|◌º | ◌ª|
(masculine | feminine)
In English orthography, this corresponds to the suffixes -st, -nd, -rd, -th in written ordinals (represented either on the line 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th or as superscript, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th).
Also commonly encountered are the superscript (and often underlined) ordinal indicators º and ª, originally from Romance, but via the cultural influence of Italian by the 18th century widely used in the wider cultural sphere of Western Europe, as in 1º primo and 1ª prima "first, chief; prime quality".
The practice of underlined (or doubly underlined) superscripted abbreviations was common in 19th-century writing (not limited to ordinal indicators in particular, and also extant in the numero sign №), and was also found in handwritten English until at least the late 19th century (e.g. "first" abbreviated 1st or 1 ).
In Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and Galician, the ordinal indicators º and ª are appended to the numeral depending on whether the grammatical gender is masculine or feminine respectively. These suffixes are often underlined as well, though in regard to digital typography, this will depend on the font used. Cambria and Calibri, for example, have underlined ordinal indicators.
The masculine ordinal indicator U+00BA (º) is often confused with the degree sign U+00B0 (°), which looks very similar in many fonts and is available on the Italian keyboard layout. The degree sign is a uniform circle and is never underlined, while the letter o may be oval or elliptical and have a varying line thickness. The letter o may also be underlined.
Examples of the usage of ordinal indicators in Italian are:
- 1º primo ("first")
- 2º secondo ("second")
- 3º terzo ("third")
Galician also forms its ordinal numbers this way.
In Spanish, using the two final letters of the word as it is spelled is not allowed, except in the cases of primer (an apocope of primero) before singular masculine nouns, which is not abbreviated as 1.º but as 1.er, of tercer (an apocope of tercero) before singular masculine nouns, which is not abbreviated as 3.º but as 3.er, and of compound ordinal numbers ending in "primer" or "tercer". For instance, "twenty-first" is vigésimo primer before a masculine noun, and its abbreviation is 21.er. Since none of these words are shortened before feminine nouns, their correct forms for those cases are primera and tercera. These can be represented as 1.ª and 3.ª. As with other abbreviations in Spanish, the ordinal numbers have a period ".", which is placed before the indicator. Portuguese follows the same method.
The practice of indicating ordinals with superscript suffixes may originate with the practice of writing a superscript o to indicate a Latin ablative in pre-modern scribal practice. This ablative desinence happened to be frequently combined with ordinal numerals indicating dates (as in tertio die (written iiio die) "on the third day" or in Anno Domini years, as in anno millesimo [...] ab incarnatione domini nostri Iesu Christi (written an ͂ Mo [...] dm ͂i nri ih ͂u xp ͂i or similarly) "in the thousandth [...] year after the incarnation of our lord Jesus Christ").
The usage of terminals in the vernacular languages of Europe derives from Latin usage, as practiced by scribes in monasteries and chancelleries before writing in the vernacular became established. The terminal letters used depend on the gender of the item to be ordered and the case in which the ordinal adjective is stated, for example primus dies ("the first day", nominative case, masculine), but primo die ("on the first day", ablative case masculine), shown as Io or io. As monumental inscriptions often refer to days on which events happened, e.g. "he died on the tenth of June", the ablative case is generally used: Xo (decimo) with the month stated in the genitive case. Examples:
- Io ((primo) die Julii, "on the first day of July")
- Xo decimo
- XXo vicensimo
- Lo quinquagensimo
- Co centensimo
- Mo millensimo
In correct typography, the ordinal indicators ª and º should be distinguishable from other characters.
A frequent mistake is to confuse the degree sign U+00B0 (°) with the masculine ordinal indicator. The degree sign is a uniform circumference and is never underlined, while the letter masculine ordinal indicator has the shape of a lower case letter “o”. That means that, depending on the font, it may be circular, oval or elliptical and may have a varying line thickness. While in Brazil it is mandatorily underlined, in Portugal it is not mandatory but it is “advisable” to avoid confusions with the degree sign.
Also, the ordinal indicators should be distinguishable from superscript characters. The top of the ordinal indicators (i.e., the top of the elevated letter “a” and letter “o”) must be aligned with the cap height of the font. The alignment of the top of superscripted letters “a” and “o” will depend on the font.
The line thickness of the ordinal indicators is always proportional to the line thickness of the other characters of the font. Many fonts just shrink the characters (making them thinner) to draw superscripts.
The Romance feminine and masculine ordinal indicators were adopted into the 8-bit ECMA-94 encoding in 1985 and the ISO 8859-1 encoding in 1987 (both based on DEC's Multinational Character Set designed for VT220), at positions 170 (xAA) and 186 (xBA), respectively. ISO 8859-1 was incorporated as the first 256 code points of ISO/IEC 10646 and Unicode in 1991. The Unicode characters are thus:
- U+00AA ª FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR (HTML
- U+00BA º MASCULINE ORDINAL INDICATOR (HTML
There are superscript versions of the letters a and o in Unicode, these are different characters and should not be used as ordinal indicators.
The majority of character sets intended to support Galician, Portuguese and/or Spanish have those two characters encoded. In detail (in hexadecimal):
Portuguese and Spanish keyboard layouts are the only ones on which the characters are directly accessible through a dedicated key: º for “º” and ⇧ Shift+º for “ª”. On other keyboard layouts these characters are accessible only through a set of keystrokes.
On Windows “º” can be obtained by Alt0186 and “ª” by Alt0170. In English (International) layout “º” can be produced by AltGr+⇧ Shift+X+O, and “ª” by AltGr+⇧ Shift+X+A.
In Apple keyboards in an English-language layout, “º” can be obtained by pressing Alt+0 and “ª” can be obtained by pressing Alt+9.
In Linux, “º” can be obtained by AltGr+⇧ Shift+M or Composeo_, and “ª” by AltGr+⇧ Shift+F or Composea_.
Some languages use superior letters as a typographic convention for abbreviations. Oftentimes, the ordinal indicators "º" and "ª" are used in this sense, and not to indicate ordinal numbers. Some might say that this is a misuse of ordinal indicators:
- Spanish uses superscript letters and ordinal indicators in some abbreviations, such as V.º B.º for visto bueno ("approved"); n.º for número ("number"); D.ª for doña (an honorific); M.ª for María, a Spanish name frequently used in compounds like José M.ª; and adm.ora for administradora, administrator. The superscript characters and indicators are always preceded by a period. Traditionally they have been underlined, but this is optional and less frequent today. Portuguese forms some abbreviations in the same manner. For example: Ex.mo for Excelentíssimo (an honorific), L.da for Limitada (Ltd.), and Sr.ª for Senhora (Ms.).
- English has borrowed the "No." abbreviation from the Romance-language word numero, which itself derives from the Latin word numero, the ablative case of the word numerus ("number"). This is sometimes written as "No", with the superscript o optionally underlined, or sometimes with the ordinal indicator. In this case the ordinal indicator would simply represent the letter "o" in numero; see numero sign.
- -st is used with numbers ending in 1 (e.g. 1st, pronounced first)
- -nd is used with numbers ending in 2 (e.g. 92nd, pronounced ninety-second)
- -rd is used with numbers ending in 3 (e.g. 33rd, pronounced thirty-third)
- As an exception to the above rules, all the "teen" numbers ending with 11, 12 or 13 use -th (e.g. 11th, pronounced eleventh, 112th, pronounced one hundred [and] twelfth)
- -th is used for all other numbers (e.g. 9th, pronounced ninth).
- One archaic variant uses a singular superscript -d for numbers ending in 2 or 3 (e.g. 92d or 33d)
In 19th-century handwriting, these terminals were often elevated, that is to say written as superscripts (e.g. 2nd, 34th). With the gradual introduction of the typewriter in the late 19th century, it became common to write them on the line in typewritten texts, and this usage even became recommended in certain 20th-century style guides. Thus, the 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style states: "The letters in ordinal numbers should not appear as superscripts (e.g., 122nd not 122nd)", as do the Bluebook and style guides by the Council of Science Editors, Microsoft, and Yahoo. Two problems are that superscripts are used "most often in citations" and are "tiny and hard to read". Some word processors format ordinal indicators as superscripts by default (e.g. Microsoft Word). Style guide author Jack Lynch (Rutgers) recommends turning off automatic superscripting of ordinals in Microsoft Word, because "no professionally printed books use superscripts".
French uses the ordinal indicators er (1er – premier), re in feminine (1re – première), e (2e – deuxième). French also uses the indicator d for the variant 2d – second; in feminine this indicator becomes de: 2de – seconde. In plural, all these indicators take a S: ers (1ers – premiers), res (1res – premières), es (2es – deuxièmes), ds (2ds – seconds), des (2des – secondes).
These indicators use superscript formatting whenever it is available.
The rule in Catalan is to follow the number with the last letter in the singular and the last two letters in the plural. Most numbers follow the pattern exemplified by vint "20" (20è m sg, 20a f sg, 20ns m pl, 20es f pl), but the first few ordinals are irregular, affecting the abbreviations of the masculine forms. Superscripting is not standard.
Unlike other Germanic languages, Dutch is similar to English in this respect: the French layout with e used to be popular, but the recent spelling changes now prescribe the suffix ‑e. Optionally ‑ste and ‑de may be used, but this is more complex: 1ste (eerste), 2de (tweede), 4de (vierde), 20ste (twintigste)…
In Finnish orthography, when the numeral is followed by its head noun (which indicates the grammatical case of the ordinal), it is sufficient to write a period or full stop after the numeral: Päädyin kilpailussa 2. sijalle "In the competition, I finished in 2nd place". However, if the head noun is omitted, the ordinal indicator takes the form of a morphological suffix, which is attached to the numeral with a colon. In the nominative case, the suffix is ‑nen for 1 and 2, and ‑s for larger numerals: Minä olin 2:nen, ja veljeni oli 3:s "I came 2nd, and my brother came 3rd". This is derived from the endings of the spelled-out ordinal numbers: ensimmäinen, toinen, kolmas, neljäs, viides, kuudes, seitsemäs…
The system becomes rather complicated when the ordinal needs to be inflected, as the ordinal suffix is adjusted according to the case ending: 3:s (nominative case, which has no ending), 3:nnen (genitive case with ending ‑n), 3:tta (partitive case with ending ‑ta), 3:nnessa (inessive case with ending ‑ssa), 3:nteen (illative case with ending ‑en), etc. Even native speakers sometimes find it difficult to exactly identify the ordinal suffix, as its borders with the word stem and the case ending may appear blurred. In such cases it may be preferable to write the ordinal word entirely with letters and particularly 2:nen is rare even in the nominative case, as it is not significantly shorter than the full word toinen.
Numerals from 3 up form their ordinals uniformly by adding the suffix -ú: 3ú, 4ú, 5ú, etc. When the ordinal is written out, the suffix adheres to the spelling restrictions imposed by the broad/slender difference in consonants and is written -iú after slender consonants; but when written as numbers, only the suffix itself (-ú) is written. In the case of 4 (ceathair), the final syllable is syncopated before the suffix, and in the case of 9 (naoi), 20 (fiche), and 1000 (míle), the final vowel is assimilated into the suffix.
Most multiples of ten end in a vowel in their cardinal form and form their ordinal form by adding the suffix to their genitive singular form, which ends in -d; this is not reflected in writing. Exceptions are 20 (fiche) and 40 (daichead), both of whom form their ordinals by adding the suffix directly to the cardinal (fichiú and daicheadú).
When counting objects dó (2) becomes dhá and ceathair (4) becomes ceithre.
As in French, the vigesimal system is widely used, particularly in people's ages. Ceithre scór agus cúigdéag – 95.
The numbers 1 (aon) and 2 (dó) both have two separate ordinals: one regularly formed by adding -ú (aonú, dóú), and one suppletive form (céad, dara). The regular forms are restricted in their usage to actual numeric contexts, when counting. The latter are also used in counting, especially céad, but are used in broader, more abstract senses of 'first' and 'second' (or 'other'). In their broader senses, céad and dara are not written as 1ú and 2ú, though 1ú and 2ú may in a numeric context be read aloud as céad and dara (e.g., an 21ú lá may be read as an t-aonú lá is fiche or as an chéad lá is fiche).
|1||a h-aon||aonú (1ú) or céad|
|2||a dó||dóú (2ú) or dara|
|3||a trí||tríú (3ú)|
|4||a ceathair||ceathrú (4ú)|
|5||a cúig||cúigiú (5ú)|
|6||a sé||séú (6ú)|
|7||a seacht||seachtú (7ú)|
|8||a hocht||ochtú (8ú)|
|9||a naoi||naoú (9ú)|
|10||a deich||deichiú (10ú)|
|20||fiche or scór||fichiú (20ú)|
|40||daichead, ceathracha or dhá scór||daicheadú or ceathrachadú (40ú)|
|60||seasca or trí scór||seascadú (60ú)|
|80||ochtó or ceithre scór||ochtódú (80ú)|
One or two letters of the spelled-out numeral are appended to it (either after a hyphen or, rarely, in superscript). The rule is to take the minimal number of letters that include at least one consonant phoneme. Examples: 2-му второму /ftɐromu/, 2-я вторая /ftɐraja/, 2-й второй /ftɐroj/ (note that in the second example the vowel letter я represents two phonemes, one of which (/j/) is consonant).
The general rule is that :a (for 1 and 2) or :e (for all other numbers, except 101:a, 42:a, et cetera, but including 11:e and 12:e) is appended to the numeral. The reason is that -a and -e respectively end the ordinal number words. The ordinals for 1 and 2 may however be given an -e form (förste and andre instead of första and andra) when used about a male person (masculine natural gender), and if so they are written 1:e and 2:e. When indicating dates, suffixes are never used. Examples: 1:a klass (first grade (in elementary school)), 3:e utgåvan (third edition), but 6 november. Furthermore, suffixes can be left out if the number obviously is an ordinal number, example: 3 utg. (3rd ed). Using a full stop as an ordinal indicator is considered archaic, but still occurs in military contexts. Example: 5. komp (5th company).
Representation as periodEdit
In Basque, Bosnian / Croatian / Serbian, Czech, Danish, Estonian, Faroese, German, Hungarian, Icelandic, Latvian, Norwegian, Slovak, Slovene, Turkish, among other languages, a period or full stop is written after the numeral.
The same usage, apparently borrowed from German, is now a standard in Polish, where it replaced the superscript of the last phoneme (following complex declension and gender patterns, e.g. 1szy, 7ma, 24te, 100ny).
Representation as prefixEdit
- See Max Harold Fisch, Christian J. W. Kloesel, "Essay on the Editorial Method", in Writings of Charles S. Peirce: 1879–1884, vol. 4 (1989), p. 629: "Peirce also regularly used the nineteenth-century calligraphic convention of double underlining superscript portions of abbreviations such as M or 1 ."
- "Números ordinais e partativos". Wikidog.xunta.es.
- Ordinales, Royal Spanish Academy.
- Sobrescritos sublinhados em ordinais, Ciberdúvidas da Língua Portuguesa.
- Kennedy's Shorter Latin Primer, 1992, London, pp.28-9
- Microsoft typography — Character design standards
- Underlined masculine/feminine ordinal indicators|Adobe Community
- Sobrescritos sublinhados em ordinais
- Dicas e atalhos para usar no teclado virtual
- "no.". AskOxford.com Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2006-03-17. Retrieved 2018-07-10.
- e.g. Max Harold Fisch, Christian J. W. Kloesel, "Essay on the Editorial Method", in Writings of Charles S. Peirce: 1879-1884, vol. 4 (1989), p. 629: "In all MSS in this period, Peirce inscribed "st," "nd," "rd," and "th" in the superscript position: for convenience's sake, they are on the line in typewritten pieces. In published pieces the ordinals are superscripted to conform to Peirce's style; "2nd" and "3rd" are emended to "2nd" and "3rd". When Peirce typed abbreviated ordinals on the line, these mechanical exceptions attributable to his typewriter have been changed to superscript ordinals."
- Butterick, Matthew (October 4, 2012). "Typography for Lawyers - Ordinals". Retrieved 2012-10-04.
Bluebook rule 6.2(b)(i) (19th ed. 2010)
- McMillan, Victoria E. (2011). Writing Papers in the Biological Sciences. Bedford / St. Martin's. p. 79. ISBN 9780312649715. Retrieved 2012-10-04.
- Microsoft® Manual of Style (4th ed.). Microsoft Press. 2012. p. 316. Retrieved 2012-10-04.
- Barr, Chris; Yahoo! (2010). The Yahoo! Style Guide. Macmillan. p. 359. ISBN 9780312569846. Retrieved 2012-10-04.
- "Automatic formatting results", Word Help, Office, Microsoft.
- Lynch, Jack (April 30, 2007). The English Language: A User's Guide. Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Company. pp. 131, 213. ISBN 9781585101856.
Lynch, Jack (January 28, 2011). "Guide to Grammar and Style — M". Rutgers University. Retrieved 2012-10-04.
[...] ordinal numbers [...] no professionally printed books use superscripts [...]
- "5. La grafia de les abreviacions", Gramàtica de la llengua catalana (PDF), IEC, p. 391.
- Donald F. Reindl, 2009. "Kranjska je naša spraha: Historical German-Slovenian Language Contact". In: Christel Stolz (ed.), Unsere sprachlichen Nachbarn in Europa • Die Kontaktbeziehungen zwischen Deutsch und seinen Grenznachbarn, pp. 103–114. Bochum, Universitätsverlag, Dr. N. Brockmeyer, p. 110.