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Nothosauridae are an extinct family of carnivorous aquatic sauropterygian reptiles from the Triassic time period of China, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Netherlands, Russia, Switzerland, and northern Africa.[1][3]

Nothosauridae
Temporal range: Triassic
Nothosaurus.jpg
Nothosaurus raabi fossil
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Superorder: Sauropterygia
Order: Nothosauroidea
Suborder: Nothosauria
Family: Nothosauridae
Seeley, 1889
Genera[2]
An impression of Ceresiosaurus eating a small aquatic animal

PhylogenyEdit

The cladogram shown below follows Rieppel (1998)'s phylogenetic analysis of nothosaurids (bold terminal taxa contain living species).[2] Most of these relations are still considered correct today,[4] but despite Rieppel (1998)'s referral of Ceresiosaurus and Silvestrosaurus to Lariosaurus, some authors still consider them separate and many additional species have been named since this analysis.[5]


 Archosauromorpha 

Prolacertiformes

Choristodera

Rhynchosauria

Trilophosaurus

Archosauriformes

 Lepidosauromorpha 

Kuehneosauridae

Lepidosauria

Testudines

Placodontia

 Pistosauroidea 

Corosaurus

Cymatosaurus

Pistosaurus

 Nothosauroidea 
 Pachypleurosauria 

Dactylosaurus

Neusticosaurus-Serpianosaurus

 Nothosauria 

Simosaurus

 Nothosauridae 

Germanosaurus

Nothosaurus

Lariosaurus balsami (type species of Lariosaurus)

Lariosaurus curionii

Ceresiosaurus

Silvestrosaurus

Lariosaurus valceresii

A species level phylogenetic analysis of Nothosauridae was performed by Liu et al. (2014), and included all known valid species of the family apart from Lariosaurus stensioi (type of Micronothosaurus), Nothosaurus cymatosauroides, and Ceresiosaurus lanzi. The resultant topology is similar to the one obtained in Rieppel (1998) if the new additions are ignored, however this analysis found both Lariosaurus and Nothosaurus to be polyphyletic in regard to each-other and all other genera of the family, making a systematic revision of these two genera necessary. Below, their results are shown with type species of named nothosaurid genera noted.[6]


Pachypleurosauria

 Nothosauria 

Simosaurus gaillardoti

 Nothosauridae 

Germanosaurus latissimus (type of Germanosaurus)

Nothosaurus zhangi

Nothosaurus haasi

Nothosaurus edingerae

Nothosaurus jagisteus

Nothosaurus mirabilis (type of Nothosaurus)

Nothosaurus tchemovi

Nothosaurus marchicus

Nothosaurus yangiuanensis

Nothosaurus giganteus

Nothosaurus juvenilis

Lariosaurus hongguoensis

Lariosaurus buzzii (type of Silvestrosaurus)

Nothosaurus winkelhorsti

Lariosaurus xingyiensis

Nothosaurus youngi

Lariosaurus calcagnii (type of Ceresiosaurus)

Lariosaurus valceresii

Lariosaurus balsami (type of Lariosaurus)

Lariosaurus curionii

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c The Paleobiology Database: Nothosauridae
  2. ^ a b Olivier Rieppel (1998). "The status of the sauropterygian reptile genera Ceresiosaurus, Lariosaurus, and Silvestrosaurus from the Middle Triassic of Europe". Fieldiana: Geology. New Series. 38: 1–46.
  3. ^ Nothosauridae
  4. ^ Lee, M. S. Y. (2013). "Turtle origins: Insights from phylogenetic retrofitting and molecular scaffolds". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 26 (12): 2729–2738. doi:10.1111/jeb.12268. PMID 24256520.
  5. ^ Jasmina Hugi (October 2011). "The long bone histology of Ceresiosaurus (Sauropterygia, Reptilia) in comparison to other eosauropterygians from the Middle Triassic of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland/Italy)". Swiss Journal of Palaeontology. 130 (2): 297–306. doi:10.1007/s13358-011-0023-6.
  6. ^ Jun Liu; Shi-xue Hu; Olivier Rieppel; Da-yong Jiang; Michael J. Benton; Neil P. Kelley; Jonathan C. Aitchison; Chang-yong Zhou; Wen Wen; Jin-yuan Huang; Tao Xie; Tao Lv (2014). "A gigantic nothosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of SW China and its implication for the Triassic biotic recovery". Scientific Reports. 4: Article number 7142. doi:10.1038/srep07142. PMC 4245812. PMID 25429609.