The Ogasawara clan (Japanese: 小笠原氏, Hepburn: Ogasawara-shi) was a Japanese samurai clan descended from the Seiwa Genji.[1] The Ogasawara acted as shugo (governors) of Shinano Province during the Sengoku period (c. 1185–1600), and as daimyō (feudal lords) of territories on Kyūshū during the Edo period (1600–1867).

The emblem (mon) of the Ogasawara clan
Home provinceShinano
Parent house Takeda clan
FounderOgasawara Nagakiyo
Founding year13th century
Dissolutionstill extant
Cadet branches

During the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, the clan controlled Shinano province, while related clans controlled the provinces of Awa, Bizen, Bitchū, Iwami, Mikawa, Tōtōmi and Mutsu. According to some theories, the Miyoshi clan and the Mizukami clan were descendants of the Ogasawara clan.

The clan developed a number of schools of martial arts during this period, known as Ogasawara-ryū, and contributed to the codification of bushido etiquette.[2]

Towards the end of the Sengoku period (late 16th century), the clan opposed both Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu.

During the Edo period, the Ogasawara were identified as one of the fudai or insider daimyō clans which were hereditary vassals or allies of the Tokugawa,[3] in contrast with the tozama or outsider clans.

Ogasawara clan branches edit

The fudai Ogasawara clan originated in 12th century Shinano Province.[3] They claim descent from Takeda Yoshikiyo and the Seiwa-Genji.[1] Broadly, there are two genealogical lines of the Ogasawara, the Matsuo and the Fukashi, each of which identify places in Shinano. The Matsuo line gave rise to the Ogasawara of Echizen, and the Fukashi line is ultimately established at the Ogasawara of Bunzen.[4]

The great-grandson of Yoshikiyo, Nagakiyo, was the first to take the name Ogasawara. The area controlled by his descendants grew to encompass the entire province of Shinano.[5]

Nagakiyo's grandson, Ogasawara Hidemasa [ja] (1569–1615), served Ieyasu; and in 1590, Hidemasa received Koga Domain (20,000 koku) in Shimōsa Province. In 1601, Ieyasu transferred Hidemasa to Iida Domain (50,000 koku) in Shinano; then, in 1613, he was able to return to the home of his forebears, Fukashi Castle (80,000 koku),[1] now known as Matsumoto Castle.[6]

The branches of the fudai Ogasawara clan include the following:

Ogasawara-Miyoshi line edit

The Miyoshi clan of daimyō were cadet descendants of the Ogasawara; and through them, they were also descendants of the Seiwa-Genji Minamoto.[12] At the beginning of the 14th century, Ogasawara Nagafusa established himself in Shikoku. Amongst his descendants in the 8th generation was Yoshinaga, who established himself at Miyoshi in Awa province (now Tokushima Prefecture).

Osagawa Yoshinaga took the name Miyoshi Yoshinaga and became a vassal of the Hosokawa clan, who were then the strongest force on the island. Accounts from the late 16th century include mention of Miyoshi Yoshitsugu as the nephew and adopted son of Miyoshi Chōkei. Any remnants of the Miyoshi branch of the Ogasawara clan would have been vanquished by the Chōsokabe clan as they gradually took control of the entire island of Shikoku.[12]

Notable clan members edit

Ogasawara Islands (Bonin Islands) edit

The Ogasawara clan is inlinked to Japanese discovery of the Bonin Islands, and to Japan's claim over those islands which are now administratively considered part of metropolitan Tokyo:

  • Bunroku 1 (1592): Ogasawara Sadayori claims to have discovered the Bonin Islands, and the territory was granted to him as a fief by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.[16] These claims are later proven false and Ogasawara is exiled.
  • Kanbun 10 (1670): The islands are discovered by the Japanese when a ship bound for Edo from Kyushu is blown off course by a storm.[17]
  • Enpō 3 (1675): The islands are explored by shogunate expedition, following up "discovery" in Kanbun 10. The islands are claimed as a territory of Japan.[17]
  • Bunkyū 1 (January 1862): The islands are re-confirmed as a territory of Japan, following "discovery" of the islands in Kanbun 10 (1670) and a shogunate expedition to the islands in Enpō 3 (1675).[17]

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b c Papinot, Jacques. (2003). Nobiliare du Japon – Ogasawara, pp. 44–45; Papinot, Jacques Edmond Joseph. (1906). Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie du Japon. (in French/German).
  2. ^ Ogasawara karaetendo (CA); Ogasawara karaetendo (GA). Archived 11 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b c d e f Alpert, Georges. (1888). Ancien Japon, p.75.
  4. ^ Varley, Paul. (1967). The Onin War: History of Its Origins and Background with a Selective Translation of the Chronicle of Ōnin, p. 81 n23.
  5. ^ Papinot, p. 44.
  6. ^ Rowthorn, Chris. (2005). Japan, p. 245; Wa-pedia web site
  7. ^ Papinot, p. 45; "Kokura Castle," Kitakyushu Bridges, p. 2; Kokura Castle. Archived 21 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "Nobility, Peerage and Ranks in Ancient and Meiji-Japan," p. 21.
  9. ^ a b c Papinot, p. 45.
  10. ^ Varley, p. 80 n21.
  11. ^ Papinot, p. 45; Kitakyushu, Journal of Occupational Health – Ogasawara bone sample spectrometry[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ a b Papinot, Jacques. (2003). Nobiliare du Japon – Miyoshi, p. 35.
  13. ^ Trumbull, Stephen. Samurai Heraldry, p. 61.
  14. ^ Meyer, Eva-Maria."Gouverneure von Kyôto in der Edo-Zeit." Archived 11 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine Universität Tübingen (in German).
  15. ^ "Nobility, Peerage and Ranks in Ancient and Meiji-Japan," p. 13.
  16. ^ Cholmondeley, Lionel Berners (1915). The History of the Bonin Islands from the Year 1827 to the Year 1876. London: Constable & Co.
  17. ^ a b c Tanaka, Hiroyuki (1993). "Edo Jidai ni okeru Nihonjin no Mujin Tou (Ogasawara Tou) ni tai-suru Ninshiki" ("The Ogasawara Islands in Tokugawa Japan"). Archived 25 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine Kaiji Shi Kenkyuu(Journal of the Maritime History). No. 50, June, 1993.

References edit

See also edit

External links edit