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The opera was a commercial failure, lasting only five performances in London after its premiere. In the 19th century, however, the aria was rediscovered and became one of Handel's best-known pieces. Handel adapted the aria from the setting by Giovanni Bononcini, who, in turn, adapted it from the setting by Francesco Cavalli. All three composers had produced settings of the same opera libretto by Nicolò Minato.
Originally composed to be sung by a soprano castrato (and typically sung in modern performances of Serse by a countertenor, contralto or a mezzo-soprano; sometimes even by a tenor or high baritone an octave below), it has been arranged for other voice types and instruments, including solo organ, solo piano, violin or cello and piano, and string ensembles, often under the title "Largo from Xerxes" or (as in Thornton Wilder's Our Town) simply "Handel's Largo", although the original tempo is marked larghetto.
In the opera, the aria is preceded by a short recitativo accompagnato of 9 bars, setting the scene ("Frondi tenere e belle"). The aria itself is also short; it consists of 52 bars and typically lasts three to four minutes.
The instrumentation is for a string section: first and second violins, viola, and basses. The key signature is F major, the time signature is 3/4 time. The vocal range covers C4 to F5 with a tessitura from F4 to F5.
Frondi tenere e belle
del mio platano amato
per voi risplenda il fato.
Tuoni, lampi, e procelle
non v'oltraggino mai la cara pace,
né giunga a profanarvi austro rapace.
Ombra mai fu
cara ed amabile,
Tender and beautiful fronds
of my beloved plane tree,
let Fate smile upon you.
May thunder, lightning, and storms
never disturb your dear peace,
nor may you by blowing winds be profaned.
Never was a shade
of any plant
dearer and more lovely,
or more sweet.
Because the piece is often sung out of the context of the opera there exist numerous contrafacta both secular and sacred as well as paraphrases and translations. An example of the latter is "Beneath these leafy trees sweet peace receives me" from the chapter entitled "The EE vowel" in Functional Lessons in Singing
Media and filmEdit
The song is also used in the 1988 Stephen Frears film Dangerous Liaisons during a private performance in an aristocratic salon. It is performed by Paulo Abel Do Nascimento.
- Xerse oder der verliebte König ed. O Hagen (Peters 1924) gives the title role as "Tenor" and as late as 1962 it was so sung by Luigi Alva, according to Serse#Performance history
- "Father in heav'n, Thy children hear...."(The Sunday Album of Sacred Songs (pp.46-47) (London: Bayley & Ferguson, ca.1911); "Holy art Thou" (The Ambrose Edition of Church Music, No.57, arr. for chorus by 'Leigh Kingsmill' pseudonym of Alfred William Phillips, 1844-1936, London: Ambrose Abbott & Co., n.d.); &c
- Ivan Trusler and Walter Ehret: Functional Lessons in Singing (1960, 2nd ed. 1972, Prentice-hall New Jersey)
- Collins, Ace (2010). Stories Behind the Best-loved Songs of Christmas. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-0-310-87387-7.
- Fessenden, Helen (1940). Builder of Tomorrows. New York: Coward-McCann. pp. 153–154. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
- Salazar, David (18 June 2020). "Opera Meets Film: How Kon Ichikawa's Use of 'Ombra Mai Fu' Explores Theme in 'The Makioka Sisters'". OperaWire. Retrieved 19 September 2020.