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Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food. It can be carried out by food manufacturers, or by governments as a public health policy which aims to reduce the number of people with dietary deficiencies within a population. The predominant diet within a region can lack particular nutrients due to the local soil or from inherent deficiencies within the staple foods; addition of micronutrients to staples and condiments can prevent large-scale deficiency diseases in these cases.[1]

As defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), fortification refers to "the practice of deliberately increasing the content of an essential micronutrient, ie. vitamins and minerals (including trace elements) in a food, so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and to provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health", whereas enrichment is defined as "synonymous with fortification and refers to the addition of micronutrients to a food which are lost during processing".[2]

Food fortification has been identified as the second strategy of four by the WHO and FAO to begin decreasing the incidence of nutrient deficiencies at the global level.[2] As outlined by the FAO, the most commonly fortified foods are cereals and cereal-based products; milk and dairy products; fats and oils; accessory food items; tea and other beverages; and infant formulas.[3] Undernutrition and nutrient deficiency is estimated globally to cause the deaths of between 3 and 5 million people per year.[1]

Contents

TypesEdit

Main methods of food fortification:

  1. Commercial and industrial fortification (wheat flour, corn meal, cooking oils)
  2. Biofortification (breeding crops to increase their nutritional value, which can include both conventional selective breeding, and genetic engineering)
  3. Home fortification (example: vitamin D drops)[4]

RationaleEdit

The WHO and FAO, among many other nationally recognized organizations, have recognized that there are over 2 billion people worldwide who suffer from a variety of micronutrient deficiencies. In 1992, 159 countries pledged at the FAO/WHO International Conference on Nutrition to make efforts to help combat these issues of micronutrient deficiencies, highlighting the importance of decreasing the number of those with iodine, vitamin A, and iron deficiencies.[2] A significant statistic that led to these efforts was the discovery that approximately 1 in 3 people worldwide were at risk for either an iodine, vitamin A, or iron deficiency.[5] Although it is recognized that food fortification alone will not combat this deficiency, it is a step towards reducing the prevalence of these deficiencies and their associated health conditions.[5]

In Canada, the Food and Drug Regulations have outlined specific criterion which justifies food fortification:

  1. To replace nutrients which were lost during manufacturing of the product (e.g. the manufacturing of flour[6])
  2. To act as a public health intervention
  3. To ensure the nutritional equivalence of substitute foods (e.g. to make butter and margarine similar in content, soy milk and cow's milk, etc.)
  4. To ensure the appropriate vitamin and mineral nutrient composition of foods for special dietary purposes (e.g., gluten-free products, low sodium, or any other products specifically designed for special dietary requirements from an individual).

There are also several advantages to approaching nutrient deficiencies among populations via food fortification as opposed to other methods. These may include, but are not limited to: treating a population without specific dietary interventions therefore not requiring a change in dietary patterns, continuous delivery of the nutrient, does not require individual compliance, and potential to maintain nutrient stores more efficiently if consumed on a regular basis.[4]

CriticismEdit

Several organizations such as the WHO, FAO, Health Canada, and Nestlé Research acknowledge that there are limitations to food fortification. Fortification of nutrients in foods may deliver excessive amounts of nutrients to some individuals, with consequent side effects. One example is fluoride, which can cause irreversible staining to the teeth. Another example is iron, as fortification intended to benefit women may result in too much iron consumption by men.[citation needed]

The WHO states that limitations to food fortification may include human rights issues indicating that consumers have the right to choose if they want fortified products or not, the potential for insufficient demand of the fortified product, increased production costs leading to increased retail costs, the potential that the fortified products will still not be a solution to nutrient deficiencies amongst low income populations who may not be able to afford the new product, and children who may not be able to consume adequate amounts thereof.[2]

 
Manufacturers once proposed selling fortified junk food and beer, but USFDA policies of the time forbade it

In addition to criticism of government-mandated fortification, food companies have been criticized for indiscriminate enrichment of foods for marketing purposes. Food safety worries led to legislation in Denmark in 2004 restricting foods fortified with extra vitamins or minerals. Products banned include: Rice Crispies, Shreddies, Horlicks, Ovaltine and Marmite.[7]

Limited absorptionEdit

One factor that limits the benefits of food fortification is that isolated nutrients added back into a processed food that has had many of its nutrients removed, does not always result in the added nutrients being as bioavailable as they would be in the original, whole food. An example is skim milk that has had the fat removed, and then had vitamin A and vitamin D added back. Vitamins A and D are both fat-soluble and non-water-soluble, so a person consuming skim milk in the absence of fats may not be able to absorb as much of these vitamins as one would be able to absorb from drinking whole milk. On the other hand, the nutrient added as a fortificant may have a higher bioavailability than from foods, which is the case with folic acid used to increase folate intakes.[8]

Phytochemicals such as phytic acid in cereal grains can also impact nutrient absorption, limiting the bioavailability of intrinsic and additional nutrients, and reducing the effectiveness of fortification programs.

Different forms of micronutrientsEdit

There is a concern that micronutrients are legally defined in such a way that does not distinguish between different forms, and that fortified foods often have nutrients in a balance that would not occur naturally. For example, in the U.S., food is fortified with folic acid, which is one of the many naturally-occurring forms of folate, and which only contributes a minor amount to the folates occurring in natural foods.[9] In many cases, such as with folate, it is an open question of whether or not there are any benefits or risks to consuming folic acid in this form.

In many cases, the micronutrients added to foods in fortification are synthetic.

In some cases, certain forms of micronutrients can be actively toxic in a sufficiently high dose, even if other forms are safe at the same or much higher doses. There are examples of such toxicity in both synthetic and naturally-occurring forms of vitamins. Retinol, the active form of Vitamin A, is toxic in a much lower dose than other forms, such as beta carotene. Menadione, a phased-out synthetic form of Vitamin K, is also known to be toxic.[medical citation needed]

Examples of fortification in foodsEdit

Many foods and beverages worldwide have been fortified, whether a voluntary action by the product developers or by law. Although some may view these additions as strategic marketing schemes to sell their product, there is a lot of work that must go into a product before simply fortifying it. In order to fortify a product, it must first be proven that the addition of this vitamin or mineral is beneficial to health, safe, and an effective method of delivery. The addition must also abide by all food and labeling regulations and support nutritional rationale. From a food developer's point of view, they also need to consider the costs associated with this new product and whether or not there will be a market to support the change.[10]

The Food Fortification Initiative lists all countries in the world that conduct fortification programs,[11] and within each country, what nutrients are added to which foods, and whether those programs are voluntary or mandatory. Vitamin fortification programs exist in one or more countries for folate, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin D and vitamin E. Mineral fortification programs include calcium, fluoride, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc. As of December 21, 2018, 81 countries required food fortification with one or more vitamins.[12] The most commonly fortified vitamin – as used in 62 countries – is folate; the most commonly fortified food is wheat flour.[12] Examples of foods and beverages that have been fortified:

Iodised saltEdit

"Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is the single greatest cause of preventable mental retardation. Severe deficiencies cause cretinism, stillbirth and miscarriage. But even mild deficiency can significantly affect the learning ability of populations. […] Today over 1 billion people in the world suffer from iodine deficiency, and 38 million babies born every year are not protected from brain damage due to IDD."—Kul Gautam, Deputy Executive Director, UNICEF, October 2007[13]

Iodised salt has been used in the United States since before World War II. It was discovered in 1821 that goiters could be treated by the use of iodized salts. However, it was not until 1916 that the use of iodized salts could be tested in a research trial as a preventative measure against goiters. By 1924, it became readily available in the US.[14] Currently in Canada and the US, the RDA for iodine is as low as 90 µg/day for children (4–8 years) and as high as 290 µg/day for breast-feeding mothers.[medical citation needed]

Diseases that are associated with an iodine deficiency include: mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and goiter. There is also a risk of various other growth and developmental abnormalities.[medical citation needed]

FolateEdit

Folate (as a fortification ingredient, folic acid) functions in reducing blood homocysteine levels, forming red blood cells, proper growth and division of cells and preventing neural tube defects (NTDs).[15] In many industrialized countries, the addition of folic acid to flour has prevented a significant number of NTDs in infants. Two common types of NTDs, spina bifida and anencephaly, affect approximately 2500-3000 infants born in the US annually. Research trials have shown the ability to reduce the incidence of NTDs by supplementing pregnant mothers with folic acid by 72%.[16]

NiacinEdit

Niacin has been added to bread in the US since 1938 (when voluntary addition started), a program which substantially reduced the incidence of pellagra.[17] Pellagra was seen amongst poor families who used corn as their main dietary staple. Although corn itself does contain niacin, it is not a bioavailable form unless it undergoes nixtamalization (treatment with alkali, traditional in Native American cultures) and therefore was not contributing to the overall intake of niacin.[medical citation needed]

Diseases associated with niacin deficiency include: Pellagra which consisted of signs and symptoms called the three D's-"Dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea." Others may include vascular or gastrointestinal diseases.[18] Common diseases which present a high frequency of niacin deficiency: alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, HIV infection, gastrectomy, malabsorptive disorders, certain cancers and their associated treatments.[18]

Vitamin DEdit

Since Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, it cannot be added to a wide variety of foods. Foods that it is commonly added to are margarine, vegetable oils and dairy products.[19] During the late 1800s, after the discovery of curing conditions of scurvy and beriberi had occurred, researchers were aiming to see if the disease, later known as rickets, could also be cured by food. Their results showed that sunlight exposure and cod liver oil were the cure. It was not until the 1930s that vitamin D was actually linked to curing rickets.[20] This discovery led to the fortification of common foods such as milk, margarine, and breakfast cereals. This took the astonishing statistics of approximately 80–90% of children showing varying degrees of bone deformations due to vitamin D deficiency to being a very rare condition.[21]

Diseases associated with a vitamin D deficiency include rickets, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer (breast, prostate, colon and ovaries). It has also been associated with increased risks for fractures, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, autoimmune and infectious diseases, asthma and other wheezing disorders, myocardial infarction, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and peripheral vascular disease.[21]

FluorideEdit

Although fluoride is not considered an essential mineral, it is useful in prevention of tooth decay and maintaining adequate dental health.[22][23] In the mid-1900s it was discovered that towns with a high level of fluoride in their water supply was causing the residents' teeth to have both brown spotting and a strange resistance to dental caries. This led to the fortification of water supplies with fluoride in safe amounts (or reduction of naturally-occurring levels) to retain the properties of resistance to dental caries but avoid the staining cause by fluorosis (a condition caused by excessive fluoride intake).[24] The tolerable upper intake level (UL) set for fluoride ranges from 0.7 mg/day for infants aged 0–6 months and 10 mg/day for adults over the age of 19.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Micronutrient Fortification and Biofortification Challenge | Copenhagen Consensus Center". www.copenhagenconsensus.com. Retrieved 2017-06-14.
  2. ^ a b c d World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. Archived 26 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine 2006 [cited on 2011 Oct 30].
  3. ^ Micronutrient Fortification of Food: Technology and Quality Control Archived 2 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b Liyanage, C.; Hettiarachchi, M. (2011). "Food fortification" (PDF). Ceylon Medical Journal. 56 (3): 124–127. doi:10.4038/cmj.v56i3.3607. PMID 22164753. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2012.
  5. ^ a b Darnton-Hill E (1998). "Overview: Rationale and elements of a successful food-fortification programme". Food Nutr Bull (United Nations University). 19 (2): 92–100. doi:10.1177/156482659801900202.
  6. ^ "Recommendations on Wheat and Maize Flour Fortification Meeting Report: Interim Consensus Statement" (PDF). Who.int. Retrieved 2016-03-30.
  7. ^ Bruno Waterfield (24 May 2011). "Marmite made illegal in Denmark".
  8. ^ McNulty, Helene; Pentieva, Kristina (2007). "Folate bioavailability". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 63 (4): 529–536. doi:10.1079/PNS2004383. ISSN 0029-6651.
  9. ^ A. David Smith, "Folic acid fortification: the good, the bad, and the puzzle of vitamin", American Society for Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 85, No. 1, 3-5. January 2007. Archived 18 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Richardson, D. P. (28 February 2007). "Food Fortification". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 49 (1): 39–50. doi:10.1079/PNS19900007.
  11. ^ "Why fortify?". Food Fortification Initiative. 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  12. ^ a b "Map: Count of Nutrients In Fortification Standards". Global Fortification Data Exchange. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  13. ^ Salt, The (13 July 2013). "Iodized Salt". Salt Institute. Retrieved 2016-03-30.
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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  16. ^ Honein MA, Paulozzi LJ, Mathews TJ, Erickson JD, Wong LY (2001). "Impact of folic acid fortification of the US food supply on the occurrence of neural tube defects" (PDF). JAMA. 285 (23): 2981–2986. doi:10.1001/jama.285.23.2981. PMID 11410096. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007.
  17. ^ Park YK, Sempos CT, Barton CN, Vanderveen JE, Yetley EA (2000). "Effectiveness of food fortification in the United States: the case of pellagra". American Journal of Public Health. 90 (5): 727–738. doi:10.2105/AJPH.90.5.727. PMC 1446222. PMID 10800421.
  18. ^ a b Prousky J, Millman CG, Kirkland JB (2001). "Pharmacologic Use of Niacin". Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 16 (2): 91–101.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  19. ^ "Food Fortification Technology". Fao.org. Retrieved 2016-03-30.
  20. ^ "A dose of vitamin D history". Nature Structural Biology. 9 (2): 77. 2002. doi:10.1038/nsb0202-77. PMID 11813006.
  21. ^ a b Holick MF (2010). "The Vitamin D Deficiency Pandemic: a Forgotten Hormone Important for Health". Health Reviews. 32: 267–283. doi:10.1007/bf03391602.
  22. ^ "Community Water Fluoridation | Division of Oral Health | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2018-02-21. Retrieved 2018-05-01.
  23. ^ "Medical Testimonials about Fluoridation". www.ada.org. Retrieved 2018-05-01.
  24. ^ "The Story of Fluoridation". National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Retrieved 30 March 2016.