Open Data Protocol

In computing, Open Data Protocol (OData) is an open protocol that allows the creation and consumption of queryable and interoperable REST APIs in a simple and standard way. Microsoft initiated OData in 2007.[1] Versions 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 are released under the Microsoft Open Specification Promise. Version 4.0 was standardized at OASIS,[2] with a release in March 2014.[3] In April 2015 OASIS submitted OData v4 and OData JSON Format v4 to ISO/IEC JTC 1 for approval as an international standard.[4]

The protocol enables the creation and consumption of REST APIs, which allow Web clients to publish and edit resources, identified using URLs and defined in a data model, using simple HTTP messages. OData shares some similarities with JDBC and with ODBC; like ODBC, OData is not limited to relational databases.


After initial development by Microsoft, OData became a standardized protocol of the OASIS OData Technical Committee (TC).

OASIS OData Technical CommitteeEdit

"The OASIS OData TC works to simplify the querying and sharing of data across disparate applications and multiple stakeholders for re-use in the enterprise, Cloud, and mobile devices. A REST-based protocol, OData builds on HTTP, AtomPub, and JSON using URIs to address and access data feed resources. It enables information to be accessed from a variety of sources including (but not limited to) relational databases, file systems, content management systems, and traditional Web sites. OData provides a way to break down data silos and increase the shared value of data by creating an ecosystem in which data consumers can interoperate with data producers in a way that is far more powerful than currently possible, enabling more applications to make sense of a broader set of data. Every producer and consumer of data that participates in this ecosystem increases its overall value."[5]

TC participants include CA Technologies, Citrix Systems, IBM, Microsoft, Progress Software, Red Hat, SAP SE and SDL.


OData is a protocol for the creation and consumption of RESTful APIs. Thus, as common practices of REST, OData builds on HTTP, AtomPub, and JSON using URIs to address and access data feed resources.

Resource identificationEdit

OData uses URIs to identify resources. For every OData service whose service root is abbreviated as http://host/service/, the following fixed resources can be found:

The service documentEdit

The service document lists entity sets, functions, and singletons that can be retrieved. Clients can use the service document to navigate the model in a hypermedia-driven fashion.

The service document is available at http://host/service/.

The metadata documentEdit

The metadata document describes the types, sets, functions and actions understood by the OData service. Clients can use the metadata document to understand how to query and interact with entities in the service.

The metadata document is available at http://host/service/$metadata.

Dynamic resourcesEdit

The URIs for the dynamic resources may be computed from the hypermedia information in the service document and metadata document.

Resource operationEdit

OData uses the HTTP verbs to indicate the operations on the resources.

  • GET: Get the resource (a collection of entities, a single entity, a structural property, a navigation property, a stream, etc.).
  • POST: Create a new resource.
  • PUT: Update an existing resource by replacing it with a complete instance.
  • PATCH: Update an existing resource by replacing part of its properties with a partial instance.
  • DELETE: Remove the resource.

Resource representationEdit

OData uses different formats for representing data and the data model. In OData protocol version 4.0, JSON format is the standard for representing data, with the Atom format still being in committee specification stage. For representing the data model, the Common Schema Definition Language (CSDL) is used, which defines an XML representation of the entity data model exposed by OData services.

A sample OData JSON data payloadEdit

A collection of products:

  "@odata.context": "$metadata#Products",
  "value": [
      "ID": 0,
      "Name": "Meat",
      "Description": "Red Meat",
      "ReleaseDate": "1992-01-01T00:00:00Z",
      "DiscontinuedDate": null,
      "Rating": 14,
      "Price": 2.5
      "ID": 1,
      "Name": "Milk",
      "Description": "Low fat milk",
      "ReleaseDate": "1995-10-01T00:00:00Z",
      "DiscontinuedDate": null,
      "Rating": 3,
      "Price": 3.5

A sample OData Atom data payloadEdit

A collection of products:

<feed xml:base="" m:context="$metadata#Products" xmlns="" xmlns:d="" xmlns:m="" xmlns:georss="" xmlns:gml="">
  <title type="text">Products</title>
  <link rel="self" title="Products" href="Products"/>
    <category term="#ODataDemo.Product" scheme=""/>
    <link rel="edit" title="Product" href="Products(0)"/>
    <link rel="" type="application/xml" title="Categories" href="Products(0)/Categories/$ref"/>
    <link rel="" type="application/atom+xml;type=feed" title="Categories" href="Products(0)/Categories"/>
    <link rel="" type="application/xml" title="Supplier" href="Products(0)/Supplier/$ref"/>
    <link rel="" type="application/atom+xml;type=entry" title="Supplier" href="Products(0)/Supplier"/>
    <link rel="" type="application/xml" title="ProductDetail" href="Products(0)/ProductDetail/$ref"/>
    <link rel="" type="application/atom+xml;type=entry" title="ProductDetail" href="Products(0)/ProductDetail"/>
    <content type="application/xml">
        <d:ID m:type="Int32">0</d:ID>
        <d:Description>Whole grain bread</d:Description>
        <d:ReleaseDate m:type="DateTimeOffset">1992-01-01T00:00:00Z</d:ReleaseDate>
        <d:DiscontinuedDate m:null="true"/>
        <d:Rating m:type="Int16">4</d:Rating>
        <d:Price m:type="Double">2.5</d:Price>
    <category term="#ODataDemo.Product" scheme=""/>
    <link rel="edit" title="Product" href="Products(1)"/>
    <link rel="" type="application/xml" title="Categories" href="Products(1)/Categories/$ref"/>
    <link rel="" type="application/atom+xml;type=feed" title="Categories" href="Products(1)/Categories"/>
    <link rel="" type="application/xml" title="Supplier" href="Products(1)/Supplier/$ref"/>
    <link rel="" type="application/atom+xml;type=entry" title="Supplier" href="Products(1)/Supplier"/>
    <link rel="" type="application/xml" title="ProductDetail" href="Products(1)/ProductDetail/$ref"/>
    <link rel="" type="application/atom+xml;type=entry" title="ProductDetail" href="Products(1)/ProductDetail"/>
    <content type="application/xml">
        <d:ID m:type="Int32">1</d:ID>
        <d:Description>Low fat milk</d:Description>
        <d:ReleaseDate m:type="DateTimeOffset">1995-10-01T00:00:00Z</d:ReleaseDate>
        <d:DiscontinuedDate m:null="true"/>
        <d:Rating m:type="Int16">3</d:Rating>
        <d:Price m:type="Double">3.5</d:Price>

A sample OData metadata documentEdit

<edmx:Edmx Version="4.0" xmlns:edmx="">
    <Schema Namespace="ODataDemo" xmlns="">
      <EntityType Name="Product">
          <PropertyRef Name="ID"/>
        <Property Name="ID" Type="Edm.Int32" Nullable="false"/>
        <Property Name="Name" Type="Edm.String"/>
        <Property Name="Description" Type="Edm.String"/>
        <Property Name="ReleaseDate" Type="Edm.DateTimeOffset" Nullable="false"/>
        <Property Name="DiscontinuedDate" Type="Edm.DateTimeOffset"/>
        <Property Name="Rating" Type="Edm.Int16" Nullable="false"/>
        <Property Name="Price" Type="Edm.Double" Nullable="false"/>

      <ComplexType Name="Address">
        <Property Name="Street" Type="Edm.String"/>
        <Property Name="City" Type="Edm.String"/>
        <Property Name="State" Type="Edm.String"/>
        <Property Name="ZipCode" Type="Edm.String"/>
        <Property Name="Country" Type="Edm.String"/>
      <EntityContainer Name="DemoService">
        <EntitySet Name="Products" EntityType="ODataDemo.Product"></EntitySet>


The ecosystem of OData consists of the client/server libraries that implement the protocol, and applications that are based on the protocol.


There are a number of OData libraries available to access/produce OData APIs:


  • Server and client: Microsoft's OData .NET libraries[6]
  • Client: Simple.OData.Client[7]



  • Client: Apache Olingo[11] (featured by OASIS[12])
  • Client: data.js[13]
  • Client: JayData[14] for higher level of abstraction (LINQ-like syntax, support for OData geo features, IndexedDB, WebSQL, integration for DevExtreme, Kendo UI, Angular.js, Knockout.js and Sencha).
  • Client: OpenUI5 library maintained by SAP
  • Client (Node.js): JayData for node[15]
  • Client: Breeze[16]
  • Client: OData4 and Invantive Bridge Online[17]
  • Server: node-odata[18]



  • Client: PyOData[21]
  • Server and client: Pyslet[22]


  • Client: ruby_odata library[23]
  • Client: Free OData V4.0 Library for Ruby[24]
  • Server: Safrano[25]


Other languages implemented include:[26]

  • AJAX: ASP.NET Ajax Library[27] for getting to OData.
  • C++: odatacpp_client[28] is a client-side-only implementation of the OData protocol.
  • Windward Studios[29] supports OData in their Reporting & Document Generation Solutions.
  • Reporting tool List & Label has a specialized data provider for OData.
  • Blackberry (C++): OData-BB10[30] Open Data Protocol (OData) library for BlackBerry 10 (BB10) Cascades apps


Applications include:[31]


  • Nucleon Database Master [46]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Welcome!". MSDN Blogs. OData Team.
  2. ^ "OASIS Open Data Protocol (OData) Technical Committee". Retrieved 2013-08-05.
  3. ^ "OASIS Approves OData 4.0 Standards for an Open, Programmable Web".
  4. ^ "OASIS has Submitted OData v4 and OData JSON Format v4 to ISO/IEC JTC 1 for approval as an International Standard". MS Open Tech. Archived from the original on 2015-05-20. Retrieved 2015-05-18.
  5. ^ "OASIS Open Data Protocol (OData) TC | OASIS". Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  6. ^ Microsoft's OData .NET libraries
  7. ^ Simple.OData.Client
  8. ^ Apache Olingo
  9. ^ Jello-Framework
  10. ^ odata-client
  11. ^ Apache Olingo
  12. ^ "Libraries · OData - the Best Way to REST". Retrieved 2019-02-19.
  13. ^ "data.js". CodePlex Archive.
  14. ^ JayData
  15. ^ JayData for node
  16. ^ Breeze
  17. ^ OData4 and Invantive Bridge Online
  18. ^ node-odata
  19. ^ odataphp
  20. ^ POData
  21. ^ PyOData
  22. ^ Pyslet
  23. ^ ruby_odata library
  24. ^ Free OData V4.0 Library for Ruby
  25. ^ Safrano
  26. ^ "Libraries".
  27. ^ ASP.NET Ajax Library
  28. ^ odatacpp_client
  29. ^ Windward Studios
  30. ^ OData-BB10
  31. ^ "Ecosystem".
  32. ^ Progress DataDirect Hybrid Data Pipeline
  33. ^ "SAP NetWeaver Gateway". Retrieved 2012-11-22.
  34. ^ IBM developerWorks eXtreme Scale REST data service (OData)
  35. ^ "Welcome to Office 365 APIs". Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  36. ^ "Salesforce Lightning Connect & OData".
  37. ^ Skyvia Connect
  38. ^ "OData - Tableau". Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  39. ^ "OData and Spotfire". The TIBCO Blog. Retrieved 2016-03-30.
  40. ^ Mulesoft
  41. ^ "Anypoint Exchange". Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  42. ^ SuccessFactors
  43. ^ Ceridian HCM's Dayforce
  44. ^ "HR Reporting Software - Dayforce | Ceridian". Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  45. ^ "What You Need to Know About Redfish API". Exxact. 2017-12-01. Retrieved 2019-08-31.
  46. ^ "Nucleon Database Master". Retrieved 16 November 2017.

External linksEdit

OData OASIS StandardsEdit

Committee SpecificationsEdit

Committee NotesEdit