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Occident was a far-right militant group, active in France between 1964 and 1968 and considered the "main activist group on the extreme right in the 1960s". Occident activists were known for their "commando" actions against various "enemy" targets, such as left-wing students, PCF offices, immigrant associations, or anti-colonialists.[1] A number of former Occident members later became prominent figures in mainstream right-wing parties, some even obtained ministerial positions.

Contents

HistoryEdit

Occident was founded in April 1964 by Pierre Sidos and dissidents from the Parisian section of the Federation of Nationalist Students (FEN), following their defection from the white nationalist movement Europe-Action (1963-66), led by Dominique Venner. At the outset, Occident appeared as a remake of Jeune Nation, an older neo-fascist group Sidos had created back in 1949, and disbanded by the authorities in 1958. Occident similarly used the Celtic Cross as their emblem, and violent activism played a significant part in their political agenda.[1]

On January 12, 1967, a group of Occident members attacked the Vietnam committees on the campus of the University of Rouen. About 20 members of Occident were arrested, including Gérard Longuet, Alain Madelin and Patrick Devedjian (all future right-wing ministers). This case fed the natural tendency of paranoia of the group, with suspicions that someone had tipped off the police. Patrick Devedjian, summoned for an alleged meeting, was brutally interrogated by fellow members, including waterboarding in a bathtub. Devedjian escaped in the nude.[2]

In January 1968, Roger Holeindre (future vice-President of the National Front) founded the Front uni de soutien au Sud-Viêt-Nam (United Front in Support of South Vietnam) which supported the US war effort.[3] Occident actively participated in this Front.[3]

Following violent confrontations during the period of turmoil of May 1968, Occident was termed an illegal violent group and dissolved by the administration of Charles de Gaulle on 31 October 1968 by application of the 1936 law on combat groups and private militias.[4]

ViewsEdit

The Vietnam War had replaced the Algerian War for Occident as the battleground of the far right against communist expansionism. Proclaiming itself "a violent movement and proud of it", the group aimed at "defending the West wherever it fights".[1]

Building on a "rudimentary fusion of nationalism, neo-fascism and social Darwinism", Occident was intensely anti-communist and anti-liberal, calling for the establishment of a corporatist economic regime. They promoted the overthrow of "the Masonic and plutocratic republic" in a "second French Revolution that will sweep away the pernicious effects of the first", and advocated for a "new race" of leaders who would emerge from the "nationalist ranks", not through the "myth of election" but through "selection of the best elements from the entire nation".[1]

The movement was

Prominent former membersEdit

Prominent former members include:

SlogansEdit

Its slogans included:[citation needed]

  • Mort aux Bolches !
    Death to the Bolshes (pun between bolshevik and boches)
  • Écrasons les valets du Viêt-Cong !
    Let us stomp the Viet Cong's valets!
  • Gauchistes, ne vous cassez pas la tête, Occident le fera pour vous.
    Leftists, don't break your head [worry], Occident will do it for you.
  • Sortez les manches !
    Get the handles out !
  • Sous-développés = Sous-capables
    Under-developed = Under-capable
  • Les beats sont morts; vive morts beats
    The beats are dead; long live dead beats

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Shields, James (2007-05-07). The Extreme Right in France: From Pétain to Le Pen. Routledge. p. 139. ISBN 9781134861118.
  2. ^ Frédéric Charpier, Génération Occident, éd. du Seuil, 2005
  3. ^ a b E. Lecoeur, Dictionnaire de l’extrême-droite, Larousse 2007, pp.232-233
  4. ^ Décret du 31 octobre 1968 portant dissolution de l'association dénommée Occidental
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Quarante ans après, les anciens d'Occident revisitent leur passé" (in French). 2014-02-26. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  6. ^ a b c d e Rossiello, Antonio (2018-08-28). Le origini della storiografia revisionista in Francia: Francois Duprat - Dall’Internazionalismo Trotzkyista al socialismo nazional – rivoluzionario (in Italian). Youcanprint. p. 207. ISBN 9788827844694.
  7. ^ Shields, James (2007-05-07). The Extreme Right in France: From Pétain to Le Pen. Routledge. p. 141. ISBN 9781134861118.

BibliographyEdit

See alsoEdit

Occident (1964–1968) was a French far-right militant political group, often described as fascist-leaning. A number of members of Occident later were prominent members of right-wing parties, and even obtained ministerial positions.

HistoryEdit

Founded by Pierre Sidos in 1964, it mostly recruited university students. Occident was intensely anti-communist, but also denounced the administration of President Charles de Gaulle, making common cause with the pied-noirs (French citizens living in the Algerian French Department, before the Algerian War of Independence) who accused de Gaulle of having sold them out.

On January 12, 1967, a group of Occident members attacked the Vietnam committees on the campus of the University of Rouen. About 20 members of Occident were arrested, including Gérard Longuet, Alain Madelin and Patrick Devedjian (all future right-wing ministers). This case fed the natural tendency of paranoia of the group, with suspicions that someone had tipped off the police. Patrick Devedjian, summoned for an alleged meeting, was brutally interrogated by fellow members, including waterboarding in a bathtub. Devedjian escaped in the nude.[1]

In January 1968, Roger Holeindre (future vice-President of the National Front) founded the Front uni de soutien au Sud-Viêt-Nam (United Front in Support of South Vietnam) which supported the US war effort.[2] Occident actively participated in this Front.[2]

Following violent confrontations during the period of turmoil of May 1968, Occident was termed an illegal violent group and dissolved by the administration of Charles de Gaulle on 31 October 1968[3] by application of the 1936 law on combat groups and private militias. Many of Occident's former members joined newer far-right groups such as the Groupe Union Droit (GUD) students' trade-union.

Occident and the groups that succeeded it have a Celtic cross emblem.

Prominent former membersEdit

Prominent former members include:

SlogansEdit

Its slogans included:

  • Mort aux Bolches !
    Death to the Bolshes (pun between bolshevik and boches)
  • Écrasons les valets du Viêt-Cong !
    Let us stomp the Viet Cong's valets!
  • Gauchistes, ne vous cassez pas la tête, Occident le fera pour vous.
    Leftists, don't break your head [worry], Occident will do it for you.
  • Sortez les manches !
    Get the handles out !
  • Sous-développés = Sous-capables
    Under-developed = Under-capable
  • Les beats sont morts; vive morts beats
    The beats are dead; long live dead beats

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Frédéric Charpier, Génération Occident, éd. du Seuil, 2005
  2. ^ a b E. Lecoeur, Dictionnaire de l’extrême-droite, Larousse 2007, pp.232-233
  3. ^ Décret du 31 octobre 1968 portant dissolution de l'association dénommée Occidental
  4. ^ a b c d e Schneider, Vanessa (February 13, 2002). "Du côté de chez Che". Liberation. Retrieved December 7, 2016. Comme pour banaliser ces années, il précise: «Mes amis d'Occident c'était Patrick Devedjian, Claude Goasguen, Gérard Longuet et Alain Madelin.»

BibliographyEdit

See alsoEdit