Universal phylogenetic tree in rooted form, showing the three domains (Woese, Kandler & Wheelis, 1990, p. 4578[4])

In 1985, Kandler and Zillig organised a second international conference on archaebacteria, again in Munich.[36]

Meanwhile, the support for the archaebacteria concept - and also for the idea of a phylogenetic division into three groups (archaebacteria, bacteria and eucaryotes) on the basis of 16S rRNA sequencing and additional characteristics - had grown, but had still not yet been generally accepted by the scientific community. In the meantime, also an intensive controversial discussion about the level of classification and terminology took place (e.g. terms like urkingdom, primary kingdom, empire etc. were considered). This scientific discussion is documented in detail in Sapp (2009, especially chapters 19, 20).[34]

Finally, after about 13 years of cooperation, in their publication of 1990,[4] Woese and Kandler proposed a "tree of life" consisting of three lines of descent for which they introduced the term domain as the highest rank of classification, above the kingdom level. They also suggested the terms Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya for the three domains and presented the formal description of the taxon Archaea. Up to date, this publication is one of the most frequently cited papers in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.[24]

Early diversification of life with Kandler's pre-cell theory[37][38][39]

In a second publication,[40] they contrasted their natural system of "global classification", a phylogenetic division on the basis of 16S rRNA sequencing, with the conventional dichotomous division of organisms into two (procaryotes-eucaryotes system) or into five (5-kingdom system) groupings. Today the division of the tree of life into three domains – levels above kingdoms – is textbook knowledge.[24]

In addition, Kandler worked on the early diversification of life.[37][38][39] He assumed that the early evolution of organisms did not start from a common first ancestral cell, but that each domain evolved by "multiple cellularization of a multiphenotypical population of pre-cells",[38] where the invention of cell envelopes played an important role. Kandler's contribution to our understanding of the early evolution of life was valued several times, e.g. Müller 1998,[12] Wiegel 1998,[41]Wächtershäuser 2003[42] and 2006,[43] Schleifer 2011.[3]

Applied MicrobiologyEdit

Louis Pasteur was one of Kandler’s scientific heroes. Kandler liked to cite Pasteur's opinion that there is no “applied science”, but that there are rather “applications of science”. When he was director of the Bacteriological Institute of the South German Dairy Research Center in Freising-Weihenstephan, he concentrated on the microbiology of milk and dairy products, e.g. developed methods to prolong the shelf-life of milk, and tested the utilisation of Lactobacillus acidophilus in starter cultures for yoghurt. He also tested several procedures for the fermentation of milk and vegetable products or proposed methods for successfully combat micro-organisms in cooling water systems (more examples see Schleifer 2011.[3] Later he conducted research on thermophilic methanogens and their ability to produce biogas from sewage or other waste.[3]


Kandler’s role as an early representative of scientific ecology is less known. He was a cofounder of the "commission for ecology" at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences (now “Forum für Ökologie” – panel for ecology[44]), of which he was a member until 2006.[24] His interest in ecology was broad and comprehensive; for instance he dealt with bacterial interactions, forest conditions and the return of lichens into the city of Munich.[24][45]

Since the early 1980s, research on the so-called “Waldsterben” (forest death) in Germany was substantially sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technology. On the basis of his own investigations,[46] Kandler became a decided critic.[3][24][47]

Awards and membershipsEdit

Selected publicationsEdit

  • Kandler, Otto (1950). Über die Beziehungen zwischen Phosphathaushalt und Photosynthese: I. Phosphatspiegelschwankungen bei Chlorella pyrenoidosa als Folge des Licht-Dunkel-Wechsels. [On the relationship between the phosphate metabolism and photosynthesis I. Variations in phosphate levels in Chlorella pyrenoidosa as a consequence of light-dark changes]. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 5b, 423–437 pdf.
  • Kandler, O. (1960). Energy transfer through phosphorylation mechanisms in Photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology 11, 37–54 annualreviews.
  • Schleifer, K.-H.; Kandler, O. (1972). Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell Walls and their taxonomic implications. Bacteriological Reviews 36, 407–477 pdf.
  • Kandler, O.; Hippe, H. (1977). Lack of peptidoglycan in the cell walls of Methano­sarcina barkeri. Archives of Microbiology 113, 57–60 pdf.
  • König, H.; Kandler, O. (1979). N-Acetyltalosaminuronic acid a constituent of the pseudomurein of the genus Methanobacterium. Archives of Microbiology 123, 295–299 SpringerLink.
  • Kandler O. (1982). Cell Wall Structures and their Phylogenetic Implications. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie Mikrobiologie und Hygiene: I. Abt. Originale C: Allgemeine, angewandte und ökologische Mikrobiologie 3. 149–160 ScienceDirect.
  • Woese, Carl R.; Otto Kandler; M L Wheelis (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 87 (12): 4576–4579. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87.4576W. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 54159. PMID 2112744.
  • Kandler, O. 1994). Cell Wall Biochemistry and Three-Domain Concept of Life. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 16(4), 501–509 ScienceDirect.
  • Kandler, O. (1994). Vierzehn Jahre Waldschadensdiskussion: Szenarien und Fakten. Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 47, 419–430 pdf.
  • Kandler, O. (1995). Cell Wall Biochemistry in Archaea and its Phylogenetic Implications. Journal of Biological Physics 20, 165–169 SpringerLink.
  • Kandler, O. (1998). The early diversification of life and the origin of the three domains: A proposal. pp. 19–31. In: Thermophiles: The keys to molecular evolution and the origin of life? (J. Wiegel & M.W. Adams eds.) Taylor and Francis Ltd. London, UK googlebooks
  • Kandler, O.; König, H. (1998). Cell wall polymers in Archaea (Archaebacteria). Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 54(4), 305–308 SpringerLink.[9]


  1. ^ a b c d Tanner, Widmar (23 November 2017). "Obituary - Nachruf: Professor Dr. Otto Kandler (1920–2017)". Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft. Retrieved 2017-12-13.
  2. ^ Schleifer, Karl-Heinz (December 2017). "Obituary: In Memoriam: Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. Otto Kandler". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 40 (8): 469. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2017.11.001.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Scheifer, Karl-Heinz (December 2011). "Otto Kandler: distinguished Botanist and Microbiologist" (PDF). The Bulletin of BISMiS. Bergey's International Society for Microbial Systematics. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d Woese, Carl R.; Kandler, O; Wheelis, M (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya" (PDF). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 87 (12): 4576–9. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87.4576W. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576. PMC 54159. PMID 2112744.
  5. ^ a b c Kandler, Otto (1950). "Über die Beziehungen zwischen Phosphathaushalt und Photosynthese I. Phosphatspiegelschwankungen bei Chlorella pyrenoidosa als Folge des Licht-Dunkel-Wechsels" [On the relationship between phosphate metabolism and photosynthesis I. Variations in phosphate levels in Chlorella pyrenoidosa as a consequence of light-dark changes] (PDF). Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. 5b (8): 423–437. doi:10.1515/znb-1950-0806.
  6. ^ a b Kandler, Otto (1954). "Über die Beziehungen zwischen Phosphathaushalt und Photosynthese II. Gesteigerter Glucoseeinbau im Licht als Indikator einer lichtabhängigen Phosphorylierung" [On the relationship between phosphate metabolism and photosynthesis II. Increases in glucoseuptake/content in light as an indicator of a light dependent phosphorylation] (PDF). Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. 9b (10): 625–644. doi:10.1515/znb-1954-1001.
  7. ^ a b Kandler, Otto (1955). "Über die Beziehungen zwischen Phosphathaushalt und Photosynthese III. Hemmungsanalyse der lichtabhängigen Phosphorylierung" [On the relationship between phosphate metabolism and photosynthesis III. Inhibition analysis of light dependent phosphorylation] (PDF). Zeitschrift für Naturforschung. 10b: 38–46. doi:10.1515/znb-1955-0109.
  8. ^ a b "Bayerischer Verdienstorden für drei LMU-Professoren". Informationsdienst Wissenschaft. 14 July 2005. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  9. ^ a b c "List of all publications - Prof. Dr. Otto Kandler - Chronologisches Schriftenverzeichnis" (PDF). Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  10. ^ Kandler, Otto (1950). "Versuche zur Kultur isolierten Pflanzengewebes in vitro". Planta. 38 (5): 564–585. doi:10.1007/BF01939622.
  11. ^ Kandler, Otto (1981). "Historical perspectives on queries concerning photo-phosphorylation". In George Akoyunoglou (ed.). Photosynthesis. Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress on Photosynthesis, September 7-13, 1980, Halkidiki, Greece. 1 Photophysical Processes, Membrane Energization. Philadelphia, PA: Balaban Intern.Science Services. pp. 3–14. ISBN 0-86689-006-8.
  12. ^ a b Müller, Hans E. (1998). "Portrait: "Otto Kandler und die moderne Mikrobiologie"" (PDF). "Der Mikrobiologe" Mitteilungen des Berufsverbands der Ärzte für Mikrobiologie, Virologie und Infektionsepidemiologie. 8 (3): 38–43.
  13. ^ Lynen, Feodor; Holzer, Helmut (1949). "Über den aeroben Phosphatbedarf der Hefe II. Die Umsetzung von Butylalkohol und Butyraldehyd". Liebigs Annalen der Chemie. 563(2): 213–239. doi:10.1002/jlac.19495630206 – via
  14. ^ Arnon, Daniel I.; Whatley, F.R.; Allen, M.B. (1954). "Photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts II. Photophosphorylation, the conversion of light into phosphate bond energy". J Am Chem Soc. 76 (24): 6324–6329. doi:10.1021/ja01653a025.
  15. ^ Arnon, Daniel I. (1956). "Phosphorus metabolism and photosynthesis". Review of Plant Physiology. 7: 325–354. doi:10.1146/annurev.pp.07.060156.001545.
  16. ^ Kandler, Otto; Gibbs, Martin (1956). "Asymmetric distribution of C14 in the glucose phosphates formed during photosynthesis" (PDF). Plant Physiology. 31: 411–412.
  17. ^ a b Govindjee; Tanner, Widmar (June 2018). "Remembering Otto Kandler (1920–2017) and his contributions". Photosynthesis Research (Typo in Abstract: three forms of life (Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya)). 137 (3): 337–340. doi:10.1007/s11120-018-0530-z. PMID 29948750 – via
  18. ^ Kandler, Otto; Hopf, Herbert (1980). "Occurrence, metabolism and function of oligosaccharides". In Jack Preiss (ed.). The Biochemistry of Plants. Carbohydrates: Structure and Function. New York: Academic Press Inc. pp. 221–270. ISBN 978-0-12-675403-2.
  19. ^ Kandler, Gertraud; Kandler, Otto (1954). (Article in English available). "Untersuchungen über die Morphologie und die Vermehrung der pleuropneumonie-ähnlichen Organismen und der L-Phase der Bakterien. I. Lichtmikroskopische Untersuchungen" [Studies on morphology and multiplication of pleuropneumonia-like organisms and on bacterial L-phase, I. Light microscopy (now mycoplasmas and L-form bacteria)] (PDF). Archiv für Mikrobiologie. 21 (2): 178–201. PMID 14350641.
  20. ^ Kandler, Gertraud; Kandler, Otto; Huber, Oskar (1954). (Article in English available). "Untersuchungen über die Morphologie und die Vermehrung der pleuropneumonie-ähnlichen Organismen und der L-Phase der Bakterien. II. Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen" [Studies on morphology and multiplication of pleuropneumonia-like organisms and on bacterial L-phase, II. Electron microscopy (now mycoplasmas and L-form bacteria)] (PDF). Archiv für Mikrobiologie. 21 (2): 202–216. PMID 14350642.
  21. ^ M. Leaver, P. Domínguez-Cuevas, J. M. Coxhead, R. A. Daniel and Jeff Errington (2009), "Life without a wall or division machine in Bacillus subtilis", Nature 460, 
  22. ^ Romain Mercier, Yoshikazu Kawai and Jeff Errington (2014), "General principles for the formation and proliferation of a wall-free (L-form) state in bacteria", eLife 3, 
  23. ^ Jeff Errington, Katarzyna Mickiewicz, Yoshikazu Kawai and Ling Juan Wu (2016), "L-form bacteria, chronic diseases and the origins of life", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 371 
  24. ^ a b c d e f Renner, Susanne S. (2017). "Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. Otto Kandler 1920 – 2017. Beschreiber der Dritten Domaine des Lebens und Vorreiter der Ökologie in Bayern" (PDF). Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft. 87: 231–246.
  25. ^ Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Kandler, Otto (1972). "Peptidoglycan types of bacterial cell Walls and their taxonomic implications". Bacteriological Reviews. 36 (4): 407–775. PMC 408328. PMID 518234.
  26. ^ a b Kandler, Otto; Hippe, Hans (January 1977). "Lack of peptidoglycan in the cell walls of Methano¬sarcina barkeri" (PDF). Archives of Microbiology. 113 (1–2): 57–60. doi:10.1007/BF00428580. PMID 889387.
  27. ^ König, Helmut; Kandler, Otto (1979). "The amino acid sequence of the peptide moiety of the pseudomurein from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum". Archives of Microbiology. 121 (3): 271–275. PMID 518234.
  28. ^ Kurr M; Huber R; König H; Jannasch HW; Fricke H; Trincone A; Kristjansson JK; Stetter KO (1991). "Methanopyrus kandleri, gen. and sp. nov. represents a novel group of hyperthermophilic methanogens, growing at 110°C". Arch. Microbiol. 156 (4): 239&ndash, 247. doi:10.1007/BF00262992.
  29. ^ Stetter, Karl O. (2011). "Part 4: Extremophiles: Thermophiles". History of Discovery of Hyperthermophiles. Extremophiles Handbook. 1. Tokyo: Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 404–425. ISBN 9784431538974.
  30. ^ a b c Woese C, Fox G (1977). "Phylogenetic structure of the bacteria domain: the primary kingdoms". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 74 (11): 5088–90. Bibcode:1977PNAS...74.5088W. doi:10.1073/pnas.74.11.5088. PMC 432104. PMID 270744.
  31. ^ Morell, Virginia (1997). "Microbiology's scarred revolutionary" (PDF). Science, New Series. 276 (5313): 699–701.
  32. ^ "Carl R. Woese Guestbook". Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
  33. ^ Renner, Susanne (2018). "Obituary: Otto Kandler 1920 – 2017" (PDF). Aspb News (Newsletter of the American Society of Plant Biologists). 45 (2): 14.
  34. ^ a b Sapp, Jan A. (2009). The new foundations of evolution: on the tree of life. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-199-73438-2.
  35. ^ Otto Kandler (ed.), ed. (1982). Archaebacteria. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Archaebacteria (June 27th–July 1st 1981). Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-437-10797-9.
  36. ^ Otto Kandler, Wolfram Zillig (eds.), ed. (1986). Archaebacteria '85. Proceedings of the EMBO Workshop on Molecular Genetics of Archaebacteria. International Workshop on Biology and Biochemistry of Archaebacteria (June 23–26, 1985). Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-437-11057-3.
  37. ^ a b Kandler, Otto (1994). "The early diversification of life". In Stefan Bengtson (ed.). Early Life on Earth. Nobel Symposium 84. New York: Columbia U.P. pp. 221–270.
  38. ^ a b c Kandler, Otto (1995). "Cell Wall Biochemistry in Archaea and its Phylogenetic Implications". Journal of Biological Physics. 20 (1–4): 165–169. doi:10.1007/BF00700433.
  39. ^ a b Kandler, Otto (1998). "The early diversification of life and the origin of the three domains: A proposal". In Jürgen Wiegel, Michael W.W. Adams (eds.). Thermophiles: The keys to molecular evolution and the origin of life?. London: Taylor and Francis Ltd. pp. 19–31. ISBN 978-0-203-48420-3.
  40. ^ Wheelis, Mark L.; Kandler, O; Woese, Carl R. (1992). "On the nature of global classification". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 89 (7): 2930–2934. PMC 48777. PMID 11537862.
  41. ^ Wiegel, Jürgen (1998). "Lateral Gene Exchange, an Evolutionary Mechanism for Extending the Upper or Lower Temperature Limits for Growth of Microorganisms? A Hypothesis". In Jürgen Wiegel, Michael W.W. Adams (eds.). Thermophiles: The keys to molecular evolution and the origin of life?. London: Taylor and Francis Ltd. pp. 177–185. ISBN 978-0-203-48420-3.
  42. ^ Wächtershäuser, Günter (2003). "From pre-cells to Eukarya – a tale of two lipids". Molecular Microbiology. 47 (1): 13–22. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03267.x. PMID 12492850.
  43. ^ Wächtershäuser, Günter (October 2006). "From volcanic origins of chemoautotrophic life to Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 361 (1474): 1787–1808. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1904. PMC 1664677. PMID 17008219.
  44. ^ "Zur Geschichte des Forums Ökologie". Retrieved 2018-01-25.
  45. ^ Kandler, Otto; Poelt, Josef (1984). "Wiederbesiedlung der Innenstadt von München durch Flechten". Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau. 37: 90–95.
  46. ^ Kandler, Otto (1994). "Vierzehn Jahre Waldschadensdiskussion: Szenarien und Fakten" (PDF). Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau. 47 (11): 419–430.
  47. ^ Horeis, Heinz (November 2005). "Begrabt das Waldsterben!". Novo-Magazin. 79.
  48. ^ "Leopoldina Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften—Mitglieder". Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  49. ^ Bergey Award
  50. ^ "Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften—Verstorbene Mitglieder". Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  51. ^ "Ehrung anlässlich der Verleihung der Professor Hermann Weigmann-Medaille für Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Otto Kandler, München". Forum Mikrobiologie. 7 (4): 214. 1984.
  52. ^ Ferdinand-Cohn-Medaille
  53. ^ Ehrenmitglieder der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft
  54. ^ Honorary members - Gesellschaft für Allgemeine und Angewandte Mikrobiologie