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Kurmanji (Kurdish: Kurmancî‎,[6] meaning Kurdish),[7][8][9][10] also classified as Northern Kurdish,[11][12][13] is the northern dialect of the Kurdish language, spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq, northern Syria and the Caucasus region. It is the most spoken Kurdish dialect and mother tongue to other ethnic minorities in Kurdistan as well, including Armenians,[14] Chechens, Circassians,[15] and Bulgarians.[16]

Northern Kurdish
Kurmanji
Kurmancî, کورمانجی‎, Кӧрманщи
Kurdiya Jorîn, کوردیا ژۆرین‎, Êzdîkî
Regionautochthonous to Kurdistan, Kurdish diaspora[1]
Native speakers
15 million (2009)[2]
Dialects
  • Subdialects
    Botani (Boti)
  • Marashi
  • Ashiti
  • Bayezidi
  • Hekari
  • Shemdinani
  • Shikakî
  • Silivî
  • Mihemedî[1]
Naskh Arabic script in Iran, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon,
Latin script in Turkey and Syria,
Cyrillic script in Russia and Armenia.[1]
Official status
Official language in
 Kurdistan Region[1]
 Rojava[3][4]
Recognised minority
language in
 Armenia (Educational)[1]
 Azerbaijan (Statutory language of provincial identity in five districts, as abided by the constitution)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3kmr
Glottolognort2641[5]
Linguasphere58-AAA-a
Kurdish languages map.svg
Geographic distribution of the Kurdish languages spoken by Kurds

The earliest textual record of Kurmanji Kurdish dates back to approximately the 16th century and many prominent Kurdish poets like Ahmad Khani (1650–1707) wrote in this dialect as well.[17][9] Kurmanji Kurdish is also the common and ceremonial dialect of Yazidis.[18] Their sacred book Mishefa Reş and all prayers are written and spoken in Kurmanji, which some Yazidis call Ezdiki.[19]

Contents

Phonology

Phonological features in Kurmanji Kurdish include the distinction between aspirated and unaspirated voiceless stops and the presence of facultative phonemes.[20][21] For example, Kurmanji Kurdish distinguishes between aspirated and unaspirated voiceless stops, which can be aspirated in all positions. Thus /p/ contrasts with /pʰ/, /t/ with /tʰ/, /k/ with /kʰ/, /q/ with /qʰ/, and the affricate /t͡ʃ/ with /t͡ʃʰ/.[21]

Dialects

Northern Kurdish forms a dialect continuum of great variability. Loosely, six subdialect areas can be distinguished:[22]

The most distinctive of these is Badînî.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Ethnologue - Kurmanji Kurdish". Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  2. ^ Northern Kurdish at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  3. ^ "Social Contract - Sa-Nes". Self-Administration of North & East Syria Representation in Benelux. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  4. ^ ""Rojava could be a model for all Syria"". Salih Muslim. Nationalita. 29 July 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Northern Kurdish". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. ^ Ferhenga Kurmancı̂-Inglı̂zı̂ (in Kurdish). Yale University Press. 2003.
  7. ^ Captain R. E. Jardine (1922). Bahdinan Kurmanji - A grammar of the Kurmanji of the Kurds of Mosul division and surrounding districts of Kurdistan. Baghdad: Government Press. p. ii.
  8. ^ Ayfer Gokalp (August 2015). "Language and Literacy Practices of Kurdish Children Across Their Home and School Spaces in Turkey:" (PDF). Arizona State University: 146. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  9. ^ a b Paul, Ludwig (2008). "Kurdish language I. History of the Kurdish language". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica. London and New York: Routledge. Retrieved 28 August 2013.
  10. ^ Georg Krotkoff (1997). Humanism, Culture, and Language in the Near East. p. 299.
  11. ^ "Ethnologue - Kurdish". Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  12. ^ "Kurdish language". Britannica. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  13. ^ E. S. Soane (1909). Notes on Kurdish Dialects. p. 906. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  14. ^ "Kürtler'le Ermeniler işte böyle karıştı!". Internethaber (in Turkish). 30 March 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  15. ^ Aşiretler raporu (1st ed.). İstanbul: Kaynak Yayınları. 2000. ISBN 9753432208.
  16. ^ "Türkçe için getirilen Bulgarlar Kürtçe konuşuyor". Rûdaw. 17 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  17. ^ Sebastian Maisel (2018). The Kurds: An Encyclopedia of Life, Culture, and Society. p. 164-165.
  18. ^ "Yazidis i. General". Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  19. ^ Arakelova, Victoria (2001). "Healing Practices among the Yezidi Sheikhs of Armenia". Asian Folklore Studies. 60 (2): 319–328. doi:10.2307/1179060. As for their language, the Yezidis themselves, in an attempt to avoid being identified with Kurds, call it Ezdiki.
  20. ^ Khan, Celadet Bedir; Lescot, Roger (1970). Grammaire Kurde (Dialecte kurmandji) (PDF). Paris: La librairie d'Amérique et d'Orient Adrien Maisonneuve. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
  21. ^ a b Haig, Geoffrey; Matras, Yaron (2002). "Kurdish linguistics: a brief overview" (PDF). Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung. Berlin. 55 (1): 5. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  22. ^ Öpengin, Ergin; Haig, Geoffrey (2014), "Regional variation in Kurmanji: A preliminary classification of dialects", Kurdish Studies, 2, ISSN 2051-4883
  23. ^ for Bahdinan, a historical Kurdish principality, paralleling use of Sorani, also the name of a historical principality, for southern dialects. See BAHDĪNĀN in Encyclopedia Iranica by A. Hassanpour, 1988 (updated 2011): "The majority of the population are Kurds (see figures in Edmonds, [Kurds, Turks and Arabs, London, 1957,] p. 439) and speak Kurmanji, the major Kurdish dialect group, also called Bādīnānī (see, among others, Jardine [Bahdinan Kurmanji: A Grammar of the Kurmanji of the Kurds of Mosul Division and Surrounding Districts, Baghdad, 1922] and Blau [Le Kurde de ʿAmādiya et de Djabal Sindjar: Analyse linguistique, textes folkloriques, glossaires, Paris, 1975])."

External links