Order of Saint Alexander (Bulgaria)
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The Order of St Alexander (Bulgarian: Орден "Свети Александър") was the second highest Bulgarian order during the Kingdom of Bulgaria. It was established by Knyaz Alexander I and named after his patron saint (Alexander Nevsky).
|Royal Order of Saint Alexander|
Царски орден на свети Александър
|Awarded by The King of the Bulgarians|
|Royal house||House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Koháry|
|Religious affiliation||Bulgarian Orthodox|
|Eligibility||Bulgarian and Foreign citizens|
|Awarded for||Awarded with the personal benevolence of the monarch|
|Status||Rarely Currently constituted|
|Grand Master||King Simeon II|
|Grades||Knight Grand Cross with Collar|
Knight/Dame Grand Cross with Chain
Knight/Dame Grand Cross
Knight/Dame Grand Officer
|Next (higher)||Royal Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius|
|Next (lower)||Royal Order of Bravery|
The ribbon of the Order
The order was established with a decree on 25 December 1881, in honour of the patron saint of Alexander Battenberg. Initially it was planned to have five grades and a Necklace but subsequently four grades and Grand and Lesser Necklace were formed and in 1908 a Grand Cross was added. With time wartime grades with swords in the middle and above the cross were added. The order was awarded to Bulgarian and foreign citizens with the personal benevolence of the Bulgarian monarch, who was the Grand Master.
The order had a white enamelled cross pattée with golden or silver edges according to the grade. On the pendant of the obverse there was a stylized inscription with the name of the order and on the surrounding ring there was the motto СЪ НАМИ БОГЪ (God with us) with laurel wreaths below. On the reverse there was a white background with inscription 19 ФЕВРАЛЪ 1878 (19 February 1878) - the date of the signing of the Treaty of San Stefano. Atop the cross was a royal crown. The first grade was worn with a crimson moire ribbon over the right shoulder with a rosette in the edge. It had its own eight-ray silver star with the obverse of the order placed in the middle.
The Grand necklace consisted of thirty interconnected medallions with crowned lions, alternated with the monogram of the founder Knyaz Alexander I and eight edges Orthodox cross. There was a special issue with two field marshal's batons which belonged to Tsar Ferdinand.
The Lesser Necklace was similar to the Grand Necklace but in smaller size.
The Grand Cross, established in 1908, was also similar to the initial issue but the cross was enamelled in green and in the middle of the pendant was placed a crowned Bulgarian lion. The star was of similar design with green ring around the crowned lion on red background.
The other grades are like the first issue but smaller in size. The sixth grade was made in silver without enamel over the shoulders of the cross.
The Ottoman sultans Abdul Hamid II and Mehmed V were respectively awarded the Grand and Lesser Necklace of the Order of St Alexander with diamonds. They are currently kept in the collection of the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul.
- Great Cross of the Order of St Alexander, Grand and Lesser Necklace
- I grade, Grand Cross. Awarded to senior state officers and military personnel. It was worn with a scarf over the shoulder.
- II grade, Grand Officer Cross. The cross was with white enamel, it was worn with red ribbon and had a star.
- III grade, Commander Cross. The cross was with white or green enamel (according to the emission), it was worn with red ribbon and had no star.
- IV grade, Officer Cross. The cross was with white enamel, it was worn on the chest with triangle red ribbon with rosette, it had no star.
- V grade, Officer Cross. The cross was with white enamel, it was worn on the chest with triangle red ribbon, it had no star.
- VI grade, Silver Cross. The cross was made of silver with no enamel, it was worn on the chest with triangle red ribbon, it had no star.
Recipients of the orderEdit
- Zahari Stoyanov (1850–1899) - I grade (2 August 1889)
- General of the Infantry Danail Nikolaev (1852–1942) - I grade with diamonds (1907)
- General of the Infantry Racho Petrov (1861–1942) - I grade without swords
- Lieutenant General Radko Dimitriev (1859–1918) - I grade with swords
- General of the Infantry Nikola Ivanov (1861–1940) - I grade with diamonds
- Lieutenant General Kiril Botev (1856–1944) - I grade with swords
- Major General Sava Mutkurov (1852–1891) - I grade without swords
- General of the Infantry Stiliyan Kovachev (1860–1939) - I grade without swords
- General of the Infantry Nikola Zhekov (1865–1949) - I grade with swords
- General of the Infantry Georgi Todorov (1858–1934) - I grade with swords
- General of the Infantry Stefan Toshev (1859–1924) - I grade with swords
- Lieutenant General Mihail Savov (1857–1928) - I grade with swords
- General of the Infantry Vasil Kutinchev (1859–1941) - I grade with swords
- General of the Infantry Velizar Lazarov (1868–1941) - I grade
- Lieutenant General Stefan Tsanev (1881–1944) - I grade without swords
- Lieutenant General Hristo Lukov (1887–1943) - III grade without swords and IV grade with swords
- General Jovan Mišković, (1844-1908) - I grade without swords
- Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse (1896–1980) - I grade, Grand Cross
- Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac, Serbian composer
- The Grand Master of the Bulgarian Orders - official website of H.M. Simeon II
- "ODM of the Kingdom of Bulgaria: Order of St.Alexander". www.medals.org.uk. Retrieved 2018-04-04.
- Miller 2015, p. 570.
- Acović, Dragomir (2012). Slava i čast: Odlikovanja među Srbima, Srbi među odlikovanjima. Belgrade: Službeni Glasnik. p. 78.
- „Каталог Български ордени и медали“. Веселин Денков
- „Българските ордени и медали 1878 - 2002“. Тодор Петров
- „Ордени и медали в България“. 1998 Тодор Петров
- „Българска Енциклопедия от А-Я“. 2005 Авторски колектив към БАН