Exotic pet

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An exotic pet is a rare or unusual animal pet: an animal kept within human households which is relatively unusual to keep or is generally thought of as a wild species rather than as a pet.

Capuchin monkeys are among the primates kept as exotic pets


The definition is an evolving one; some rodents, reptiles, and amphibians have become firmly enough established in the world of animal fancy to sometimes no longer be considered exotic.[citation needed] Sometimes any unique or wild-looking pet (including common domestic animals such as the ferret and the fancy rat) is considered an exotic pet.

"Exotic" often refers to a species which is not native or indigenous to the owner's locale, and "pet" is a companion animal living with people.[1] However, many use the term to include native species as well (e.g., snakes may sometimes be considered exotic as pets even in places where they are found in the wild).[citation needed] The American College of Zoological Medicine has defined the group as "zoological companion animals".[citation needed][clarification needed]

Legally, the definition is subject to local jurisdiction. In the United States, the Code of Federal Regulations (9 CFR 1.1), says that the term "pet animal" means "any animal that has commonly been kept as a pet in family households in the U.S., such as dogs, cats, guinea pigs, rabbits, and hamsters," and further says that "This term excludes exotic animals and wild animals."[2] It defines "exotic animal", in part, as "[An animal] ... that is native to a foreign country or of foreign origin or character, is not native to the United States, or was introduced from abroad" (a broad scope which would include most pets, such as housecats, domesticated dog breeds, horses, canaries, and parakeets).[3]

Some animals kept as exotic petsEdit

An extremely wide variety of animals have been kept as pets (at least in rare instances) or as farm stock. Below is a list of some animals that are kept in captivity at home and are considered a little or extremely "exotic". Where examples are provided within a category, the examples are the animals that are relatively commonly kept as pets in captivity at home within that category (although such animals as mice and parakeets may not really be considered very "exotic").



The Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, or CITES, moderates the trade of some exotic pets around the world, to prevent any threats to their survival and ecological damage. Certain animals may be strictly regulated or restricted outright due to both their conservation status, as well as the possibility of the animal becoming an invasive species.[4]

The USDA issues permits for keeping and breeding certain exotic species, whether captured from the wild or bred. In the United States, for example, it is illegal to import non-human primates for the pet trade, but animals bred in captivity exist in the trade, using animals descended from those brought in legally before the ban was enacted. As of September 2014, most US states forbid or regulate the possession of exotic pets, but 5 states have no license or permit requirements.[5]

In 2003, the US Captive Wild Animal Safety Act (CWASA) became law, and in September 2007 the US Fish and Wildlife Service enacted rules to enforce it. The law bans the sale or transport of big cats across state lines for the pet trade, and applies to cheetahs, cougars, jaguars, leopards, clouded leopards, snow leopards, lions, tigers, and their hybrids.[6]


Illegally transporting exotic pets is also known as wildlife smuggling, and the industry generates an estimated $7 Billion to $23 Billion (USD) each year.[7]

While there are many ways that live animals are smuggled across borders, there are often heavy losses due to the methods of transportation; many species of small animals can be piled into tiny, and usually airtight, containers and often die as a result.[8] In one example of smuggling, slow lorises trafficked from Indonesia have their teeth removed prior to being sold locally, or exported to Japan or Russia. The animals are not given any pain relievers during their surgeries.[9]

International treaties (such as CITES) have been established to combat the illegal sale and transport of vulnerable animals and plants, but failure to properly enforce these regulations leave many loopholes for the illegal trade to continue. For example, the United States has both signed CITES during its creation as well as created its own national laws against the import and sale of elephant ivory, but as of 2008 it was found to be the second largest importer of it behind China.[10]

Impact on the worldEdit

Historically, trade in exotic pets has been known to drive the destruction and extinction of animals in the wild. To a much smaller extent, this holds today: one of the major factors behind the status of the slow loris is the fact it is often kept locally as a pet, or traded to Japan.[citation needed]

However, with captive breeding of exotic animals becoming more prevalent, fewer and fewer animals are being captured from the wild.[citation needed]


Veterinary costs for treatment of exotic animals may be significantly higher than for a more conventional pet, owing to the increased specialization required.[11]

Zoonotic disease is known to occur in a small number of exotic pets. The American Veterinary Medical Association, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Animal Control Association, the American Zoo and Aquarium Association and the CDC all discourage the private ownership of certain exotic animals.[12] Animals that are captive-bred in the United States have no risk of contracting any harmful disease as they are not exposed to it in any way.[citation needed]

In the UK, voluntary organizations such as the "NCRW" (National Centre for Reptile Welfare)[13] and "SEEPR" (South East Exotic Pet Rescue) take in unwanted, ill, or lost exotic animals and nurse them back to full health before rehoming them.


Providing appropriate environmental conditions, housing and diet for an exotic animal may be difficult for several reasons:

  • insufficient information may be available on caring for such animals in captivity, though this is rapidly changing.
  • adequate housing may be difficult and/or expensive to procure or build. This is usually only a problem for large and/or highly active animals that need a large amount of space.
  • it may be difficult to provide the correct environment (such as temperature or amount of sunlight)
  • feeding the correct diet may be difficult or impossible
  • providing the right social environment for highly social species may be impractical or impossible in a home setting.
  • licensing may be required for the owning or breeding of some exotic animals. Most US states and municipalities, for example, regulate exotic pet ownership.

However, captive care and husbandry information for many commonly kept amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small exotic mammals are widely available through literature, animal enthusiast groups, and Internet websites and discussion forums.

Risk to humansEdit

Exotic animals retain their unpredictable wild nature, with some being physically capable of maiming or killing their owners. Mammals are the most likely exotic pets to injure or kill humans, with non-human primates topping the list.

Even if they are bred for the pet trade and raised by humans, they may be unpredictable, relatively resistant to training; in some cases, especially as full-grown adults, they can be dangerous. Injuries to humans may be relatively common, but reported yearly deaths due to exotic pet ownership are rare. Statistics compiled by an advocacy organization[14] indicate a yearly average of less than 3.5 fatalities per year in the United States;[15] and another lists 87 exotic animal incidents resulting in human death from June 20, 1990 to April 15, 2016.[16]


Animal markets in impoverished, tropical countries often sell primates, such as these slow lorises, to both tourists and local people as pets, despite laws against the trade.

It has been estimated that as many as 15,000 primates are kept by private individuals as pets in the United States.[17] Nine states ban the keeping of non-human primates, but no federal law regulates ownership. In 1975, the Center for Disease Control prohibited their import into the US for use as pets. The breeding industry uses descendants of animals imported before 1975.[18] Non-human primates of various species, including those listed as endangered, such as cottontop tamarins, baboons, chimpanzees, Diana monkeys, lemurs and gibbons are still available for purchase in the US, although due to captive breeding, this does not affect wild populations. For example, chimpanzees are popular in some areas despite their strength, aggression, and wild nature. Even in areas where keeping primates as pets is illegal, the exotic pet trade continues to prosper and some people keep chimpanzees as pets mistakenly believing that they will bond with them for life. As they grow, so do their strength and aggression; some owners and others interacting with the animals have lost fingers and suffered severe facial damage among other injuries sustained in attacks.[19]

Many professionals, including veterinarians, zoologists, humane societies and others, strongly discourage the keeping of primates as pets, as their complex emotional and social needs and other highly specialized requirements may be difficult to meet by the average owner.[19][20]

Although the breeding population has been largely isolated from wild populations outside the US, they still have the potential to transmit zoonotic disease. There is a considerable risk of monkey B virus from rhesus macaques. Research workers have died from this disease contracted from non-human primate research subjects.[21] Additionally, there is considerable risk to the non-human primate pet through transmission of human disease. One such example is herpes simplex virus, which can be deadly to certain smaller monkeys.[17]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "A framework for assessing the suitability of different species as companion animals, Appendix C"; Animal Welfare 2000, 9:359-372, p. 360 pet animal, as defined by the European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals (Council of Europe 1987) as: animals sharing man's companionship and in particular living in his household.
  2. ^ USLegal (2016). "Pet animal". Retrieved 30 December 2018. According to 9 CFR 1.1 [Title 9 – Animals and Animal Products; Chapter I – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Department of Agriculture]
  3. ^ "Exotic Animal Law & Legal Definition". USLegal. Retrieved 8 October 2012. Exotic animal is defined by 9 CFR 1.1
  4. ^ "What is CITES?". Retrieved 2010-03-26.
  5. ^ Summary of US State laws regarding Exotic Pets from the Born Free USA website and Map of Exotic-Animal-Laws at Born Free USA website. Both accessed May 22, 2016.
  6. ^ Federal Register: August 16, 2007 (Volume 72, Number 158)
  7. ^ "World Wildlife Day Highlights Severity of Wildlife Crime". African Wildlife Foundation. 2015-03-02. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
  8. ^ Hundreds of dead wild animals found at South Africa airport.
  9. ^ Actman, Jani (September 26, 2017). "Are Humans Pushing the Slow Loris to Extinction?". National Geographic. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
  10. ^ "U.S. One of Largest Ivory Markets, New Study Says". news.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2018-03-24.
  11. ^ "Exotic Pet FAQ". Archived from the original on 2010-03-22. Retrieved 2010-03-26.
  12. ^ Exotic animals bringing health risks with them
  13. ^ https://www.ncrw.co.uk/
  14. ^ Responsible Exotic Animal Ownership
  15. ^ "Total Numbers and Odds of an Accidental Death in the USA by Cause of Injury in 2005" (PDF). REXANO. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
  16. ^ "Exotic Animal Incidents Category: Escape/Attack resulting in human death". Born Free, USA. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  17. ^ a b "The Perils of Keeping Monkeys as Pets". Retrieved 2008-07-13.
  18. ^ "B-virus from Pet Macaque Monkeys: An Emerging Threat in the United States?". January–March 1998. Retrieved 2010-03-26.
  19. ^ a b "Chimpanzees Don't Make Good Pets". The Jane Goodall Institute. Archived from the original on 2 February 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  20. ^ McLeod, Dianne (September 25, 2018). "Problems with Pet Monkeys – Monkeys Make Poor Pets". The Spruce at About.com. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
  21. ^ "B Virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) Infection CDC NCID". Retrieved 2008-07-13.

External linksEdit