Northwest Arkansas (NWA, officially designated by the United States Census Bureau as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Statistical Area) includes Fayetteville, Springdale, Rogers, and Bentonville, the third, fourth, eighth and tenth largest cities in Arkansas. These cities are located within Benton and Washington counties; NWA also includes Madison County in Arkansas and McDonald County, Missouri, according to the Census Bureau definition.
Northwest Arkansas, AR-MO Metropolitan Statistical Area
|Other Municipalities||Bella Vista
|• Total||3,213.01 sq mi (8,321.7 km2)|
|• Total||525,032  (105th)|
|• Density||153/sq mi (59/km2)|
|Time zone||Central Time Zone (UTC-6)|
|Area code(s)||479, 417|
|Highest elevation 2515 ft/767 m
Lowest elevation 800 ft/244 m (sea level) at Beaver Lake.
As per the 2016 United States Census Bureau estimates, NWA is the 105th largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States (525,032 residents) and the 22nd fastest growing in the US. The MSA covers 3,213.01 sq mi (8,322 km2), located within the Boston Mountains and Springfield Plateau subsets of The Ozarks.
Northwest Arkansas doubled in population between 1990 and 2010. Growth has been driven by the three Fortune 500 companies based in NWA: Walmart Stores, Inc., Tyson Foods, and J.B. Hunt Transport Services, Inc., as well as over 1,300 suppliers and vendors drawn to the region by these large businesses and NWA's business climate. The region has also seen significant investment in amenities, including the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, the Walmart AMP, and the NWA Razorback Regional Greenway.
Constituent counties of the MSA include:
Fayetteville is the county seat of Washington County and home to the University of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 76,899. The city is the third most populous in Arkansas and serves as the county seat of Washington County. It's also known for Dickson Street, perhaps the most prominent entertainment district in the state of Arkansas, which itself contains the Walton Arts Center. Blocks from Dickson Street is the Fayetteville Historic Square, which hosts the nation's number one ranked Fayetteville's Farmer's Market. Fayetteville was also ranked 8th on Forbes Magazine's Top 10 Best Places in America for Business and Careers in 2007. Business insider named Fayetteville the 2nd best place to live in the South in 2016.
Springdale is a city in Washington and Benton Counties. According to 2010 Census Bureau, the population of the city is 73,123. Springdale is currently Arkansas's fourth-largest city, behind Little Rock, Fort Smith, and Fayetteville. Springdale is the location of the headquarters of Tyson Foods Inc., the largest meat producing company in the world, and has been dubbed the "Chicken Capital of the World" by several publications. In 2008, the Wichita Wranglers of AA minor league baseball's Texas League moved to Springdale and play in Arvest Ballpark as the Northwest Arkansas Naturals.
Rogers is a city in Benton County. As of the 2010 census, the city is the eighth most populous in the state, with a total population of 58,895. Rogers is famous as the location of the first Wal-Mart. In June 2007, BusinessWeek magazine ranked Rogers 18th in the 25 best affordable suburbs in the South. In 2010, CNN Money magazine ranked Rogers as the 10th Best Place to Live in the United States. The city is the home town of American country music singer/songwriter Joe Nichols, and Marty Perry, as well as David Noland. It is also where comedian Will Rogers married Betty Blake.
Bentonville is the county seat of Benton County. At the 2010 census, the population was 38,284, up from 20,308 in 2000 ranking it as the state's 10th largest city. Bentonville also is the county seat of Benton County and home to the headquarters of Wal-Mart, which is the largest retailer in the world. Bentonville has the location of the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art. Founded by Sam Walton's daughter Alice Walton and designed by world-renowned architect Moshe Safdie, this museum is home to some of America's finest works of art. Southern Living magazine recently cited Bentonville as "the South's next cultural mecca."
Northwest Arkansas is located in the Southern United States, though McDonald County in Missouri is located in the Midwest. It is within the Upper South, characterized by the Ozarks. The southern part of NWA is a high and deeply dissected plateau, full of sparsely populated oak-hickory forest, separating the region from the Arkansas River Valley to the south.
NWA is located within the Ozark Mountains, a deeply dissected plateau within the U.S. Interior Highlands, the largest mountainous region between the Appalachians and the Rocky Mountains. Although the topography varies widely within the region, the Ozark geology is present throughout. Roughly at Fayetteville, the geology splits between the Boston Mountains to the south and the Springfield Plateau to the north. The Ouachita orogeny exposed the older limestones of the Springfield Plateau, resulting in a softer terrain, while the Boston Mountains retained steep, sharp grade changes. The Ozarks are covered by an oak-hickory-pine forest, with large portions of protected forestland remaining NWA. Approximately 25% of this forest has been cleared for development and agricultural uses.
Within NWA, the White River is impounded at several locations, the most important of which is at Beaver Dam, forming the 13,700 acres (5,500 ha) Beaver Lake. This reservoir was created in the 1960s for flood control, recreational, and energy production uses. It also serves as the water supply for most of NWA, with Beaver Water District treating potable water and selling it directly to the four largest NWA municipalities.
The Illinois River watershed is a sensitive watershed that has been the subject of controversy within the area for many years. The phosphorus load of the Illinois has been subject of controversy, eventually resulting in litigation between Oklahoma and Arkansas reaching the United States Supreme Court in 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has classified the Illinois as Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, listing it as an "impaired and threatened water" due to the high phosphorus loads.
|Region compared to State & U.S.|
|Population change, 2000 to 2010||+33.5%||+9.1%||+9.7%|
|Population density (people/sqmi)||144.2||54.8||87.4|
|Median household income (2016)||$51,848||$44,334||$57,617|
|Bachelor's degree or higher||28.2%||19.5%||25.1%|
|Foreign born (2016)||10.7%||4.7%||13.7%|
|Hispanic (any race)||14.9%||6.4%||16.3%|
Northwest Arkansas is the second-largest population center in the state, behind Central Arkansas. The two regions rank as 109th and 76th nationally by population, respectively. The region is the fastest-growing in the state, and the 22nd fastest-growing in the United States, with a 13.35% growth rate between 2010 and 2016. Rather than a central city with suburbs model, Northwest Arkansas emerged as a unified region as small, disconnected cities grew and amalgamated over time. Thus, the official Census Bureau name Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Statistical Area does not reflect traditional "Fayetteville as a principal city, with Springdale and Rogers as suburbs" model; rather a listing of the three largest cities in the region at the time of naming.
Over half of Northwest Arkansas's population resides within the largest four cities, Fayetteville, Springdale, Rogers, and Bentonville, with each having demographic characteristics congruent with its largest employer. Fayetteville, home to the University of Arkansas, contains the highest proportion of adults over 25 with a bachelor's degree or higher, at 44.8%, significantly above the other communities, and in line with major metropolitan areas. Bentonville, home to white-collar workers at the Walmart Home Office and the ancillary vendor community, has the highest per-capita income in the region. Springdale and Rogers contain significant manufacturing and construction industries, and a corresponding high percentage of Blue-collar workers and major foreign-born populations. Over 10% of businesses in Springdale and Rogers are Hispanic-owned.
Approximately half of Northwest Arkansas residents are transplants from a different state or country.
Race and ethnicityEdit
The region is less diverse than Arkansas and United States averages, with a 1.9% black population accounting for much of the proportional difference. The national trends of an increasing non-white proportion of the population and migration from rural areas to urban areas has also been seen in Northwest Arkansas and statewide since the 1990s, though the non-white population growth has lagged national averages. Historically, the northwestern half of the state was predominantly settled by whites in small farms for subsistence agriculture due to the hilly terrain and rocky soils, rather than the slave-intensive labor of plantation agriculture typical in the fertile and flat Arkansas Delta.
Northwest Arkansas institutions have placed different priority on diversity within the region. University of Arkansas Chancellor John A. White designated diversity the top institutional goal in 2010, seeking to create a campus community in line with state and national averages. The Northwest Arkansas Council listed "Promote racial, cultural, and ethnic diversity in Northwest Arkansas" last among priority placemaking objectives within the 2015 strategic plan.
The city of Gentry has a dense community of Hmong Americans, many resettled by the United States after the North Vietnamese invasion of Laos and subsequent Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act. Hmong National Development, a subsidiary of Hmong American Partnership, has an office in Fayetteville and Fairview, Missouri, one county north of the official Northwest Arkansas boundary. Gentry School District was the epicenter of cultural conflicts among Hmong, Hispanic, and white residents in the early 2000s.
A 2016 study of blacks and Hispanics in Arkansas cities found median incomes rising for blacks and declining for Hispanics in Bentonville.
Sexual orientation and gender identityEdit
The Northwest Arkansas Center for Equality has sponsored the Northwest Arkansas Pride parade since 2006. The parade runs from the Fayetteville Historic Square down Dickson Street in Fayetteville. A state poll in 2017 showed 84% of Arkansans believe LGBT residents should have equal employment rights, and 78% believing equal rights to housing should be afforded. Arkansan support for equal treatment in adoptions (43%), and gay marriage (35%), were significantly below national averages, 61% and 64%, respectively. Arkansas is one of three states which does not prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. Fayetteville and Eureka Springs have recently worked to provide legal protections for LGBT residents. Fayetteville has worked legislatively and through the court system since 2014 to establish protections for LGBT residents in the city.
The Fayetteville City Council passed Ordinance 119 in August 2014 by a 6-2 vote at 3:20 am, after an extended public comment period, which included testimony from LGBT residents who had encountered discrimination. Ordinance 119 extended protections, including against termination and eviction, and created a Civil Rights Commission to investigate violations. An opposition group gathered enough signatures to put repealing the ordinance to the voters of Fayetteville, who repealed the ordinance by a 52-48% margin. The City Council put a similar measure, the Uniform Civil Rights Protection Ordinance 5781, to a public vote in September 2015, which passed 53-47%. In the interim, Republican State Senator Bart Hester, who represents northwestern Benton County in Northwest Arkansas, proposed the Intrastate Commerce Improvement Act in response to the Fayetteville Ordinance, which prohibited municipalities in Arkansas from creating new protected classes in Arkansas. The Arkansas General Assembly passed the act, known as Act 137. In February 2017, the Arkansas Supreme Court declared Ordinance 5781 unconstitutional for violating Act 137, but did not rule on the act's constitutionality, which has been questioned. The ruling drew national attention to Arkansas, and comparisons to HB 2 in North Carolina.
As of the census of 2000, there were 347,045 people, 131,939 households, and 92,888 families residing within the MSA. The racial makeup of the MSA was 89.70% White, 1.22% African American, 1.53% Native American, 1.19% Asian, 0.29% Pacific Islander, 4.03% from other races, and 2.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.32% of the population. Over the past decade or more, Northwest Arkansas has been one of the fastest growing regions in the South.
The median income for a household in the MSA was $32,469, and the median income for a family was $38,118. Males had a median income of $27,025 versus $20,295 for females. The per capita income for the MSA was $16,159.
Booming prosperity accompanying a tremendous increase in the area's population has made Northwest Arkansas a recognized economic success. Many migrants come from Northeast Arkansas, South-Central Arkansas, and North Central Arkansas, to work in this booming area. The area is now seeking residents from places like Southwest Arkansas, and even Southeast Arkansas. The state's population grew 13.7 percent between 1990 and 2000, but the two-county metropolitan statistical area accounted for one-third of that growth. Benton and Washington counties grew 47 percent between 1990 and 2000. Almost all of the people who moved to those counties then were from California, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Texas and other parts of Arkansas. Estimates put the two-county population at roughly 373,055 by December 2004. Even during national economic turmoil, Northwest Arkansas has experienced 8.2 percent job growth. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in February 2008 the Northwest Arkansas region as a whole had an unemployment rate of 4.1%. This unemployment rate gave Northwest Arkansas a rank of 41 out of 369 metropolitan areas in the United States. Per capita income in Northwest Arkansas is $31,191, according to the most recent figures from the United States Census Bureau. This is approximately $7,000 below the average per capita income.
Bentonville is world-renowned as a retail capital of the world, as it is headquarters to Wal-Mart Stores Incorporated. Springdale is home to Fortune 75 company Tyson Foods, the world's leading producer of poultry and beef, and second-largest producer of pork. J.B. Hunt Transport Services in Lowell, is the nation's largest publicly owned truckload carrier, with international networks in Canada and Mexico.
Northwest Arkansas has a strong tradition of education. Cane Hill College was founded in western Washington County in 1834; the first college in Arkansas, and Arkansas College was founded in Fayetteville in 1850. Though both colleges are now defunct, these institutions laid the groundwork for establishing the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville in 1871, today the largest and best-known university in the state. Seven of the top ten school districts in Arkansas are within Benton or Washington counties, including Haas Hall Academy, a top 100 high school nationwide.
As of July 2016, 85.3% of Northwest Arkansas residents over age 25 held a high school degree or higher and 30.9% holding a bachelor's degree or higher. The Northwest Arkansas rates are above Arkansas averages of 84.8% and 21.1%, and near national averages of 86.7% and 29.8%, respectively.[a]
Primary and secondary educationEdit
Northwest Arkansas public school districts range from small, rural districts to some of the largest districts in the state. Among the four large cities, each district contains two high schools, with the exception of Fayetteville Public Schools: Bentonville and Bentonville West, Rogers and Rogers Heritage, and Springdale and Springdale Har-Ber. These schools, combined with Fayetteville (and Van Buren from the Arkansas River Valley) constitute the 7A West Conference for athletics, the largest class in the state. The region's growth has led to many new schools throughout the region, including high schools. Rogers Heritage High School was established in 2008, Rogers New Technology High School, and Bentonville West High School opened in 2014.
There are also several private, charter, parochial, and secular schools, including Shiloh Christian School in Springdale.
- University of Arkansas
- The University of Arkansas (UA) is a public co-educational land-grant university. It is the flagship campus of the University of Arkansas System and is located in Fayetteville, Arkansas. It is noted for its strong architecture, agriculture (particularly poultry science), creative writing, and business programs. Sports are also important to the university, as they are home to the state's beloved Arkansas Razorbacks.
- John Brown University
- Northwest Arkansas Community College (NWACC)
- Ecclesia College
Public library systemsEdit
The Fayetteville Public Library is the largest library in Northwest Arkansas. The other libraries in Washington County have formed the Washington County Library System (WCLS).
Entertainment and recreationEdit
The Northwest Arkansas region is widely known for its natural beauty, and outdoor recreation. A local outdoor favorite is Devil's Den State Park, located outside of Fayetteville in West Fork, Arkansas. The park offers scenic camping, climbing, fishing, caves, trails, and hiking through the Ozark Mountains. The park is located just off Highway 74.
The most popular water destination is Beaver Lake. Beaver Lake has some 487 miles (784 km) of natural shoreline, with towering limestone bluffs, natural caves, and a wide variety of trees and flowering shrubs. Paved access roads wind through twelve developed parks, all of which have modern campsites offering electricity, fire rings, drinking water, showers, and restrooms. Other facilities, such as picnic sites, swimming beaches, hiking trails, boat launch ramps, and sanitary dump stations are also available.
The Botanical Garden of the Ozarks, which covers 86 acres (350,000 m2), is a new botanical garden now taking shape near Fayetteville. The site is located at the Fayetteville-Springdale border on Crossover Road (Highway 265) and currently includes seasonal plantings in a small area, a wildflower meadow, a lakeside hiking trail, and a self-guided tree identification tour. The garden's history dates to 1993 with a 2001 master plan. Construction will be undertaken in three phases. Phase 1 will build the garden gateway and entry road, parking area, visitor center, cafe and dining terrace, exhibit gallery, conference room, and 1/3 of the core gardens with 1/2 of the horticulture and maintenance facilities. Phase 2 will create additional gardens, offices, classrooms, boat rental facility, amphitheater, observatory, demonstration gardens, and the remaining core gardens. Phase 3 will add trails, tropical conservatory, and lakeside overlooks, with the western 50 acres (200,000 m2) dedicated to native woodland plant restoration and wayside interpretive stations.
Art and entertainmentEdit
The Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art in Bentonville was recently completed. The museum, funded by Sam Walton's daughter, Alice Walton, and designed by world-renowned architect Moshe Safdie, is home to some of America's finest works of art and has immediately become one of the nation's premier art museums.
The Walton Arts Center is Arkansas' largest performing arts center. It is located in Fayetteville near the campus of the University of Arkansas and serves as a cultural center for the Northwest Arkansas area. The building was opened in 1992 in large part because of funds donated by the Walton family (of Wal-Mart). The center is host to many musicals, plays, and other artistic and educational events throughout the year. The Walton Arts Center is also home to the Symphony of Northwest Arkansas, currently under the direction of Paul Haas.
TheatreSquared is Northwest Arkansas's regional professional theatre. Its four-play season and annual Arkansas New Play Fest are attended by an audience of 22,000, including educational outreach program to approximately 10,000 students and their teachers. The company was recognized by the American Theatre Wing in 2011 as one of the nation's ten most promising emerging theatres.
The Arts Center of the Ozarks is the region's oldest community theatre. Since its inception in 1967, the ACO has grown from a small arts organization into a cultural center of regional significance. Located in downtown Springdale, the ACO offers a full season of mainstage plays and musicals, children's programs, visual arts exhibits, and classes in a variety of creative outlets.
Visitors to the area might also stop by the Wal-Mart Visitors Center. Located in Sam Walton's original Bentonville variety store, the Wal-Mart Visitors Center traces the origin and growth of Wal-Mart. The center was created as an educational and informative facility for those interested in this American retailing success story.
Anyone looking for a night on the town should head to the famous Dickson Street in downtown Fayetteville, just off the University of Arkansas campus. Lined with popular bars, restaurants, and shops, Dickson Street is always lively, especially after large sporting events. Dickson Street is home to the Walton Arts Center, the Bikes, Blues, and BBQ Festival, and many parades.
The sporting scene is large in Northwest Arkansas, primarily due to the presence of the University of Arkansas Razorbacks, Arkansas’ most successful, followed, and loved sports teams. The Razorbacks have a huge economic impact on the area, drawing fans from every corner of the state during football, basketball, and baseball seasons.
The Razorbacks currently field 19 total men's and women's varsity teams (8 men's and 11 women's) in 13 sports. The men's varsity teams are baseball, basketball, cross country, football, golf, tennis, and indoor and outdoor track and field; the 11 women's varsity teams are basketball, cross country, golf, gymnastics, soccer, swimming and diving, indoor and outdoor track, tennis, softball and volleyball. The Razorbacks compete in NCAA Division I (Division I FBS in football) and are currently members of the Southeastern Conference (Western Division).
In early 2008, Northwest Arkansas welcomed a Double-A minor league baseball team, formerly known as the Wichita Wranglers, to Springdale, where they became the Northwest Arkansas Naturals. The Naturals play at the newly completed Arvest Ballpark.
Depending on the source, Fayetteville's Bikes, Blues, and BBQ Festival is the third to fifth largest motorcycle rally in the United States. The festival drew 350,000 visitors in 2006 and 75,000–100,000 bikes. The festival includes live bands, a parade, a bike show, bike giveaway, and barbecue contest, among other events.
Since 1974, the Dogwood Festival has brought around 30,000 people to Siloam Springs and its parks for a 3-day event. Food, crafts, entertainment, flea market items, and KidZone activities make for a fun day for all ages. Held the weekend of the last Sunday in April each year.
In 2009, the City of Fayetteville began assisting in the sponsorship of All Out June, Northwest Arkansas' pride festival for the LGBT community. The event is considered Arkansas' largest, and is organized by the NWA Center for Equality and the NWA Pride Parade Organization.
The region is mainly served by Interstate 49. I-49 has been the cause of much frustration in the area due to frequent traffic jams and accidents caused by the sudden growth of the area. Expansion of the interstate and its interchanges are currently in the final stages. Other major highways that serve the area include US 62, US 71, US 71B, and US 412.
Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport (often referred to by its IATA airport code, XNA) is the primary commercial service airport in the region. The facility opened in 1998, supplanting Drake Field in Greenland, which remains as a general aviation facility. XNA has one concourse, with twelve gates. The three most popular destinations for the year-long period ending June 2017 were Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport, and O'Hare International Airport, hubs for American Airlines, Delta Airlines, and United Airlines, respectively. The Northwest Arkansas Council has prioritized attracting a low-cost carrier to the airport, (though Allegiant Air offers two permanent and one seasonal destination).
The region has seven smaller, public use general aviation airports, including Drake Field, Rogers Executive Airport, Springdale Municipal Airport, Bentonville Municipal Airport, Siloam Springs Municipal Airport, Crystal Lake Airport, and Huntsville Municipal Airport. Beaver Lake Aviation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Walmart, is based in Rogers.
Two public transit agencies serve the area; Ozark Regional Transit is a general transit agency with around a dozen local routes, plus commuter, paratransit, and special purpose routes. Razorback Transit primarily serves University of Arkansas students, is fare-free, and has a service area limited to Fayetteville. It is also open to the general public.
- "Northwest Arkansas clocks in at No. 22 for fast-growing U.S. metro areas". Arkansas Democrat Gazette. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "Northwest Arkansas clocks in at No. 22 for fast-growing U.S. metro areas". Arkansas Democrat Gazette. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Arkansas' 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting" (URL). United States Census Bureau. February 10, 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
- "America's Current Favorite Farmer's Markets ™: Top 20 Large". American Farmland Trust. Retrieved 03-05-2013. Check date values in:
- "Best Places For Business And Careers, #8 Fayetteville, AR". Forbes, Inc. 04-05-2007. Retrieved 2011-09-14. Check date values in:
- "Primary Distinguishing Characteristics of Level III Ecoregions of the Continental United States". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. April 2000. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
- "Illinois River Watershed". Environmental Protection Agency. May 22, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
- QuickFacts for New Yory City / New York State / United States, United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- New York City Population Projections by Age/Sex & Borough, 2010–2040, New York City Department of City Planning, December 2013. Accessed February 9, 2017.
- "Selected Population Profile In The United States". American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. 2016. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "Educational Attainment, United States, Arkansas, Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO Metro Area". American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. 2016. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016" (CSV). 2016 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- Gascon, Charles S.; Varley, Michael A. (January 2015). "Metro Profile: A Tale of Four Cities: Widespread Growth in Northwest Arkansas". The Regional Economist. St. Louis, Missouri: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Monroe, Jill (1999). Hispanic Immigration in Arkansas (PDF) (Honors Undergraduate thesis). Arkadelphia, Arkansas: Henderson State University. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2016), Benton County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts, retrieved December 17, 2017
- U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2016), Washington County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts, retrieved December 17, 2017
- U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2016), McDonald County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts, retrieved December 17, 2017
- U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2016), Madison County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts, retrieved December 17, 2017
- Hamilton, Gregory; McLendon, Terre; Wingfiel, Vaughan (February 2006). "Arkansas 2020 - Arkansas Population Projections and Demographic Characteristics for 2020" (PDF). Little Rock, Arkansas: University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Donald W. Reynolds Center for Business and Economic Development, Institute for Economic Advancement. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Graves, John William (August 16, 2017). "African Americans". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Butler Center for Arkansas Studies, Central Arkansas Library System.
- Robinson II, Charles F.; Williams, Lonnie R. (February 20, 2015). Remembrances in Black: Personal Perspectives of the African American Experience at the University of Arkansas, 1940s–2000s. Fayetteville, Arkansas: University of Arkansas Press. p. 279.
- "Greater Northwest Arkansas Development Strategy" (PDF). Northwest Arkansas Council. January 27, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- "Arkansas Community Sees Changing Face of Immigration". NPR. August 20, 2008. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- Krupa, John (June 19, 2006). "Culture clash reaches a boiling point in quiet town of Gentry". Arkansas Democrat-Gazette.
- "Examining the Status of African Americans and Hispanics in Arkansas" (PDF). University of Arkansas, Sam M. Walton College of Business, Center for Business and Economic Research. 2016. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- Lanning, Curt (June 25, 2015). "Fayetteville To Host Pride Parade". Fort Smith, Arkansas: KFSM-TV. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- Parry, Janine A. "The Arkansas Poll, 2017 Summary Report" (PDF). University of Arkansas J. William Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- "Arkansas Supreme Court strikes city's LGBT protections". Little Rock, Arkansas: CBS. February 23, 2017.
- Gill, Todd (August 20, 2014 ). "Fayetteville passes civil rights ordinance". Fayetteville Flyer. Wonderstate Media, LLC. Retrieved November 8, 2017. Check date values in:
- Thomas, Dillon; Sitek, Zuzanna (December 9, 2014). "Voters Repeal Fayetteville Civil Rights Ordinance". Fort Smith, Arkansas: KFSM-TV. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- Ryburn, Stacy (September 22, 2017). "Judge denies state's motion to stop Fayetteville civil rights ordinance". Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- "Intrastate Commerce Improvement Act (Act 137) Arkansas Passes Statute Prohibiting Local Governments from Creating New Protected Classifications". Harvard Law Review. Harvard Law School. Dec 10, 2015. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- "Act 137 of 2015" (PDF). Arkansas Code. State of Arkansas. February 24, 2014. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Forbes https://www.forbes.com/special-report/2011/migration.html. Missing or empty
- Unemployment Rates for Metropolitan Areas
- "Arkansas High Schools". Washington, D.C.: U.S. News & World Report. 2017. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
- "American Community Survey". United States Census Bureau. July 1, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2017.
- University Of Arkansas
- 3W Magazine, , Symphony of Northwest Arkansas Announces Paul Haas as Music Director August 25, 2010
- Bikes, Blues & BBQ
- Annual Dogwood Festival – Siloam Springs, Arkansas
- AR: Northwest Arkansas Regional&carrier=FACTS "RITA – BTS – Transtats" Check
|url=value (help). Retrieved November 11, 2017.