|Type||Video game developer, video game publisher|
|Fate||Acquired by Infogrames in 1996 and merged with parent company. Later renamed to Infogrames United Kingdom Limited in 1998, and later renamed again as Atari United Kingdom Limited.|
Acquired by Bandai Namco in 2009 and renamed as Bandai Namco Entertainment UK Limited
|Successor||Infogrames UK (1998) |
Atari UK (2003)
Bandai Namco Entertainment UK Limited (2009)
|Headquarters||6 Central Street, Manchester, England|
Marc Djan (Ocean France)
|Parent||Ocean International Ltd.|
The company was founded by David Ward and Jon Woods and was based in Manchester. Ocean developed dozens of games for a variety of systems such as the ZX Spectrum, Oric 1, Commodore 64, Dragon 32, MSX, Amstrad CPC, Commodore 16, Atari ST, Amiga, PC, BBC micro and video game consoles such as the Nintendo Entertainment System, Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Master System and Sega Genesis.
Jon Woods and David Ward created Spectrum Games as a mail-order business in 1983 after being inspired by the success of Liverpool based software houses Imagine Software, Bug Byte and Software Projects.:13–14 Their initial catalogue was based around clones of arcade games like Frogger and Missile Command:13 for various home computers including the ZX81, ZX Spectrum and VIC 20.
While trying to sell their titles into high street stores it became clear that the company name was confusing to owners of machines other than the ZX Spectrum.:16 The company was renamed Ocean Software leading to some of their games being re-released with different titles so the Berzerk clone Frenzy was reissued as Robotics and Missile Attack became Armageddon.
By September 1984 the success of Ocean allowed Woods and Ward to invest £50,000 in a new software house in return for a 50% stake in the company. US Gold was created by Geoff Brown, owner of Centresoft software distribution, and specialised in importing American Commodore 64 games for the UK market. US Gold had no developers to port the Commodore games for the UK's most popular home computer, the ZX Spectrum, so Ocean produced the conversions of titles such as Beach Head, Raid Over Moscow and Tapper through their external development team, Platinum Productions.:37
In October 1984 Ocean bought the name and branding of Imagine Software from the liquidators of the failed software house. Although originally intended to be a label exclusively for arcade conversions, the Imagine logo would also be used on a number of original titles, as well as on UK releases of games licensed from Spanish developers Dinamic.
In 1985 Ocean and US Gold collaborated again to launch a new label, The Hit Squad for releasing compilation packages.:69 The first release featured Ocean's Daley Thompson's Decathlon, US Gold's Beach Head, Jet Set Willy from Software Projects and Sabre Wulf by Ultimate Play the Game - all titles which had sold over a million copies - which led to the title They Sold A Million. The compilation went on to sell over a million copies itself as did the second and third instalments in the series.
Over half of Ocean's releases for 8-bit home computers were coin-op conversions and licensed games. While initially focused on British licenses, such as Hunchback from Manchester's Century Electronics, Liverpool's Frankie Goes To Hollywood and Olympic decathlete Daley Thompson their attention soon shifted to film licences with The NeverEnding Story becoming their first movie tie-in in 1985.:16
The following year would produce titles based on Rambo, Short Circuit and Cobra, as well as the first licensed Batman game, but it would be their 1988 game based on Robocop which would go on to become the most successful movie license in history by the end of the decade.
In 1986, a deal was signed with Taito and Data East for home versions of their arcade games such as Arkanoid, Renegade, The NewZealand Story and Operation Wolf. Operation Wolf was the first title to be converted to 16-bit platforms by Ocean France, a company created by Ocean and Marc Djan in 1986. The studio produced most of their 16-bit arcade conversions until 1991 when the company became the Ocean's French marketing and sales department.
In 1989, The Hit Squad branding reappeared as new budget re-release label for Ocean's 8-bit back catalogue.:72 The entire series consisted of 122 titles over seven 8-bit formats. Their uniform style and numbering has led to them becoming highly collectable. Meanwhile, the company was working on it's next big film tie-in which would be specifically aimed at the new graphically superior 16-bit computers, the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga.:53
The success of Robocop established Ocean globally,:52 and it would be Warner Brothers who suggested to Ocean that they produce a tie-in based on their forthcoming Batman movie.:58 The resulting game was another massive hit for the company and is now regarded as one of the greatest video game/film tie-ins. The game was used as the basis of the Commodore Amiga 500 "Batman Pack":58 which became one of the most successful hardware/software bundles of all time.
In 1996, Ocean Software announced a merge with French publisher Infogrames for £100 million. After the merger Infogrames kept Ocean as a separate division publishing their own games until 1998, when they were rebranded as Infogrames United Kingdom Limited and Ocean's last titles would end up being published by Infogrames' European subsidiary, Infogrames Multimedia SA. The company is now named Bandai Namco Entertainment UK Limited after Bandai Namco's purchase of Atari, SA's European assets in 2009.
Starting with Daley Thompson's Decathlon in 1984, games on the ZX Spectrum generally used the Speedlock protection system, which eventually included a countdown timer showing the time left to load a game.
Ocean was famous for often buying the rights to make video games from different arcade, film and television franchises. Many license games combined several styles for example featuring platform action and car driving. These include RoboCop (1988), Batman The Movie (1989) and RoboCop 3 (1991), which featured 3D graphics in 16-bit versions. The adventure game Hook (1992) also received positive reviews. The 1986 game Batman got a rating of 93% in Crash magazine. Among Ocean's licensed games are:
- The Addams Family
- The Addams Family: Pugsley's Scavenger Hunt
- Addams Family Values
- Batman: The Caped Crusader
- Batman: The Movie
- Cool World
- Dennis The Menace
- Eek the Cat
- The Flintstones
- Hudson Hawk
- Jurassic Park
- Knight Rider
- Lethal Weapon
- Manchester United Championship Soccer
- Miami Vice
- Navy Seals
- Rambo 3
- Red Heat
- RoboCop 2
- RoboCop 3
- Short Circuit
- Street Hawk
- Terminator 2: Judgment Day
- Top Gun
- Total Recall
- The Shadow
- The Transformers
- The Untouchables
- WWF WrestleMania
- WWF European Rampage Tour
Ocean also acquired several licenses to develop and publish conversions of arcade games for home computers. The year next to each game corresponds to the year of first release of a computer conversion.
- Cabal (1989)
- Chase HQ (1988)
- Chase HQ II (1989)
- Combat School (1987)
- Gryzor (1987)
- Hunchback (1984)
- Donkey Kong (1986)
- Midnight Resistance (1990)
- Operation Wolf (1989)
- Operation Thunderbolt (1990)
- Pang (1990)
- Rainbow Islands (1990)
- Shadow Warriors (1990)
- Salamander (1988)
- Space Gun (1992)
- The NewZealand Story (1989)
- Toki (1991)
Although Ocean was known for its licensed games, it had many other releases.
- Animal (1996)
- Armageddon (1983)
- Battle Command (1990)
- Beach Volley (1989)
- Burnin' Rubber (1990)
- Central Intelligence (1994) (included in Ocean Classics on Steam)
- Cheesy (1996)
- Choplifter III (1994)
- Daley Thompson's Decathlon (1984)
- Daley Thompson's Olympic Challenge (1988)
- Daley Thompson's Star Events (1985)
- Daley Thompson's Supertest (1985)
- Digger Dan (1983)
- Doom (SNES PAL) (1996)
- Eco (1987)
- EF2000 (1997)
- Elf (1991)
- Epic (1992)
- F29 Retaliator (1990)
- Fighters Destiny (Nintendo 64) (1998)
- Fighters Destiny 2 (Nintendo 64) (1999)
- GT Racing 97 (1997)
- Head Over Heels (1987)
- Helikopter Jagd (1986)
- Hunchback II (1985)
- Island of Death (1983)
- Ivanhoe (1990)
- Inferno (1994)
- Jelly Boy
- Jersey Devil (1997)
- Kid Chaos, also known as Kid Vicious (1994)
- Kong (1983)
- Kong Strikes Back! (1984)
- Last Rites (1997)
- Lost Patrol (1990)
- Match Day (1985)
- Match Day II (1987)
- Mission: Impossible (Nintendo 64) (1998)
- Mr. Nutz (1993)
- Mr. Nutz: Hoppin' Mad (1994)
- Mr Wimpy (1984)
- MRC: Multi-Racing Championship (Nintendo 64) (1997)
- Nightmare Rally (1986)
- Parallax (1986)
- Parasol Stars (1992)
- Pushover (1992)
- Soccer Kid (1994)
- Sleepwalker (1993)
- Super Turrican 2 (1995)
- TFX (1993)
- The Great Escape (1986)
- Tunnel B1 (1996) (Published by Acclaim Entertainment in North America)
- Weaponlord (SNES PAL) (1995)
- Wetrix (Nintendo 64) (1998)
- Where Time Stood Still (1987)
- Wizball (1987)
- Wizkid (1992)
- Worms (1995)
- Zero Divide (1996)
- Wilkins, Chris; Kean, Roger M (2013). Ocean - The History. Revival Retro Events.
- "Spectrum Games ad". Home Computing Weekly. No. 1. March 1983. p. 47.
- Wilkins, Chris; Kean, Roger M (2015). The Story Of U.S. Gold. Fusion Retro Books. p. 69. ISBN 9780993131530.
- "Going Platinum". Crash. No. 32. Newsfield. October 1985. pp. 124–126.
- Stuart Hunt. "A Life On The Ocean Wave". Retro Gamer. No. 101. pp. 53–62.
- Martyn Carroll. "The History Of Hunchback". Retro Gamer. No. 151. p. 65.
- Robert Mellor. "The Making Of Robocop". Retro Gamer. No. 46. pp. 62–65.
- Lightbody, Ian. "An interview with Marc Djan". Codetapper's Amiga Site. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
- Martyn Carroll. "The Hit Squad". Retro Gamer. No. 160. pp. 38–43.
- Robert Mellor. "The Making Of Batman The Movie". Retro Gamer. No. 41. pp. 64–67.
- "Golden Joysticks 1989". Computer & Video Games (92). EMAP. June 1989. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
- "Infogrames Entertainment S.A. History". Funding Universe. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "BANDAI NAMCO ENTERTAINMENT UK LTD. - Overview (free company information from Companies House)". beta.companieshouse.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- Eddy, Richard (September 1987). "The One David". No. 44. Crash. p. 44. Retrieved 9 January 2013. Cite magazine requires
- Hosie, Ewen (20 May 2015). "How Ocean Software Finally Made Movie-License Video Games Worth Playing". Vice. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- "Batman". Crash. No. 28. Newsfield Publications Ltd. May 1986. p. 120. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
- "DALEY THOMPSON'S SUPERTEST". Your Spectrum. No. 20. November 1985. p. 57.
- "Return of the Heroes". Your Spectrum. No. 13. April 1985. p. 36.
- Computer conversion of PC Engine game