Otakar Vávra in 1980
|Died||15 September 2011 (aged 100)|
|Occupation||Film director and script writer|
Biography and careerEdit
Vávra attended universities in Brno and Prague, where he studied architecture. During 1929–30, while still a student, he participated in the making of a handful of documentaries and wrote movie scripts. In 1931, he produced the experimental film Světlo proniká tmou. The first movie he directed was 1937's Filosofská historie, film based on a novel by Alois Jirásek.
His first feature film was 1938's Cech panen Kutnohorských (engl.: The Merry Wives), starring Zdeněk Štěpánek, Adina Mandlová and Zorka Janů. The film was praised by American critics for "first-rate direction, a salty yarn and elaborate production effort", even though it had undergone certain cuts because it was considered too "ribald" by American censors. Janů also played in Vávra's films Podvod s Rubensem and Pacientka Dr. Hegela, both from 1940. Sister of Janů, Czech actress Lída Baarová starred in Vávra's films Panenství (1937), Maskovaná milenka (1939), Dívka v modrém (1939), and Turbína (1941).
After the Communists seized power in 1948, Vávra adapted quickly to the new political climate and produced films praising the current regime and supporting the new, official interpretation of the past.
When the government became more liberal in the 1960s, Vávra's cinema entered into his most prolific period, producing Zlatá reneta (1965), Romance pro křídlovku (1966), Kladivo na čarodějnice (1969), and later Komediant (1984). His 1967 film Romance for Bugle was entered into the 5th Moscow International Film Festival where it won the Special Silver Prize.
In the 1970's Vávra produced his "War Trilogy" consisting of semi-documentary movies Dny zrady, Sokolovo and Osvobození Prahy, all being heavily influenced by communist propaganda. The film Dny zrady (Days of Betrayal, 1973) was entered into the 8th Moscow International Film Festival where it won a Diploma. In 1979 he was a member of the jury at the 11th Moscow International Film Festival.
When the Communists fell from power in 1989, state subsidies for the film industry were dropped and Vávra's plans for an historical epic titled Evropa tančila valčík had to be scaled down.
In the 1950s, Otakar Vávra, together with a group of fellow Czech film directors, established the Film Faculty of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague (Filmová Akademia muzických umění or FAMU), where he taught for over five decades. Among his students were several directors of the 1960s "Czech New Wave" of art films, including future Oscar-winner Miloš Forman (One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Amadeus).
Otakar Vávra's decades-long career as a film director, from the 1930s through the 1990s, epitomized the tradition of middle-European filmmaking. This tradition ended in Germany and Austria at the end of World War II and ended in the Czech Republic after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Around that time, Vávra began his autobiography Podivný život režiséra (Strange Life of a Movie Director), which concluded with "...and now I wait for the end. My end."
Otakar Vávra is often called the "father of Czech cinema". In 2001, he was awarded the Czech Lion (Český lev) for his lifelong contribution to Czech culture. In 2004, he received the presidential Medal of Merit (Medaile za zásluhy).
Vávra's critics point to his willingness to accommodate the Communist regime. In a 2003 article ("Playing the Villain", The Globe and Mail, May 15, 2003) about his documentary film, Hitler and I that he shot in Prague, David Cherniack described the following encounter with his former FAMU Head Professor:
Having lived in a police state for four years and seen the difficult choices that people make between ends and means, I decide to interview my head professor from the academy, National Artist Otakar Vavra. Now 92 but still very sharp, Vavra made 50 feature films under every regime from the thirties on, including the seven years of the Nazi occupation. Though he maintains he was serving his films and the public by doing the minimum necessary to co-operate, others are of the view that he was serving himself. The films of his that I've seen tend to be rather didactic history lessons.
I meet him at the Theatre Restaurant where he lunches every day and still conducts business. Behind the bluster and razor-sharp intellect that is still very much present, I sense a sad and isolated old man who feels he should be enjoying the adulation of his country and not being as ignored as he is. My own Fritz Gerlich (a Catholic newspaper editor executed in Dachau during the Night of the Long Knives) was our teaching assistant, the New Wave director Evald Schorm. Unlike Vavra, he refused to sign a paper agreeing with the 1968 occupation by the Warsaw Pact. Schorm went to his own Dachau. He was forced to leave the school and filmmaking and go direct operas in Brno. One of the Czech actors on the set tells me he died an embittered man shortly before the Velvet Revolution. Reality is always more complex than the stories we tell about it.
Vávra's Krakatit (1948) is based on Karel Čapek's 1924 novel of the same name and contains a strong anti-war message. It centers around an inventor of explosives who tries to keep his invention hidden from those who want to use it to rule the world. The black-and-white original was followed by a 1980 color remake, Temné slunce, which brings the storyline into the modern era. The later version is generally seen as one of Vávra's lesser efforts.
Otakar Vávra's most acclaimed work is widely considered to be Romance pro křídlovku (1966). This black-and-white film is based on a poem by Czech lyrical poet František Hrubín and concerns an ill-fated summer romance between two young lovers of different backgrounds.
- 1931 Světlo proniká tmou
- 1934 Žijeme v Praze
- 1935 Listopad
- 1936 Three Men in the Snow
- 1937 Panenství
- 1937 Filosofská historie
- 1938 Na 100%
- 1939 Kouzelný dům
- 1939 Velbloud uchem jehly
- 1938 Cech panen kutnohorských
- 1939 Humoreska
- 1940 Pohádka máje
- 1940 Podvod s Rubensem
- 1940 Pacientka Dr. Hegla
- 1940 Maskovaná milenka
- 1940 Dívka v modrém
- 1941 Turbina
- 1942 Přijdu hned
- 1942 Okouzlená
- 1943 Šťastnou cestu
- 1945 Vlast vítá
- 1945 Rozina sebranec
- 1946 Nezbedný bakalář
- 1946 Cesta k barikádám
- 1947 Předtucha
- 1948 Krakatit
- 1949 Němá barikáda
- 1949 Láska
- 1953 Nástup
- 1954 Jan Hus
- 1955 Jan Žižka
- 1957 Proti všem
- 1958 Občan Brych
- 1959 První parta
- 1960 Srpnová neděle
- 1960 Policejní hodina
- 1961 Noční host
- 1962 Horoucí srdce
- 1965 Zlatá reneta
- 1967 Romance pro křídlovku
- 1968 Třináctá komnata
- 1969/1970 Kladivo na čarodějnice
- 1973 Dny zrady
- 1974 Sokolovo
- 1976 Osvobození Prahy
- 1977 Příběh lásky a cti
- 1980 Temné slunce
- 1983 Putování Jana Ámose
- 1984 Komediant
- 1985 Veronika
- 1985 Oldřich a Božena
- 1989 Evropa tančila valčík
- 2003 Moje Praha
- Lucie Weissová (16 September 2011). "Zemřel legendární český režisér Otakar Vávra" (in Czech). Czech Radio. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- "Otakar Vávra". csfd.cz. Retrieved 2011-09-18.
- "The Merry Wives (film review)". Variety. 13 November 1940. p. 20. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
- Brian Kenety (16 September 2011). "Iconic Czech film director Otakar Vávra dies aged 100" (in Czech). Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "5th Moscow International Film Festival (1967)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
- "8th Moscow International Film Festival (1973)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2013-01-03.
- "11th Moscow International Film Festival (1979)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 2014-04-03. Retrieved 2013-01-14.
- "Filmové recenze, novinky v kinech, české filmy - Kinobox.cz". Cfn.cz. Archived from the original on 2008-10-04. Retrieved 2013-10-07.
- "Medal of Merit". Archived from the original on 2009-02-07. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Otakar Vavra dies aged 100". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-09-18.