Ordination of women in the Anglican Communion
The ordination of women in the Anglican Communion has been increasingly common in certain provinces since the 1970s. Several provinces, however, and certain dioceses within otherwise ordaining provinces, continue to ordain only men. Disputes over the ordination of women have contributed to the establishment and growth of conservative separatist tendencies, such the Anglican realignment and Continuing Anglican movements.
Some provinces within the Anglican Communion ordain women to the three traditional holy orders of bishop, priest and deacon. Other provinces ordain women as deacons and priests but not as bishops; others still as deacons only; and seven provinces do not approve the ordination of women to any order of ministry.
Within provinces which permit the ordination of women, approval of enabling legislation is largely a diocesan responsibility. There may, however, be individual dioceses which do not endorse the legislation, or do so only in a modified form, as in those dioceses which ordain women only to the diaconate (such as the Diocese of Sydney in the Anglican Church of Australia), regardless of the fact that the ordination of women to all three orders of ministry is canonically possible.
The current situation regarding women's ordination in the Anglican Communion can be seen in the following table, which lists the 38 member churches and the 6 extra-provincial churches:
Note that provinces are categorised above according to the overall provincial policy on the ordination of women. In provinces where individual dioceses have considerable autonomy (e.g. the Anglican Church of Australia), some dioceses may be less permissive than the province overall.
Ordination of priestsEdit
The first woman ordained to the priesthood in the Anglican Communion was Florence Li Tim-Oi, who was ordained on 25 January 1944 by Ronald Hall, Bishop of Victoria, Hong Kong, in response to the crisis among Anglican Christians in China caused by the Japanese invasion. To avoid controversy, she resigned her licence (though not her priestly orders) after the end of the war.
In 1971, the Synod of Hong Kong and Macao became the first Anglican province to officially permit the ordination of women to the priesthood. Jane Hwang and Joyce M. Bennett were ordained as priests by Gilbert Baker, Bishop of Hong Kong and Macao on November 28, 1971. At the same time, Li Tim-Oi was officially recognised again as a priest.
In 1974, in the United States, 11 women (known as the "Philadelphia Eleven") were controversially ordained to the priesthood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by three retired Episcopal Church bishops (Daniel Corrigan, Robert L. DeWitt and Edward R. Welles). Four more women (the "Washington Four") were ordained in 1975 in Washington D.C. by George W. Barrett, retired Bishop of Rochester, New York. All of these ordinations were ruled "irregular" because they had been done without the authorisation of the Episcopal Church's General Convention. The ordinations were regularised in 1976 following the approval by the General Convention of measures to provide for the ordination of women to the priesthood and the episcopate. The first regular ordination occurred on 1 January 1977, when Jacqueline Means was ordained at the Episcopal Church of All Saints, Indianapolis.
In 1975, the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada (ACC) passed enabling legislation for women priests; the first six women priests in the ACC were ordained on November 30, 1976.
In 1977, the Anglican Church in New Zealand ordained five female priests.
In 1980, the Anglican Church of Kenya agreed in principle that women could be ordained, and that each diocese was to be autonomous in taking up the issue. In 1983, Henry Okullu, bishop of the Diocese of Maseno South in the Anglican Church of Kenya, ordained Lucia Okuthe as priest. In the same year, William Rukirande, Bishop of Kigezi in the Church of Uganda, ordained three women as priest, Monica Sebidega, Deborah Micungwa Rukara and Margaret Kizanye Byekwaso. Formal legislation for the ordination of women as priests was ultimately approved in both provinces in 1990.
In 1990, Janet Catterall became the first woman ordained an Anglican priest in Ireland.
In 1992, the general synod of the Anglican Church of Australia approved legislation allowing dioceses to decide whether to ordain women to the priesthood. In the same year, 90 women were ordained in Australia and two others who had been ordained overseas were recognised.
Also in 1992, the Anglican Church of Southern Africa authorised the ordination of women as priests and, in September that year, Nancy Charton, Bride Dickson and Sue Groves were ordained in the Diocese of Grahamstown.
Also in 1992, the General Synod of the Church of England passed a vote to ordain women; however, it proved controversial. The Act of Synod, passed in 1993, along with further legislation, allowed parishes to not accept ordained women. In 1994 England's first thirty-two women were ordained as priests. The experience of the first women priests and their congregations was the premise of the television programme The Vicar of Dibley. The legality of the ordination of women in the Church of England was challenged in civil courts by Paul Williamson and others. By 2004, one in five priests was a woman.
In 1994, in the Diocese of Barbados, Sonia Hinds and Beverley Sealy became the first women to be ordained as deacons in the Church in the Province of the West Indies on 25 July, the Feast of St James. On 31 May 1996, on the Feast of the Visitation of Mary to Elizabeth, both women were ordained as priests. Rufus Brome, the first Barbadian-born bishop, presided at both ordinations at the Cathedral of St Michael and All Angels in Bridgetown, Barbados.
In 1997, Rosalina Villaruel Rabaria became the first woman ordained in the Philippines Independent Church, in the Diocese of Aklan and Capiz on 9 February.
Also in 2015, Susana Lopez Lerena, Cynthia Myers Dickin, and Audrey Taylor Gonzalez became the first women Anglican priests ordained in the Diocese of Uruguay.
Ordination of bishopsEdit
Episcopal Church in the United StatesEdit
The first woman to become a bishop in the Anglican Communion was Barbara Harris, who was ordained suffragan bishop of Massachusetts in the United States in February 1989. As of August 2017, 24 women have since been elected to the episcopate across the church. The election in December 2009 and consecration on 15 May 2010 of Mary Glasspool, who is openly gay and lives with her partner of 20 years, as a suffragan bishop in the Diocese of Los Angeles attracted attention owing to the continued controversy over gay bishops in Anglicanism.
The Episcopal Church in the United States also elected the first woman to become a primate (or senior bishop of a national church), Katharine Jefferts Schori, who was elected as 26th Presiding Bishop and Primate of the Episcopal Church at the 2006 General Convention for a nine-year term (2006-2015).
Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and PolynesiaEdit
The Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia first ordained women as priests in 1977 and was the first Anglican province to elect a woman as a diocesan bishop when, in 1989, Penny Jamieson was elected Bishop of Dunedin. She retired in 2004. In 2008 the Diocese of Christchurch elected Victoria Matthews, former Bishop of Edmonton in the Anglican Church of Canada, as 8th Bishop of Christchurch. In 2013, Helen-Ann Hartley became the first woman ordained in the Church of England to become a bishop when she was elected as Bishop of Waikato and joint diocesan bishop in the Diocese of Waikato and Taranaki.Since 2017, the Rt Rev Dr Eleanor Sanderson has served as Assistant Bishop of Wellington.
Anglican Church of CanadaEdit
Following the first ordinations of women as priests in 1976, the first woman to become a bishop in the Anglican Church of Canada was Victoria Matthews. She was elected suffragan bishop in the Diocese of Toronto on 19 November 1993 and was ordained to the episcopate on 12 February 1994. She later was the first woman to become a diocesan bishop in Canada when she was elected as Bishop of Edmonton in 1997, an office she held until 2007 when she resigned. She was subsequently elected Bishop of Christchurch in the Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia in 2008.
Since Matthews' election, twelve more women have been elected to the episcopate in Canada. They are Ann Tottenham (suffragan, Toronto, 1997; retired 2005); Sue Moxley (suffragan, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, 2004; diocesan, 2007; retired 2014); Jane Alexander (diocesan, Edmonton, 2008); Linda Nicholls (suffragan, Toronto, 2008; diocesan, Huron, 2016); Barbara Andrews (Bishop Suffragan to the Metropolitan with responsibilities for the Anglican Parishes of the Central Interior, 2009); Lydia Mamakwa (Area Bishop for Northern Ontario within the Diocese of Keewatin, with special responsibility for the predominantly Aboriginal parishes of the area, 2010; subsequently Bishop of Mishamikoweesh, the church's Indigenous Spiritual Ministry with the status of a diocese, established in 2014); Melissa Skelton (diocesan, New Westminster, 2013), Mary Irwin-Gibson (diocesan Bishop of Montreal, 2015), Riscylla Shaw (suffragan, Toronto, 2017), Jenny Andison, (suffragan, Toronto, 2017), Anne Germond (diocesan, Algoma, 2017),. Susan Bell (diocesan, Niagara, 5 May 2018), and Lynne McNaughton (diocesan, Kootenay, January 2019).
On 12 May 2018 Melissa Skelton was elected Metropolitan (which includes the title 'Archbishop') of the Ecclesiastical Province of British Columbia and Yukon.
Anglican Church of AustraliaEdit
The Anglican Church of Australia began to ordain women as priests in 1992 and in the late 1990s embarked on a protracted debate over the ordination of women as bishops, a debate that was ultimately decided though the church's appellate tribunal, which ruled on 28 September 2007 that there is nothing in the church's constitution that would prevent the consecration of a woman priest as a bishop in a diocese which by ordinance has adopted the law of the Church of England Clarification Canon 1992, which paved the way for the ordination of women as priests.
Following the agreement at the April 2008 bishops' conference of the "Women in the Episcopate" protocol for the provision of pastoral care to those who reject the ministry of bishops who are women, the first women ordained as bishops were Kay Goldsworthy (assistant bishop, Diocese of Perth) on 22 May 2008 (subsequently elected 12th bishop of the Diocese of Gippsland in the south-eastern Australian state of Victoria and installed on 21 March 2015; and Barbara Darling (assistant bishop, Anglican Diocese of Melbourne) on 31 May 2008.
Four more women have since been ordained as bishops: Genieve Blackwell, Regional Bishop in Wagga Wagga and subsequently an assistant bishop in the Diocese of Melbourne (31 March 2012); Alison Taylor, Bishop of the Southern Region, Diocese of Brisbane (6 April 2013); Sarah Macneil, Bishop of Grafton, who was the first woman to be a diocesan bishop in the church (1 March 2014); and Kate Wilmot, an assistant bishop in the Diocese of Perth (6 August 2015).
On 29 August 2017 Kay Goldsworthy was elected Archbishop of Perth in the Province of Western Australia. On taking up her appointment on 10 February 2018, she became the first woman in the Anglican Communion appointed to the office of Archbishop.
Anglican Church of Southern AfricaEdit
The first woman to become a bishop in the Anglican Church of South Africa was Ellinah Ntombi Wamukoya, who was elected bishop of the Diocese of Swaziland on 18 July 2012 and ordained and installed on 10 November 2012. Her appointment was closely followed by the election, on 12 October 2012, of Margaret Vertue as bishop of the Diocese of False Bay. She was consecrated and installed on 19 January 2013.
Church in WalesEdit
On 2 April 2008, the Governing Body of the Church in Wales considered, but did not pass, a bill to enable women to be ordained as bishops. Though the bill was passed by the House of Laity (52 to 19) and the House of Bishops (unanimously), it failed by three votes (27 to 18) to secure the required minimum two-thirds majority in the House of Clerics. However, the Church in Wales decisively ended the role of provincial bishop, whose responsibility was to minister to opponents. On 12 September 2013, the Governing Body passed a bill to enable women to be ordained as bishops subject to the finalisation of a Code of Practice, ultimately published in September 2014.
On 2 November 2016, Joanna Penberthy was elected as Bishop of St David's in the Church in Wales. She was consecrated in January 2017 and enthroned in St Davids Cathedral in February 2017. On 25 February 2017 June Osborne was elected 72nd Bishop of Llandaff. She was consecrated on 15 July 2017 and installed at Llandaff Cathedral on 22 July 2017.
Church of EnglandEdit
Since the ordination of women as priests began in 1994, dioceses generally have on the Bishop's senior staff a Dean of Women's Ministry (or Bishop's Adviser in Women's Ministry or similar), whose role it is to advocate for clergy who are women and to ensure the Bishop is appraised of issues peculiar to their ministry. These Advisers meet together in a National Association (NADAWM).
In 2005, 2006 and 2008 the General Synod of the Church of England voted in favour of removing the legal obstacles preventing women from becoming bishops. The process did not progress quickly due to problems in providing appropriate mechanisms for the protection of those who cannot accept this development. On 7 July 2008 the synod held a more-than-seven-hour debate on the subject and narrowly voted in favour of a national statutory code of practice to make provision for opponents, though more radical provisions (such as separate structures or overseeing bishops) proposed by opponents of the measure failed to win the majority required across each of the three houses (bishops, clergy and laity).
The task of taking this proposal further fell largely to a revision committee established by the synod to consider the draft legislation on enabling women to become bishops in the Church of England. When, in October 2009, the revision committee released a statement indicating its proposals would include a plan to vest some functions by law in male bishops who would provide oversight for those unable to receive ministry of women as bishops or priests, there was widespread concern both within and outside the Church of England about the appropriateness of such legislation. In the light of the negative reaction to the proposal, the revision committee subsequently announced the abandonment of this recommendation.
The synod, meeting in York from 9 to 12 July 2010, considered a measure that again endorsed the ordination of women as bishops. The measure included provisions for individual bishops to allow alternative oversight for traditionalists who object to serving under them, but opponents of the measure argued for stronger provisions. A compromise plan put forward by the archbishops of Canterbury and York (involving the creation of a mechanism providing for "co-ordinate jurisdiction" in parishes refusing the ministry of a bishop who is a woman whereby another bishop would fulfil episcopal function) was endorsed by the House of Bishops and the House of Laity but narrowly failed (90 votes against to 85 in favour) in the House of Clergy. The draft measure, with only minor amendments, passed in all three houses on 12 July 2010, to be considered by individual dioceses. The measure was approved by 42 of the 44 dioceses, but an amendment by the House of Bishops, offering further concessions to opponents, meant that many proponents of the measure would have reluctantly voted it down, and the synod at York in July 2012 adjourned the decision to a later synod.
On 20 November 2012, the General Synod failed to pass the proposed legislation for the ordination of women as bishops. The measure was lost after narrowly failing to achieve the two-thirds majority required in the House of Laity after being passed by the House of Bishops and the House of Clergy.
At its meeting on 7 February 2013, the House of Bishops decided that eight senior women clergy, elected regionally, would participate in all meetings of the house until such time as there were six women who were bishops sitting as of right.
In May 2013 the House of Bishops expressed its commitment "to publishing new ways forward to enable women to become bishops". In July 2013, the synod decided to reintroduce legislation to be addressed in November.
In November 2013 the General Synod approved a package of measures as the next steps to enable women to become bishops, generally welcoming a package of proposals outlined for Draft Legislation of Women in the Episcopate (GS 1924). The steering committee's package of proposals followed the mandate set by the July synod and included the first draft of a House of Bishops declaration and a disputes resolution procedure. The debate invited the synod to welcome the proposals and five guiding principles already agreed by the House of Bishops.
The General Synod again considered the matter in February 2014 and sent further draft legislation to all the dioceses of the Church of England. All dioceses that were able to meet within the necessary time frame (43 of 44) approved the draft legislation in time for it be debated at the General Synod in York in July 2014. That legislation passed all three houses of General Synod on 14 July 2014, achieving the two-thirds majority required in all three. It gained the necessary parliamentary approvals and royal assent in the subsequent months and was finally approved by the General Synod on 17 November 2014.
The first woman to be ordained as a bishop in the Church of England was Libby Lane, whose appointment as Bishop of Stockport (a suffragan see in the Diocese of Chester) was announced on 17 December 2014. She was consecrated at York Minster on 26 January 2015 (the Feast of the Conversion of St Paul). Alison White was appointed Bishop of Hull (suffragan, Diocese of York) on 25 March 2015 and consecrated at York Minister on 3 July 2015 (the Feast of St Thomas).
The third woman to be appointed bishop, and the first to be a diocesan bishop, was Rachel Treweek, whose appointment as 43rd Bishop of Gloucester was announced on 26 March 2015. She became Bishop of Gloucester on 15 June 2015 following the confirmation of her election. On 22 July 2015 (the Feast of St Mary Magdalene) she and Sarah Mullally (Bishop of Crediton, a suffragan see in the Diocese of Exeter) were the first women to be ordained as bishops at Canterbury Cathedral. Pursuant to the Lords Spiritual (Women) Act 2015, which makes time-limited provision for vacancies among the Lords Spiritual (the bishops who are members of the House of Lords) to be filled by diocesan bishops who are women, Treweek also become the first to sit in the House of Lords, where she was introduced on 26 October 2015.
On 30 June 2015, it was announced that Ruth Worsley would be Bishop of Taunton (suffragan, Diocese of Bath and Wells). On 2 July 2015 the appointment of Anne Hollinghurst as the Bishop of Aston (suffragan, Diocese of Birmingham) was announced. Both were consecrated at St Paul’s Cathedral, London, on 29 September (the Feast of St Michael and All Angels).
On 2 September 2015, it was announced that Christine Hardman would be 12th Bishop of Newcastle and, therefore, the second woman to be a diocesan bishop in the Church of England and the first in the Province of York. Hardman became Bishop of Newcastle upon the confirmation of her election on 22 September 2015; she was consecrated on 30 November 2015 at York Minster. Hardman also sits in the House of Lords.
On 26 November 2015, the appointment of Karen Gorham as Bishop of Sherborne (suffragan, Diocese of Salisbury) was announced. She was the first woman to be consecrated in Westminster Abbey, at a service which took place on 24 February 2016.
Between 2014 and 2018 almost half of new bishop appointments in the Church of England were women.
Church of IrelandEdit
The Church of Ireland approved the ordination of women as priests and bishops in 1990 and the first women were ordained as priests on 24 June that year. The first woman in the episcopate was Pat Storey, who was consecrated Bishop of Meath and Kildare on 1 December 2013. On 19 September 2013, Storey was chosen by the House of Bishops to succeed Richard Clarke as Bishop of Meath and Kildare. She was consecrated to the episcopate at Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, on 30 November 2013. She is the first woman to be elected as a bishop in the Church of Ireland and the first woman to be an Anglican Communion bishop in Ireland and Great Britain.
Church of South IndiaEdit
The Church of South India has admitted women to holy orders since its foundation in 1947. Eggoni Pushpa Lalitha was the first woman elected as a bishop on 25 September 2013. She was ordained and installed as bishop of the Diocese of Nandyal on 29 September 2013.
Episcopal Church of South SudanEdit
The Episcopal Church of South Sudan (formerly the Episcopal Church of South Sudan and Sudan until the creation, on 31 July 2017, of separate provinces for Sudan and South Sudan) provided for the ordination of woman to all three orders of ministry in 2000. The first woman ordained as a bishop in the church was the Rt Rev Elizabeth Awut Ngor, who was consecrated as an assistant bishop in the Diocese of Rumbek on 31 December 2016. Hers was the first appointment of a woman as a bishop in any of the so-called GAFCON-aligned provinces of the Anglican Communion, which broadly resist the ordination of women as priests and bishops.
Scottish Episcopal ChurchEdit
The Scottish Episcopal Church ordained its first women as priests in 1994 and in 2003 provided for the ordination of women as bishops. The nomination of Alison Peden as one of three nominees for election as Bishop of Glasgow and Galloway in January 2010 attracted wide attention. The first woman to be appointed was the Rev Canon Anne Dyer, who was elected Bishop of the Diocese of Aberdeen and Orkney by the Episcopal Synod of the Scottish Episcopal Church on 9 November 2017. She was consecrated on 1 March 2018.
Anglican Episcopal Church of BrazilEdit
The first woman appointed as a bishop in the Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil is the Right Rev Marinez Santos Bassotto, who was elected as Bishop of the Diocese of Amazon on 20 January 2018 and was ordained on 21 April 2018.
In addition to the 39 provinces of the Anglican Communion, there are six Extra-provincial Anglican churches which function semi-autonomously under limited metropolitical oversight and are largely self-determining when it comes to the ordained ministry. Several have provided for the ordination of women as priests for some years.
The Episcopal Church of Cuba is the only extra-provincial church to ordain women as bishops, the first of whom was Nerva Cot Aguilera who was appointed as a bishop suffragan in 2007. Aguilera was appointed by the Metropolitan Council, the ecclesiastical authority for the Episcopal Church of Cuba which in January 2010 appointed Griselda Delgato Del Carpio (who, along with Aguilera, was one of the first two women priests ordained in Cuba in 1986) as bishop coadjutor (assistant bishop with the right of succession). She was ordained to the episcopate on 7 February 2010 and installed as diocesan on 28 November 2010 following the retirement of Miguel Tamayo-Zaldívar.
Controversies and breakaway groupsEdit
The ordination of women has been a controversial issue throughout the Anglican Communion. While the majority of the 38 provinces of the Anglican Communion ordain women as priests, and many have removed all barriers to women becoming bishops, some have taken formal or informal steps to provide pastoral care and support for those who cannot in conscience accept the ministry of women as priests and bishops. The Church of England, for example, has created the office of provincial episcopal visitor (colloquially known as "flying bishops") to minister to clergy, laity and parishes who do not in conscience accept the ministry of women priests. These are suffragan bishops, appointed by the metropolitans, whose main purpose is to be available for this ministry.
There have been a number of protest groups established by conservative Anglicans who see the ordination of women as representative of a trend away from traditional or orthodox doctrine. A network for opponents of women's ordination called the Evangelical and Catholic Mission was established in 1976, and following the consecration of Barbara Harris, the first woman to become an Anglican bishop, in 1989, a group of 22 active and retired bishops established the Episcopal Synod of America, subsequently Forward in Faith North America. A sister organisation, Forward in Faith UK, was established in 1992.
There have also been a number of breakaway groups. Following the Congress of St. Louis in 1977, the Continuing Anglican Movement developed which sought to provide a formal ecclesiastical structure for those who felt unable to remain within mainstream Anglicanism. The larger groupings within the Continuing movement have been increasingly active since the publication by Pope Benedict XVI of the Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum Coetibus in November 2009. Anglicanorum Coetibus provides a canonical structure for groups of former Anglicans to enter into full communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with formal structures in the form of personal ordinariates now in place in Great Britain, the United States and Australia & Japan
The long-term impact of Anglicanorum Coetibus on the Continuing movement is unknown, though there is a clear realisation that the loss of significant groups and their associated resources, especially to the Personal Ordinariate of the Chair of Saint Peter in the United States, necessitates the need for discussion and discernment between the ongoing affiliates of the movement.
- While the bill allowing for the ordination of women to the presbyterate was adopted and came into effect in 1976, it "had to lie on the table for a year to allow for an appeal".
- The church's Appellate Tribunal determined in 2007 that the consecration of female bishops was legal by virtue of the legislation adopted in 1992 to allow the ordination of female priests.
- Victoria Matthews, the first female bishop of the Anglican Church of Canada, was elected as a bishop in 1993 but not consecrated until 1994.
- Sources conflict as to whether women can be or have been ordained to the presbyterate.
- While the ordination of women was not permitted in Hong Kong until 1971, Li Tim-Oi was ordained by Ronald Hall in 1944. She later surrendered her licence, but she remained in the order of priesthood, which was recognised following 1971.
- While the ordination of women to the presbyterate was not explicitly permitted in the United States until 1976, 11 women (later known as the Philadelphia Eleven) were ordained as priests in 1974 and 4 women (the Washington Four) were so ordained in 1975. The church initially rejected their ordinations as invalid, but later recognised them as "valid but irregular".
- This church is not a province of the Anglican Communion, but is rather an extra-provincial church under the metropolitical oversight of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
- This church is not a province of the Anglican Communion, but is rather an extra-provincial church under the oversight of a metropolitan council chaired by the Primate of the Anglican Church of Canada, the Archbishop of the Church in the Province of the West Indies, and the Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America.
- This church is not a province of the Anglican Communion, but is rather an extra-provincial church under the episcopal authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as Bishop of the Falkland Islands.
- Cox 2005, p. 132.
- Davidson, Allan K. (2012). "Anglican Church – Anglicans in the 20th and 21st centuries". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Government of New Zealand. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Sherlock, Peter (20 December 2012). "Why Anglican Women can be Bishops in Australia but not England". The Conversation. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- Porter 2012, pp. 219–220.
- Scarfe 2012, pp. 123–124, 136–137.
- "Church of England says yes to women bishops". Anglican Communion News Service. London: Anglican Communion Office. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Behera, Suchitra (December 2006). "Theological Education for Women in Bangladesh" (PDF). CTC Bulletin. Christian Conference of Asia. 22 (3): 75. ISSN 0217-2631. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Working Party on Women in the Episcopate 2004, p. 238.
- Cruz 2014, p. 170.
- Wilson, Lynette (17 June 2015). "After 30 years as priests, Brazil's women look toward episcopacy". Episcopal News Service. The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- Working Party on Women in the Episcopate 2004, p. 237.
- Mombo 2008, p. 131.
- "Ordination of Women in the Anglican Church of Canada (Deacons, Priests and Bishops)". Anglican Church of Canada. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Reilly & Knowles 2008, pp. 231–232.
- Chipanga, Peter (12 December 2013). "Anglican Church in Central Africa Province Vote against Women Priesthood". Newstime Africa. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- International Anglican Women's Network (2009). Progress report on implementation of resolution ACC 13-31 (PDF). International Anglican Women's Network. p. 8. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Wild-Wood & Ande 2013, p. 153.
- Mombo 2008, p. 132.
- Buchanan 2015, p. 620.
- Zagano 2008, p. 30.
- https://www.churchofengland.org/media/1121182/a8(we)background.pdf p. 1
- "Libby Lane: First female Church of England bishop consecrated". BBC News. 26 January 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Trisk 2013, pp. 619–620.
- Working Party on Women in the Episcopate 2004, p. 279.
- "Seychelles: Diocese ordains first woman priest". Episcopal News Service. The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society. 8 December 2006. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- Melton 2010, pp. 684–685.
- "First female bishop appointed in Church of Ireland". Irish Examiner. Cork. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Gubbins, Eoin (17 January 2015). "Married, female and ordained: Rev Eileen Cremin is part of progress in Church of Ireland". The Irish Times. Dublin. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- "First Woman Priest Ordained by Japan Anglican Church". ucanews.com. Union of Catholic Asian News. 23 December 1998. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Church votes for women priests". Anglican Communion News Service. London: Anglican Communion Office. Church of England Newspaper. 26 June 1998. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Jefferts Schori 2014, p. 158.
- Conger, George (25 February 2011). "Middle East approves women priests". Church of England Newspaper. London. p. 7. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
- Conger, George (10 June 2011). "Briefly noted: First women priest ordained in the Middle East". Church of England Newspaper. London. p. 7. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
- Jefferts Schori 2014, p. 157.
- Omondi, Francis (30 December 2014). "Making of Women Bishops in Kenya". The Star. Nairobi. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Rois, Judy; Faseruk, Alex (2013). "Why is the Stained Glass Window a Glass Ceiling? Organizational Perspectives on Female Bishops in the Anglican Communion" (PDF). Chicago: North American Management Society. Retrieved 12 May 2015.[dead link]
- "Korean Catholic priests become Anglican and marry". National Catholic Reporter. Kansas City, Missouri. Catholic News Service. 2 December 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- International Anglican Women's Network (2009). Progress report on implementation of resolution ACC 13-31 (PDF). International Anglican Women's Network. p. 12. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Working Party on Women in the Episcopate 2004, pp. 237, 279.
- Skidmore, David (1 July 1998). "Women's ordination no longer a burning issue for most Anglicans". Episcopal News Service. The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Thrall, James H. (1 January 2002). "Rebirth of the church in Myanmar". Anglican Journal. Toronto. Episcopal News Service. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
- "Meeting the First CNI Women Priest the Rev. Pearl Prashad". E-Newsletter of The Church of North India. 1212. Church of North India. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
- Chryssides 2010, p. 118.
- "Support for Women Priests Is Gathering Steam in the Anglican Communion". Episcopal News Service. The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society. 3 December 1992. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Kakaire, Sulaiman (29 August 2010). "Male bishops speak out on female priests". The Observer. Kampala, Uganda. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
- Stranraer-Mull 2012, pp. 31–33.
- De Gruchy 1997, p. 169.
- "Swaziland gets first female Anglican bishop". Washington Examiner. Associated Press. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Folkins, Tali (1 December 2015). "First female priests ordained in Uruguay". Anglican Journal. Toronto. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Conger, George (28 May 2015). "Province of South East Asia will not ordain women, new bishop says". Anglican Ink. AnglicanTV Ministries. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Conger, George (3 October 2013). "First woman bishop for India consecrated". Church of England Newspaper. London. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Working Party on Women in the Episcopate 2004, pp. 238, 279.
- "Sudan: Church's first woman dean installed in historic ceremony at Renk Cathedral". Episcopal News Service. The Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society. 25 August 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Chacha, Emmanuel; Mwambona, Lauden; Chidawali, Habel (16 July 2014). "Anglican Tanzania okays female bishops". The Citizen. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Nation Media Group. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- Mombo 2008, p. 133.
- Ntagali, Stanley (16 July 2014). "Church of Ugandan applauds CoE women bishops vote". Anglican Ink. AnglicanTV Ministries. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Huyck 1982, pp. 391, 396–397.
- Lewis 2001, pp. 120–121.
- Barron, James (25 September 1988). "Episcopal Diocese Chooses First Woman to Be a Bishop". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "Church in Wales' first woman bishop consecrated". bbc.com. BBC News. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- Robbins 2003, pp. 253–254.
- "Canons of the Church in Wales – Part 1" (PDF). Constitution of the Church in Wales. 2. Church in Wales. 2010. cc. 15, 23, 29. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- "Church in Wales". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Conger, George (26 June 2009). "Ghana allows women priests". Church of England Newspaper. London. p. 6.
- "Religion: Year In Review 1996". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "Women in Ordained Ministry – History". Diocese of Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Davidson, Taneisha (2 July 2006). "Female priests in demand in Jamaican Anglican diocese". Jamaica Observer. Kingston. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Hinds 2013, p. 5.
- Pearman, Mikaela Ian (25 January 2010). "Bishop Patrick White reflects on his first year in office". The Royal Gazette. Hamilton, Bermuda. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Akkara, Anto (3 October 2006). "First Anglican women priests ordained in Church of Ceylon". Anglican Communion News Service. London: Anglican Communion Office. Ecumenical News International. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Bishops of Colombo". S. Thomas' College, Mount Lavinia. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "Sri Lankan ambassador for Parliament of World's Religions". www.adaderana.lk. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Ada Derana. 4 January 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- "Ceylon bishop resigns" (PDF). Church of England Newspaper (6262). London. 16 January 2015. p. 5. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- Ajo Lázaro 2012.
- Shaw 2014, p. 343.
- Melton & Baumann 2010, p. 1744.
- "When Hong Kong ordained two further women priests in 1971 (Joyce Bennett and Jane Hwang), Florence Li Tim-Oi was officially recognised as a priest by the diocese" http://anorderlyaccount.com/index.php/static2/the_ac_tec_and_acna[permanent dead link]
- "Bill Moyers Journal. Homosexuality and the Episcopal Church (1976-2007)". PBS. 15 October 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Woman Episcopal Priest Celebrates Communion", New York Times, 3 January 1977.
- "Ordination of Women in the Anglican Church of Canada (Deacons, Priests and Bishops)". Anglican.ca. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Female ordination in the Episcopal Church, USA (ECUSA)". Religioustolerance.org. 16 September 1976. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- Oluoch 2006, p. 63.
- Byaruhanga 2010.
- "The first female priest ordained in Ireland discusses the influence of women priests in the Anglican ministry".
- "Church of England". BBC. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Carroll 2002.
- "First female priests ordained in Uruguay".
- "US Episcopal Church installs first female presiding bishop". Australia: Journeyonline.com.au. 7 November 2006. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- Episcopal Life Online[permanent dead link], 15 May 2010.
- "Sunderland woman is Church of England's first female priest to become a bishop – in New Zealand". Sunderland Echo. 11 September 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
- Anglican Taonga http://www.anglicantaonga.org.nz/news/tikanga_pakeha/bp_eleanor. Missing or empty
- "Ordination of Women in the Anglican Church of Canada"
- Wawatay News Online[permanent dead link], 13 May 2010.
- Anglican Journal, 6 June 2015.
- "Announcement by the Archbishop of Perth", 9 May 2015.
- ABC Online"Anglican Church appoints Australia's first female Archbishop Kay Goldsworthy". 29 August 2017.
- "Swaziland's Ellinah Wamukoya becomes Africa's first female bishop". Episcopaldigitalnetwork.com. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Second female Anglican bishop elected by Southern Africa". Anglicannews.org. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Ray Hartle. (20 January 2013). "SA chooses female bishop - Western Cape | IOL News". IOL.co.za. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Church in Wales backs women bishops. BBC News Wales, Sept 12 2013
- "Female bishops voted in by Church in Wales", The Guardian, 12 September 2013.
- Women Bishops Code of Practice, Church in Wales website
- "Wales consecrates first woman as bishop". churchinwales.org.uk. The Church in Wales. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
- "Consecration of the Bishop of Llandaff". Church in Wales. 17 July 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- "Bishop of Llandaff enthroned in cathedral ceremony". BBC News. 22 July 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- National Association of Diocesan Adviser in Women's Ministry (Accessed 7 January 2018)
- Butt, Riazat (8 July 2008). "Church vote opens door to female bishops". The Guardian. London.
- Revision Committee on Women in the Episcopate
- "Breakthrough with Revision Committee". Archived from the original on 3 March 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- The Guardian Online, "Church of England faces crisis as Synod rejects concession on women bishops", 10 July 2010.
- "Archbishop warns against delay over women bishops", The Guardian, 12 July 2010.
- "Women bishops: PM 'very sad' at Church of England rejection". BBC News. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
- "England: First female representatives to House of Bishops elected". Episcopaldigitalnetwork.com. 26 September 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "Women Bishops", Church of England website, May 2013.
- "Church of England General Synod backs women bishops". BBC News. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
- Prime Minister's Office announcement 25 March 2015
- "Diocese of York Media Release", 3 July 2015.
- Prime Minister's Office announcement, 26 March 2015.
- "First female diocesan bishop in C of E consecrated", Anglicannews.org, Retrieved on 23 July 2015.
- Lords Spiritual (Women) Act 2015
- Church Times report, 26 October 2015
- Prime Minister's Office announcement, 30 June 2015.
- Prime Minister's Office announcement, 2 July 2015.
- "Christine Hardman to be Twelfth Bishop of Newcastle" Archived 5 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Diocese of Newcastle website (accessed 2 September 2015).
- Diocese of Newcastle — Confirmation of Election Service for the 12th Bishop of Newcastle Archived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine (Accessed 23 September 2015)
- Prime Minister's Office announcement, 26 November 2015.
- Handley, Paul (16 February 2018). "To bless and not to bless: Archbishop Welby in conversation". Church Times. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- Irish Examiner, 20 September 2013
- "Bishop Clarke". Diocese of Meath and Kildare. Archived from the original on 20 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Irish Anglicans install Rev Pat Storey as bishop". BBC News. 30 November 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Erlanger, Steven (20 September 2013). "Anglicans Name First Female Bishop in Ireland". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Church of South India elects first woman bishop". Anglicannews.org. 25 September 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "First woman bishop for India consecrated |". Churchnewspaper.com. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "First female ECSSS Bishop consecrated in Rumbek Diocese", Catholic Radio Network website.
- "First woman bishop for GAFCON province", Anglican Ink website.
- "Scottish priest fails in bid to become first woman bishop", The Daily Telegraph.
- "First female Bishop in the Scottish Episcopal Church is elected the new Bishop of Aberdeen & Orkney". scotland.anglican.org. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- "Scottish Episcopal Church makes history as it consecrates first female Bishop". The Scottish Episcopal Church. 28 February 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2018.
- "Brazil takes “decisive steps towards gender equality” with election of its first female bishop", Anglican Communion News Service website.
- "A new dawn as the Igreja Episcopal Anglicana do Brasil consecrates its first female bishop" Anglican Journal
- Aguilera, 71, died suddenly on 10 July 2010 after a brief illness with severe anemia. Episcopal Life Online Archived 26 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine item, 11 July 2010.
- "Metropolitan Council appoints bishop coadjutor for Cuba". Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- "Episcopal News Service - World Report". Archive.episcopalchurch.org. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Episcopal News Service: Press Release 89106". Episcopalarchives.org. 8 June 1989. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Apostolic Constitution Anglicanorum coetibus providing for Personal Ordinariates for Anglicans Entering into Full Communion with the Catholic Church". Vatican.va. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- "Post-Brockton | Anglican Rose". Anglicanrose.wordpress.com. 5 December 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Ajo Lázaro, Clara Luz (2012). "Diversity in the Anglican Tradition: Women and the Afro-Caribbean Church". In Kwok Pui-lan; Berling, Judith; Plane Te Paa, Jenny (eds.). Anglican Women on Church and Mission. Canterbury Studies in Anglicanism. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Morehouse Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8192-2804-8.
- Buchanan, Colin (2015). Historical Dictionary of Anglicanism (2nd ed.). Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-5015-4.
- Byaruhanga, Christopher (2010). "Called by God but Ordained by Men: The Work and Ministry of Reverend Florence Spetume Njangali in the Church of the Province of Uganda". Journal of Anglican Studies. 8 (2): 219–239. doi:10.1017/S1740355309000011. ISSN 1745-5278.
- Chryssides, George D. (2010). Christianity Today: An Introduction. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-84706-541-4.
- Carroll, Joy (2002). Beneath the Cassock: The Real-life Vicar of Dibley. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-712207-3.
- Cox, Noel (2005). "The Nature of Ministerial Authority in the Anglican Church in New Zealand" (PDF). Churchman. Church Society. 119 (2): 105–136. ISSN 0009-661X. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
- Cruz, Joel M. (2014). The Histories of the Latin American Church: A Handbook. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Fortress Press. ISBN 978-1-4514-6564-8.
- De Gruchy, John W. (1997). "Grappling with a Colonial Heritage: The English-speaking Churches under Imperialism and Apartheid". In Elphick, Richard; Davenport, Rodney (eds.). Christianity in South Africa: A Political, Social, and Cultural History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20939-8. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
- Hinds, Sonia Sandra Juanita (2013). A Perspective on Cultural Diversity in an Anglican Setting (PDF) (D.Min. thesis). University of Toronto. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Huyck, Heather (1982). "Indelible Change: Woman Priests in the Episcopal Church". Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Austin, Texas: Historical Society of the Episcopal Church. 51 (4). ISSN 0018-2486. JSTOR 42973918.
- Jefferts Schori, Katharine (2014). "Experience of Women's Leadership in the Anglican Communion". In Thompsett, Fredrica Harris (ed.). Looking Forward, Looking Backward: Forty Years of Women's Ordination. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Morehouse Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8192-2922-9.
- Lewis, Harold T. (2001). Christian Social Witness. The New Church's Teaching Series. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cowley Publications. ISBN 978-1-56101-188-9.
- Melton, J. Gordon (2010). "Church of Ireland". In Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (eds.). Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. 2 (2nd ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-203-6.
- ——— Baumann, Martin, eds. (2010). "Lusitanian Church/Lusitanian Catholic Apostolic Evangelical Church". Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. 4 (2nd ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-203-6.
- Mombo, Esther (2008). "The Ordination of Women in Africa: A Historical Perspective". In Jones, Ian; Thorpe, Kirsty; Wootton, Janet (eds.). Women and Ordination in the Christian Churches: International Perspectives. London: T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-03154-9.
- Oluoch, Jemima Atieno (2006). The Christian Political Theology of Dr. John Henry Okullu. Nairobi: Uzima Publishing House. ISBN 978-1-870345-51-4.
- Porter, Muriel (2012). "Women Bishops in Australia: Leadership and Authority". In Lindsay, Elaine; Scarfe, Janet (eds.). Preachers, Prophets and Heretics: Anglican Women's Ministry. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. pp. 205–223. ISBN 978-1-74223-337-6.
- Reilly, Terry; Knowles, Norman (2008). "'A Union Not for Harmony but for Strength': The General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada (1892–1992)" (PDF). In Knowles, Norman (ed.). Seeds Scattered and Sown: Studies in the History of Canadian Anglicanism. Toronto: ABC Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55126-499-8. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Robbins, Mandy (2003). "A Matter of Age or Experience? Parishioners' Attitudes Toward Women Vicars in the Church of Wales". In Pope, Robert (ed.). Honouring the Past and Shaping the Future: Religious and Biblical Studies in Wales: Essays in Honour of Gareth Lloyd Jones. Leominster, England: Gracewing Publishing. ISBN 978-0-85244-401-6.
- Scarfe, Janet (2012). "Movement for the Ordination of Women: Their Hearts in their Mouths". In Lindsay, Elaine; Scarfe, Janet (eds.). Preachers, Prophets and Heretics: Anglican Women's Ministry. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. pp. 117–145. ISBN 978-1-74223-337-6.
- Shaw, Jane (2014). "Conflicts Within the Anglican Communion". In Thatcher, Adrian (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Theology, Sexuality, and Gender. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966415-3.
- Stranraer-Mull, Gerald (2012) . A Church for Scotland: The Story of the Scottish Episcopal Church (PDF). Edinburgh: Scottish Episcopal Church. ISBN 978-0-905573-42-7. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- Trisk, Janet (2013). "Women in the Anglican Communion". In Markham, Ian S.; Hawkins, J. Barney, IV; Terry, Justyn; Steffensen, Leslie Nuñez (eds.). The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to the Anglican Communion. The Wiley-Blackwell Companions to Religion. Somerset, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-65634-1.
- Wild-Wood, Emma; Ande, Titre (2013). "The Province of the Anglican Church of the Congo". In Markham, Ian S.; Hawkins, J. Barney, IV; Terry, Justyn; Steffensen, Leslie Nuñez (eds.). The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to the Anglican Communion. The Wiley-Blackwell Companions to Religion. Somerset, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-65634-1.
- Working Party on Women in the Episcopate, House of Bishops of the General Synod of the Church of England (2004). Women Bishops in the Church of England? A Report of the House of Bishops' Working Party on Women in the Episcopate (PDF). London: Church House Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7151-4037-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Zagano, Phyllis (2008). "Ecumenical Questions on Women and Church". In Mannion, Gerard (ed.). Church and Religious 'Other'. Ecclesiological Investigations. 4. London: T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-03286-7.