Orest Danilovich Khvolson or Chwolson (Russian: Орест Данилович Хвольсон) (November 22 (N.S. December 4), 1852 – May 11, 1934) was a Russian physicist and honorary member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1920). He is most noted for being one of the first to study the gravitational lens effect.
Early life and educationEdit
Khvolson began teaching at his alma mater in 1876 and became a professor in 1891. He authored works on electricity, magnetism, photometry, and actinometry. He proposed the designs of an actinometer and a pyrheliometer, which would be used by the Russian weather stations for many years.
After 1896, Khvolson was mainly engaged in compiling the five-volume Physics Course (Курс физики), which would improve immensely the teaching of physics throughout the country and remain a principal textbook in universities for years to come. It was even translated into the German, French, and Spanish languages.
His most noted accomplishment was in 1924, when he published about gravitational lenses in Astronomische Nachrichten, a scientific journal on astronomy. In the article he mentioned the “halo effect” of gravitation when the source, lens, and observer are in near-perfect alignment (now referred to as the Einstein ring), although he did not explicitly discuss the use of the ring as lens.
The concept of gravitational lenses did not get much attention until 1936, when Albert Einstein wrote about the gravitational lens effect. The "halo" effect of a gravitational lens, where one source (sun or galaxy) produces a ring around another source is referred to as an Chwolson ring, or Einstein ring.
Personal life and demiseEdit
Khvolson died in Leningrad, the same city he was born, but its name had changed.
- Lehre von der strahlenden Energie (in French). 2.2. Paris. Librairie scientifique Hermann et C.ie. 1906.
- Die Lehre von den gasformingen, flussigen und festen Korpern (in French). 1.3. Paris. Librairie scientifique Hermann et C.ie. 1907.
- Lehre von der strahlenden Energie (in French). 2.4. Paris. Librairie scientifique Hermann et C.ie. 1909.
- Lehre von der Elektrizität (in French). 4.1. Paris. Librairie scientifique Hermann et C.ie. 1910.
- Lehre von der Warme (in French). 3.1. Paris. Librairie scientifique Hermann et C.ie. 1909.
- Lehre von der strahlenden Energie (in French). 2.1. Paris. Librairie scientifique Hermann et C.ie. 1906.
- Lehre von der strahlenden Energie (in French). 2.3. Paris. Librairie scientifique Hermann et C.ie. 1907.
- Lehre vom Schall (in French). 1.4. Paris. Librairie scientifique Hermann et C.ie. 1908.
- Chwolson, O (1924). "Über eine mögliche Form fiktiver Doppelsterne". Astronomische Nachrichten. 221 (20): 329–330. Bibcode:1924AN....221..329C. doi:10.1002/asna.19242212003.
- Davaux, E. (1906–1928). Traité de physique [Kurs fiziki] (in French). Translated by O.-D. Chwolson. Paris: A. Hermann – via gallica.bnf.fr.
- Sauer, Tilman (2010). "A brief history of gravitational lensing". Einstein Online. 4. p. 1005. Archived from the original on 2009-06-09. Retrieved 2008-08-08.
- Turner, Christina (February 14, 2006). "The Early History of Gravitational Lensing" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2008.
- Sauer, Tilman (2008). "Nova Geminorum 1912 and the Origin of the Idea of Gravitational Lensing". Archive for History of Exact Sciences. 62 (1): 1–22. arXiv:0704.0963. Bibcode:2008AHES...62....1S. doi:10.1007/s00407-007-0008-4. S2CID 17384823.
- Wambsganss, Joachim (August 31, 2001). "Gravitational Lensing in Astronomy". Living Reviews in Relativity. Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute). Archived from the original on December 27, 2021. "Today such a lens configuration is called 'Einstein-ring', although more correctly it should be called 'Chwolson-ring'."