Open main menu

Northern Dancer (May 27, 1961 – November 16, 1990) was a Canadian-bred Thoroughbred racehorse that won the 1964 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes and then became one of the most successful sires of the 20th century. He is considered a Canadian icon, and was inducted into the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame in 1965. Induction into the Racing Hall of Fame in both Canada and the United States followed in 1976. As a competitor, The Blood-Horse ranks him as one of the top 100 U.S. Thoroughbred champions of the 20th century. A sire of sires, he has been called the leading male-line progenitor of modern Thoroughbreds worldwide.

Northern Dancer
DamsireNative Dancer
FoaledMay 27, 1961
Windfields Farm
Oshawa, Ontario
DiedNovember 16, 1990(1990-11-16) (aged 29)
Windfields Farm
Chesapeake City, Maryland
BreederEdward P. Taylor
OwnerWindfields Farm
Colors: Turquoise, gold dots on sleeves, gold cap
TrainerHoratio Luro
Record18: 14–2–2[1]
Major wins
Summer Stakes (1963)
Coronation Futurity Stakes (1963)
Remsen Stakes (1963)
Flamingo Stakes (1964)
Florida Derby (1964)
Blue Grass Stakes (1964)
Queen's Plate (1964)

American Classics wins:
Kentucky Derby (1964)
Preakness Stakes (1964)
U.S. Champion 3-Yr-Old Colt (1964)
Canadian Horse of the Year (1964)
Canadian Champion Two-Year-Old (1963)
Canadian Champion Three-Year-Old (1964)
Leading sire in North America (1971, 1977[b])
Leading broodmare sire in North America (1991)
Leading sire in Great Britain and Ireland
(1970, 1977, 1983, 1984)
Canada's Sports Hall of Fame (1965)
Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame (1976)
United States Racing Hall of Fame (1976)
Canadian postage stamp (1999)
Northern Dancer Blvd. in Toronto, Ontario
Northern Dancer Lane in Aurora ON
Northern Dancer Dr. in Warwick, Maryland
Life-size statue at Woodbine Racetrack
Northern Dancer Turf Stakes at Woodbine
Northern Dancer Stakes at Churchill
Northern Dancer Plate at Hyderabad Race Club (India)

At age two, Northern Dancer won the Summer Stakes and the Coronation Futurity in Canada and the Remsen Stakes in New York, and was named the Canadian Champion Two-Year-Old Colt.

At three, he started the year with wins in the Flamingo Stakes, Florida Derby, and Blue Grass Stakes. Northern Dancer then became the first Canadian-bred to ever win the Kentucky Derby, following up with a win in the Preakness Stakes. With a chance at the American Triple Crown, he finished third in the Belmont Stakes. Returning to Canada for a hero's welcome, he then won the Queen's Plate in his last race.

Northern Dancer retired to stud in 1965 at Windfields Farm in Canada. He was an immediate success when his first crop reached racing age in 1968, but the success of his second crop, led by English Triple Crown winner Nijinsky, brought his name to the international stage. Northern Dancer was relocated to the Maryland branch of Windfields Farm, where he became the most sought sire of his time.



Northern Dancer was a bay stallion, sired by Nearctic and out of the mare Natalma, whose sire was Native Dancer.[4] Northern Dancer's paternal grandsire was the Italian-bred horse Nearco, two-time Leading sire in Great Britain and Ireland.[5] In 1952, Edward P. Taylor, Canadian business magnate and owner of Windfields Farm, attended the December sale at Newmarket, England, where he purchased Lady Angela, a daughter of six-time leading sire Hyperion. In 1953, Taylor had Lady Angela bred to Nearco before bringing her to his farm in Canada, where she foaled Nearctic in early 1954. Nearctic was Canadian Horse of the Year in 1958,[6] a feat that Northern Dancer matched in 1964.[7]

Despite his strong pedigree, Northern Dancer was a diminutive horse and did not find a buyer at his $25,000 reserve price at the yearling sales. As a result, Northern Dancer stayed in the Windfields Farm racing stable.[7] Northern Dancer had powerful quarters, plus excellent balance and agility. While officially listed at 15.2 hands (62 inches, 157 cm), most horsemen personally familiar with Northern Dancer estimated his height as between 15 hands (60 inches, 152 cm) and 15.1 hands (61 inches, 155 cm).[3]

Like Nearctic and Nearco before him, Northern Dancer had a dominant and sometimes unruly temperament. "He wasn't mean, but he would wheel and do some tricks," said Joe Thomas, who later managed the Dancer's stud career. Trainer Horatio Luro originally wanted to geld the colt but Taylor refused.[8]

Sportswriter Jim Murray of the Los Angeles Times wrote: "Northern Dancer is the kind of colt who, if you saw him in your living room, you'd send for a trap and put cheese in it. He's so little, a cat would chase him. But he's so plucky there's barely room in him for his heart. His legs are barely long enough to keep his tail off the ground. He probably takes a hundred more strides than anyone else, but he's harder to pass than a third martini."[8]

Racing careerEdit

1963: Two-year-old seasonEdit

On August 2, 1963, Northern Dancer made his debut at Fort Erie Race Track in a ​5 12 furlong maiden race for Canadian foaled horses. He was ridden by apprentice jockey Ron Turcotte, who was instructed not to use the whip but gave the colt a tap at the sixteenth pole anyway, whereupon Northern Dancer "exploded".[9] He beat seven 2-year-olds for a purse of $2,100.[10] Turcotte later recalled, "We won that race by eight lengths. He was a bold horse. Brave. He could handle anything. The grass. The mud. Anything."[11]

His next start was on August 17 in the Vandal Stakes, for which Paul Bohenko was his jockey since Turcotte was committed to another horse, Ramblin' Man. Northern Dancer entered into a speed duel at the start of the race, setting up the race for Ramblin' Man to win. After the race, Turcotte is quoted as having told Luro, "the Dancer was definitely the best two year old in Canada, maybe in the world."[9] He next entered the Summer Stakes on August 24, then at a distance of 1 mile on the turf at Fort Erie. The track condition was described as 'bog-like', and the horse is said to have almost fallen. Despite struggling with the ground, Northern Dancer led from the start and hung on for the win.[9]

His next start was in the ​1 116 mile Cup and Saucer Stakes on September 28 on the Woodbine turf course, where he was assigned the top weight of 124 pounds. Ron Turcotte was back as his jockey and took him to an early lead, but Northern Dancer tired and fell second to long-shot Grand Carcon by ​34 of a length.[9] On October 7, he returned in the Bloordale Purse at ​1 116 miles where he was again the top weight at 122 pounds. His main rival Northern Flight carried 117 pounds while other horses carried as little as 112 pounds. Northern Dancer broke well but allowed Northern Flight to take a commanding lead. At the halfway mark, Northern Dancer was third on the rail, 15 lengths back, but gradually closed the gap on the far turn. Down the stretch, the two battled for the lead before Northern Dancer pulled away to win by ​1 12 lengths, with the rest of the field some twenty-five plus lengths behind Northern Flight.[9]

On October 12, Northern Dancer faced a field of 14 rivals in the Coronation Futurity, the richest race for Canadian two-year-olds. He settled in fourth at the start, then took over the lead at the halfway point, drawing away to win by ​6 14 lengths. It was Turcotte's last ride on Northern Dancer, as Luro feared he could not maintain sufficient control of the headstrong colt. On November 7, Northern Dancer followed up with a win in the 7 furlong Carleton Stakes at Greenwood on a muddy track, but came back to the barn bleeding from the beginning of a quarter crack. It was thought that the injury was a result of his heavy race schedule – seven races in three months.[9]

Nonetheless, the colt was shipped to Aqueduct to prepare for the Remsen Stakes. He entered the Sir Gaylord Purse, ridden by Manuel Ycaza, and won by eight lengths. However, the quarter crack became more pronounced, so he was fitted with a bar shoe on his left front hoof to stabilize the foot. On November 27, he won the Remsen by two lengths in wire-to-wire fashion.[9]

His record of seven victories in nine starts earned Northern Dancer the Canadian Juvenile Championship. He was rated at 123 pounds on the Experimental Free Handicap for American juveniles of 1963, 3 pounds below co-champions Raise a Native and Hurry to Market. He was the high weight on the Canadian Free Handicap for 2-year-olds of 1963 at 126 pounds, 5 pounds above second-rated Ramblin Road.[3]

1964: Three-year-old seasonEdit

After the Remsen stakes, Luro gave Northern Dancer some time off to heal and had a vulcanized rubber patch applied to the quarter crack. Northern Dancer recovered quickly and reentered training in January. His first race at three was in a six-furlong prep under a new jockey, Bobby Ussery, who was instructed to take it easy and not use the whip. Northern Dancer was bumped at the start and fell to the back of the pack. He recovered and steadily advanced up the rail, only to become trapped behind several horses and get bumped again, eventually finishing third. Despite the instructions of Luro, Ussury had taken to his whip in the final strides of the race, which led the trainer to publicly criticize the rider.[9] "I believe in being very patient with my horses," said Luro. "I don't want punishment—under no circumstances."[12]

For his next start in the Flamingo Stakes on March 3, Northern Dancer was ridden by Hall of Fame jockey Bill Shoemaker and went off as the even-money favorite in a field of eleven. He settled into second and moved to the lead in the stretch after some gentle urging by Shoemaker, winning by seven lengths. His time of 1:47​45 was excellent for a three-year-old in March. He then entered the seven-furlong Mrs. Florida Purse at Gulfstream Park as a prep for the Florida Derby. Shoemaker was unable to ride due to a previous commitment, so Ycaza got the ride. Northern Dancer won easily by four lengths, equaling the track record of 1:22​25.[9]

In the Florida Derby on April 4, Northern Dancer was the heavy 3–10 favorite in a field of eight. With Shoemaker back up, he raced in mid-pack behind a slow pace, then started to make up ground on the rail. Shoemaker waited until the half mile pole then urged the colt on without using the whip. Norther Dancer quickly took the lead at the head of the stretch and then held off a challenge by The Scoundrel, eventually winning by a length. Shoemaker said later that the colt was improving.[13] However, his time was a disappointing 1:50​45, which caused some concern. Joe Hirsch of the Daily Racing Form commented, "It did not appear that Shoemaker had a lot of horse left at the wire."[9]

Before the running of the Blue Grass Stakes at Keeneland Race Course in Lexington, Kentucky, Luro asked Shoemaker to commit to riding Northern Dancer in the Kentucky Derby. But Shoemaker chose a colt he had never ridden named Hill Rise as his Derby mount. The unbeaten Hill Rise had won the San Felipe Stakes and the Santa Anita Derby in California. Shoemaker campaigned hard to get Hill Rise as his mount, believing the colt represented his best chance for a Derby win. As a result of Shoemaker's decision, Bill Hartack became Northern Dancer's jockey for the remainder of his career.[9]

In the Blue Grass Stakes on April 23, Northern Dancer with his new jockey faced only four rivals, and was made the 4–5 favorite. He rated in second under a tight hold until the head of the stretch when he coasted to the lead. Another horse made a run down the stretch so Hartack released his grip and Northern Dancer crossed the finish line in front by half a length. The small margin of victory contributed to making Hill Rise the favorite for the Derby.[9]

Bidding for the Triple CrownEdit

For the Kentucky Derby on May 2, Northern Dancer drew post position 7 in a field of 12. As the field reached the track, Northern Dancer gave a huge buck when the band started to play "My Old Kentucky Home", but then settled.[9] After the break, he settled into good position on the rail around the first turn. Down the backstretch, Hartack guided him through a narrow hole into the clear and started to make up ground on the leaders. He got the jump on Hill Rise, who became tangled up in traffic as the front-runners started to fade. With a quarter mile to go, Hartack urged his colt on; Northern Dancer responded by running the next furlong in a very fast 11 seconds. He had a lead of about two lengths, but Hill Rise had gotten in the clear and started to make up ground.[14] Author Kevin Chong later wrote of Northern Dancer's "short, powerful legs making like a hummingbird's wings"[15] as he ran down the stretch. Hill Rise closed with giant strides, but Northern Dancer prevailed by a neck in a new race record of 2 minutes flat[14] that stood until Secretariat broke it in 1973.[8]

Northern Dancer became the first Canadian-bred horse to win the Kentucky Derby, making front-page headlines across Canada.[16]

With the Preakness Stakes being run just two weeks later, Luro was concerned that Northern Dancer would find the next race more demanding, especially because the track at Pimlico was deep and taxing. Accordingly, he used long gallops of between two and three miles to build up stamina. Then on the Friday before the race, he "blew out" Northern Dancer with a 3-furlong workout in a brisk :35​35 to sharpen his speed.[17]

For the Preakness on May 16, Northern Dancer went off as the second favorite to Hill Rise in a field of six that included the top five finishers from the Derby. Northern Dancer settled into third place with Hill Rise tracking just behind. Quadrangle moved to the lead down the backstretch and Northern Dancer started to make his move around the far turn. Hartack had yet to ask Northern Dancer for his run, while the jockeys of both Hill Rise and Quadrangle were working hard to maintain their position. Turning into the stretch, Hartack hit Northern Dancer once and he surged to a commanding lead. Near the finish line, Northern Dancer started to tire but Hartack was not overly worried. "If he was tired, the horses behind us would be even more tired," he explained. Northern Dancer won by two and a half lengths. Hill Rise finished third, caught at the wire by The Scoundrel who claimed second.[17]

Northern Dancer celebrated his actual third birthday on May 27 and was presented with a cake of carrots adorned by Canadian flags. He also received hundreds of cards wishing him success in the upcoming Belmont Stakes. Taylor felt that the horse would not mind the extra distance, believing that Hartack would be able to judge the pace and conserve energy. Luro was more worried, believing that Northern Dancer's best distance was between eight and nine furlongs, but hoped the horse's class would be enough to carry him the extra distance.[18]

With a Triple Crown at stake, eight horses showed up for the Belmont Stakes on June 6, run that year at Aqueduct, with Northern Dancer going off as the 4–5 favorite. With Northern Dancer under a tight hold,[16] he and Hill Rise tracked each other for the first mile behind a slow pace set by outsider Orientalist. Quadrangle was in second, relaxed and saving ground with excellent position on the rail. After a mile in 1:39​15, Quadrangle's jockey made his move, confident his horse had enough stamina to outkick the others. Hartack on Northern Dancer and Shoemaker on Hill Rise appeared to underestimate Quadrangle and did not at first respond, allowing Quadrangle to build a substantial lead into the stretch while Roman Brother moved into second. When finally asked to run in the stretch, Northern Dancer lacked his usual burst of speed and finished third, some six lengths behind.[19]


In spite of the loss in the Belmont, the mayor of Toronto declared June 8, 1964 to be "Northern Dancer Day", which included a ceremony held at city hall. (The idea of a ticker-tape parade down Bay Street was nixed due to the colt's high strung temperament.)[16] E. P. Taylor was presented with a key to the city—carved out of a carrot. Taylor presented the key to Northern Dancer when the horse arrived at Woodbine a few days later; he promptly ate it.[9]

On June 25, Northern Dancer was the heavy betting favorite in the Queen's Plate at odds of 1–7 in a field of eight. He raced from off the pace, then swept past Langcrest to win by ​7 12 lengths. Hartack never needed the whip.[20] Northern Dancer completed the race in 2:02​15, which, although more than 2 seconds off his time in the Kentucky Derby, was just ​15 of a second off the race record set by Victoria Park.[9][21] He remains the only horse to win both the Kentucky Derby and the Queen's Plate.[3]

Northern Dancer injured himself during a workout at Belmont in July[22] and the bowed tendon did not respond to treatment, ending his racing career.[23]

Northern Dancer was named the American Champion Three-Year-Old Male Horse of 1964 in the United States. He was also named the three-year-old champion in Canada and Canadian Horse of the Year. In addition, he was named Canadian Athlete of the Year.[7] He was the high weight at 128 pounds on the Daily Racing Form's Free Handicap for American 3-year-old males of 1964, 1 pound above Quadrangle and Roman Brother. He was also the high weight at 132 pounds on the Canadian Free Handicap for 3-year-old males of 1964, 12 pounds more than second-rated Langcrest.[9]

In his two years of racing, Northern Dancer won 14 of his 18 races and never finished worse than third. In The Blood-Horse listing of the top 100 U.S. Thoroughbred champions of the 20th century, he was ranked #43.[24]

Stud recordEdit

Northern Dancer retired to stud in 1965 at Taylor's Windfields Farm in Oshawa, Ontario for an initial fee of $10,000.[16] Due to his small size, a ramp was built in the breeding shed to allow Northern Dancer to service mares who were larger than him.[25] His first crop reached racing age in 1968 and "came out running."[8]

"His first crop, he had a horse named Viceregal who was undefeated and was horse of the year in Canada," said Ed Bowen, former editor of The Blood-Horse. "His first foals ran so well. Northern Dancer had that aura about him right away." His second crop proved even more impressive, including English Triple Crown winner Nijinsky. As a result of his success, he was relocated to the Maryland branch of Windfields in 1969, where he remained until his death in 1990.[8]

Northern Dancer became highly territorial. He ignored general traffic into the farm, but reacted strongly whenever a van with a mare approached. "He would rear up, rest his forelegs on the sill of the bottom half of the door, whinny and squeal as the loading ramp dropped," recalled Benny Miller, the farm manager of Windfields Maryland. "He acted like every mare on the farm would be his conquest. To calm things down, we moved him to the back side of the stallion barn."[26]

He was the leading sire in North America in 1971, and also in 1977 when international earnings are included.[2] His progeny were highly sought in Europe, where he became the leading sire in Great Britain and Ireland in 1970, 1978, 1983, and 1984.[27]

Lyphard resembled his father closely[28]

He was one of the 20th century's most successful Thoroughbred sires.[29] According to Jockey Club records, Northern Dancer sired 411 winners (63.7%) and 147 stakes winners (22.8%) from 645 named foals.[3] The 147 stakes winners was then a record.[26] Most of his progeny resembled him in size and shape: Nijinsky, who stood over 16 hands, proved the exception.[30] They also generally had excellent balance and acceleration.[3] His major stakes winners include:[31][3]

  • Viceregal – Canadian Horse of the Year (1969)[32]
  • Cool Mood – 1969 Canadian Oaks. second dam of With Approval and Touch Gold[33]
  • Nijinsky – winner of the 1970 English Triple Crown, English Horse of the Year[34]
  • Fanfreluche – Canadian Horse of the Year (1970)[35]
  • One for All – 1970 Canadian champion turf horse
  • Laurie's Dancer – 1971 Canadian Horse of the Year and champion three-year-old filly. Alabama Stakes, Delaware Oaks, Canadian Oaks
  • Broadway Dancer – French champion filly at two (1974). Prix Morny
  • Lyphard – 1972 Prix Jacques le Marois and Prix de la Forêt[28]
  • Northern Taste – 1974 Prix de la Forêt
  • Northernette – Canadian champion filly at ages 2 (1976) and 3 (1977)[36]
  • The Minstrel – winner of the 1977 Epsom and Irish Derbies, English Horse of the Year[37]
  • Try My Best – 1977 Champion two-year-old in England and Ireland[38]
  • Giboulee – 1978 Canadian champion handicap horse
  • White Star Line – 1978 Kentucky Oaks, Alabama Stakes
  • Northern Baby – 1979 Champion Stakes
  • Nureyev – 1980 French Champion miler. Finished first in 2000 Guineas but was disqualified[39]
  • Storm Bird - 1980 champion two-year-old in the UK and Ireland. Dewhurst Stakes
  • Dance Number – 1982 Beldame Stakes. dam of champion Rhythm
  • Lomond – 1983 2000 Guineas[40]
  • Shareef Dancer – 1983 Irish Derby[41]
  • Spit Curl – 1983 Alabama Stakes
  • Hero's Honor – 1984 Bowling Green, United Nations
  • El Gran Senor – 1984 2000 Guineas, Irish Derby. English Champion at ages 2 and 3[42]
  • Northern Trick – 1984 French champion three-year-old filly. Prix Vermeille, Prix de Diane
  • Sadler's Wells – 1984 Irish 2000 Guineas[43]
  • Secreto – 1984 Epsom Derby[44]
  • Ajdal – 1987 champion sprinter in England and France. William Hill Sprint Championship, Dewhurst Stakes, July Cup

With the success of his offspring, Northern Dancer's stud fee rose, slowly at first: from $10,000 (live foal) in 1965, to $15,000 (live foal) in 1969, to $25,000 (live foal) in 1971 to $35,000 ($10,000 of which was non-refundable) in 1975 to $50,000 (no guarantee) in 1978. His published fee, with no guarantee that a live foal would result, then started a rapid increase: $100,000 in 1980, $150,000 in 1981, $250,000 in 1982, $300,000 in 1983 and $500,000 in 1984. For his final years at stud (1985–1987), his breeding rights were privately negotiated,[16] with one season selling at auction for $1 million[45] — an amount four to five times that of his closest rivals.[46] By contrast, the highest North American stud fee in 2016 was $300,000 for Tapit.[47] People magazine once described him as the only celebrity that could earn a million dollars before breakfast.[48]

When Northern Dancer was 20 years old (an advanced age for a stallion), a European syndicate offered US$40 million for him. The offer was turned down.[3] Northern Dancer's entry into stud service was ranked #28 in Horse Racing's Top 100 Moments, a review of racing in the 20th century compiled by The Blood-Horse and released in 2006.[3]

Sales recordsEdit

Former Keeneland chairman Ted Bassett wrote in his autobiography that between 1974 and 1988, the sons and daughters of Northern Dancer fetched the highest prices of all sires at the yearling sales 12 times, "and that constitutes a record that may last forever."[8] Northern Dancer's yearlings also led the Keeneland July Selected Yearling Sale by average price 12 times in the same period. In 1984, 12 yearlings by Northern Dancer sold for an unrivaled sale-record average price of US$3,446,666 (about $8.3 million adjusted for inflation).[49] Combined over a period of 22 years, the top 174 Northern Dancer offspring at the Keeneland Sales sold for a total $160 million.[46] The bidding duels between John Magnier and Robert Sangster of Coolmore Stud and Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum of Darley Stud became legendary.[50][51]

As of 2014, the top ten horses on the list of top auction prices were descended from Northern Dancer. This includes three sired by Northern Dancer himself and sold at Keeneland: Snaafi Dancer, who became the first $10-million yearling when sold to Sheikh Mohammed for $10.2 million in 1983;[50] a colt out of Ballade later named Imperial Falcon, who sold for $8.25 million to Sangster in 1984;[52] and a colt out of Fabuleux Jane later named Jareer, who sold for $7.1 million to Darley Stud.[53]

Sire of siresEdit

In 1990, The New York Times called Northern Dancer "the dominant progenitor of his breed" because his own success at stud was amplified by the impact of his sons around the world.[46] His leading sire sons included:

  • Be My Guest – leading sire in Great Britain and Ireland (1982)[27]
  • Danzig – leading sire in North America (1991–1993). also a sire of sires, including Danehill, leading sire in both Europe and Australia[54] and Green Desert, whose sire son's include Invincible Spirit, Oasis Dream and Cape Cross[55]
  • Dixieland Band – sire of 117 stakes winners and damsire of two Kentucky Derby winners (Monarchos and Street Sense)
  • El Gran Senor – sire of 55 stakes winners, also an important broodmare sire[42]
  • Fairy King – leading sire in France 1986. also a sire of sires, including Encosta de Lago in Australia[56]
  • Lyphard – led the French sire list in 1978 and 1979, American sire list in 1986, also an outstanding broodmare sire[28]
  • Nijinsky – led the English sire list in 1986, when he placed second in North America as well. leading American broodmare sire in 1993 and 1994. sire of sires including Caerleon[34]
  • Northern Taste – ten-time leading sire in Japan, also a leading broodmare sire[57]
  • Nureyev – led the French sire list in 1987, also a leading broodmare sire[39]
  • Sadler's Wells – leading sire in Great Britain and Ireland a record fourteen times. sire of 12 English Classics winners. also a sire of sires, including Galileo.[43][58]
  • Storm Bird – sire of 62 stakes winners, including leading American sire Storm Cat[59]
  • Vice Regent – led the Canadian sire list thirteen times[60]

Although Northern Dancer never sired a winner of any of the American Triple Crown races, his sons made up for this shortfall. Their American Classic winners were:

He also was the grandsire of 1991 Canadian Triple Crown winner Dance Smartly, who also became the first Canadian-bred to win a Breeders' Cup race, the 1991 Breeders' Cup Distaff. A Hall of Famer in both Canada and the United States, she was also a success as a broodmare.[61]

Triple Crown winner Justify has six crosses to Northern Dancer

Northern Dancer's impact continues well into the 21st century. In North America, 2018 Triple Crown winner Justify has multiple crosses to Northern Dancer, in the direct male line through Storm Cat, and also through Nijinsky and Vice Regent.[62] American Pharoah, winner of the 2015 Triple Crown is 5 x 5 inbred to Northern Dancer, through Storm Bird and El Gran Senor.[63] California Chrome, winner of the 2014 Kentucky Derby and 2014 Preakness Stakes, is inbred 4 x 5 to Northern Dancer on his dam's side. Other American classic winners that are inbred to Northern Dancer include: I'll Have Another, winner of the 2012 Derby and Preakness; Animal Kingdom, winner of the 2011 Derby; Union Rags, winner of the 2012 Belmont and Drosselmeyer, winner of the 2011 Belmont.[64] Shackleford, winner of the 2011 Preakness, is a 4th generation descendant in the male line via Storm Cat.[65] In 2009, Northern Dancer was an ancestor of the winners of all three U.S. Triple Crown races: Mine That Bird in the Kentucky Derby, Rachel Alexandra in the Preakness, and Summer Bird in the Belmont. Northern Dancer is the great-grandsire (on both the sire and dam side) of Big Brown, the winner of the 2008 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes.[64] He appears at least once in the pedigree of every contestant in the 2018 Kentucky Derby.[66]

More Northern Dancer-descended horses are Breeder's Cup winners than from any other horse.[67] According to pedigree consultant John Sparkman, 35 to 40 percent of American graded stakes winners of 2013 were male line descendants of Northern Dancer. In Europe and Australia, the percentage is well over 60 per cent.[29]

Makybe Diva is a descendant of Northern Dancer

In Australia, the undefeated mare Black Caviar traces to Northern Dancer both in the direct sire line through Nijinsky and in the broodmare sire line through Danzig. An earlier Australian champion, Sunline, was bred on the reverse cross.[68] The great mare Makybe Diva, three-time winner of the Melbourne Cup, is inbred 4 x 4 x 4 to Northern Dancer.[69]

In Japan, although Sunday Silence's line dominates the leading sire lists, many of his best runners were out of Northern Dancer line mares. This includes Japanese Horses of the Year Orfevre,[70] Deep Impact and Gentildonna.[71]

In Europe, Northern Dancer's bloodline is pervasive.[51] Northern Dancer was a four-time Leading sire in Great Britain and Ireland, a feat achieved one time each by his sons Be My Guest and Nijinsky, 14 times by his son Sadler's Wells, two times by his grandson Caerleon, three times by his grandson Danehill, and nine times (as of 2017) by his grandson Galileo – a total of 34 champion sire titles in just the direct Northern Dancer to grandson bloodline. Adding his great-grandson Danehill Dancer, who was the leading sire in 2009, the Northern Dancer sire line accounted for every champion sire title in Great Britain and Ireland from 1990 to 2017 inclusive.[27]

He is the paternal grand-sire of a record 29 different English Classic winners — the next closest in this regard is St. Simon with 23.[58] Undefeated racehorse Frankel is inbred 3 x 4 to Northern Dancer, meaning Northern Dancer appears once in the third generation and once in the fourth generation of his pedigree.[72] As for the Epsom Derby, every winner since 1998 has had Northern Dancer in his pedigree,[73] almost all through the male sire-line. Galileo, High Chaparral, Motivator, New Approach, Sea the Stars, Camelot, Australia, Golden Horn and Harzand are included in this number.[44]


Because of the prevalence of Northern Dancer's bloodline, a certain degree of inbreeding to him is becoming common.[74] Whenever this happens, there is a concern that the inbreeding will weaken the breed, making horses more prone to injury and potentially leading to inbreeding depression. Statistical studies have shown that inbreeding has increased by a small but significant amount in the last 50 years, partly because of the larger number of foals that a successful stallion will now sire each year compared to in the past.[75] For example, Northern Dancer produced 645 foals[3] in 20 years at stud, whereas his grandson Danehill sired 2,499 foals in 14 years at stud.[76]

The undefeated Frankel is inbred to Northern Dancer

Statistical analysis has shown that inbreeding to Northern Dancer is on average slightly less effective than when stallions of his line are bred to mares who do not have Northern Dancer in their pedigree (referred to as an outcross).[74] However, many successful stallions are inbred, in part because this can make it easier to pass on dominant characteristics. Notable sires that are inbred to Northern Dancer (within four generations) include Oasis Dream, Rock of Gibraltar, Hernando, Spinning World, and Redoute's Choice.[77] The undefeated Frankel is also inbred to Northern Dancer, but it is too early to evaluate his success as a stallion as his first crop just reached racing age in 2016.[72]

Analysis of inbreeding to Northern Dancer has shown that best practice is inbreeding "through" the best, which means to use horses that have demonstrated their fitness on the racecourse. In contrast, inbreeding to a descendant such as Danzig is viewed as potentially problematic because he was retired from racing due to unsoundness after only three starts.[78] However, Danzig line horses have been crossed successfully with other Northern Dancer line horses, especially Sadlers' Wells.[79]

Northern Dancer lines were originally outcrossed on descendants of Mr. Prospector or Nasrullah, but this became so common that it is increasingly difficult to find horses from these lines who do not also carry Northern Dancer breeding.[80] Outcross bloodlines can still be found, most notably through Sunday Silence[81] and the German-bred stallion Monsun.[82]

For example, Tapit, the leading sire in North America 2014–2016, is inbred 3x4 to Mr. Prospector and 3x5 to Nijinsky II (thus 4×6 to Northern Dancer). He has crossed well with mares from other Northern Dancer lines as well as those related to Seattle Slew, to whom Tapit carries a single line.[83]

End of life and burialEdit

Northern Dancer was retired from stud on April 15, 1987, having started to experience heart problems and arthritis. He was pensioned at Windfields Farm in Maryland and when the farm was subsequently sold, a special clause was written to guarantee his lifelong right to live there. On November 15, 1990 at the age of 29, he suffered a severe attack of colic, possibly complicated by a strangulation of his small intestine. Due to his advanced age, it was felt that Northern Dancer would be unable to survive surgery so he was humanely euthanized on November 16. He was loaded in a specially built oak coffin and then wrapped in a blanket he had won during his racing career. That same day, his remains were brought back to Canada in a refrigerated van for burial at Windfields Farm in Oshawa, Ontario.[84][7]

Windfields Farm was subsequently sold to the University of Ontario, and Northern Dancer's burial site was not publicly accessible for many years, at one point becoming covered in weeds.[85] On April 16, 2018, the grave became an official heritage site under the Ontario Heritage Act, with funds presented by the City of Oshawa to landscape the surrounding area.[86]


Statue of Northern Dancer at Woodbine Racetrack

In 1964, Northern Dancer was the American Champion Three-Year-Old Male Horse and the Canadian Horse of the Year.[3] In 1965, he became the first horse voted into Canada's Sports Hall of Fame.[87] In 1976, Northern Dancer was an inaugural inductee to the new Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame[7] and was also inducted into the United States Horse Racing Hall of Fame.[88] In 1977, Northern Dancer won three world sires' premiership titles for the number of international stakes winners, international stakes wins, and total stake earnings of his progeny.[4]

Northern Dancer was inducted into the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame in 1998.[89] In 1999, Canada Post honoured the horse with his image placed on a postage stamp.[90] A residential street was named after Northern Dancer on the former site of the Greenwood Race Track in east-end Toronto.[91] Also, a life-sized bronze statue of the horse was placed outside Woodbine Race Track in northwest Toronto.

Over the decades, a number of books have been written about Northern Dancer. In 1995, Muriel Lennox, who had worked for Taylor, published Northern Dancer: The Legend and His Legacy.[16] In 2003, Avalyn Hunter's book American Classic Pedigrees (1914–2002), extensively covered the influence of Northern Dancer on North America classic winners around the end of the 20th century.[92] Her later book, The Kingmaker: How Northern Dancer Founded a Racing Dynasty covers Northern Dancer's international legacy.[93] In 2015, Kevin Chong wrote Northern Dancer: The Legendary Horse That Inspired A Nation.[94]

In 2011, the Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame held an induction ceremony that included a 50th-anniversary tribute for Northern Dancer. Saxophone instrumentalist Matthew James performed his tribute song, entitled "Northern Dancer", from his album, Generations.[95][96] In 2012, Breyer Animal Creations released a portrait model of Northern Dancer sculpted by Jeanne Mellin Herrick.[97] In 2014, the Canadian Film Centre unveiled the Northern Dancer Pavilion on its Windfields Farms heritage campus.[98] In 2018, the city of Oshawa announced that a new elementary school, located near what used to be Windfields Farm at the corner of Northern Dancer Drive and Bridle Road, would be named after the horse.[99]


Northern Dancer was by Nearctic, who was by leading sire Nearco, considered a "breed-shaping" sire of sires.[100] Nearctic's broodmare sire is Hyperion, who led the sire list eight times.[101] Northern Dancer's own broodmare sire (maternal grandsire) was Native Dancer, who also was an important sire of sires, chiefly through Raise A Native and Mr. Prospector. Northern Dancer was thus an immediate descendant of three of the most important bloodlines of the middle twentieth century.[102]

His female family is equally distinguished, if not as well-known. Northern Dancer's dam Natalma was a stakes-placed mare who was disqualified from a win in the Spinaway Stakes.[103] She was sidelined from racing by a knee chip and was mated to Nearctic to help fill out his first book of mares.[3] Natalma established herself as a "blue hen", producing not only Northern Dancer but three other stakes winners. Her daughters have further extended the family: Arctic Dancer, a full sister of Northern Dancer, became the dam of La Prevoyante, 1972 Canadian Horse of the Year;[3] Spring Adieu became the second dam of leading international sire Danehill (who is inbred to Natalma as he is also a grandson of Northern Dancer); and Raise the Standard is the granddam of important European sire Machiavellian.[103]

Natalma's dam Almahmoud produced several other influential daughters including Cosmah, the dam of four stakes winners including three-time American champion filly Tosmah and two-time leading American sire Halo, who would go on to sire Sunday Silence. Another half sister to Natalma, Bubbling Beauty, produced 1977 Prix Ganay (FR-I) winner Arctic Tern, the French champion sire of 1986.[103] The family traces to Mother Goose, who won the 1924 Futurity Stakes and is generally considered the co-champion American juvenile filly of that year along with Maud Muller.[3]

Pedigree of Northern Dancer (CAN), bay stallion, 1961[104]
Nearctic (CAN)
Br/bl. 1954
Nearco (ITY)
Br. 1935
Pharos (GB) Phalaris (GB)
Scapa Flow (GB) (Family 13-e[105])
Nogara (ITY) Havresac II (FR)
Catnip (IRE) (Family 4-r[106])
Lady Angela (GB)
ch. 1944
Hyperion (GB) Gainsborough
Selene (Family 6-e[107])
Sister Sarah (GB) Abbots Trace
Sarita (Family 11-c[108])
Natalma (USA)
B. 1957
Native Dancer
gr. 1950
Polynesian Unbreakable
Black Polly (Family 14-a[109])
Geisha Discovery
Miyako (Family 5-f[110])
ch. 1947
Mahmoud Blenheim
Mah Mahal (GB) (Family 9-c[111])
Arbitrator Peace Chance
Mother Goose (Family 2-d[112])

Northern Dancer is inbred to Gainsborough (GB) 4S X 5D, meaning Gainsborough appears in the 4th generation of the sire side of the pedigree and in the 5th generation of the dam's side. He is also inbred to Chaucer (GB) 5S X 5S.


  1. ^ The precise earnings total depends on the conversion rate used for the Canadian dollar. Some sources show a total of $580,806. Equibase shows $580,647.
  2. ^ The leading sire title for 1977 was given to Dr. Fager by the Thoroughbred Daily Times as at the time they counted North American earnings only. Northern Dancer was given the title by The Blood-Horse as they also included international earnings.[2][3]


  1. ^ "Northern Dancer". Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  2. ^ a b "Leading Sires of America". Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Hunter, Avalyn. "Northern Dancer". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  4. ^ a b Bourg, Ross du (1980). The Australian and New Zealand thoroughbred. Melbourne: Nelson. ISBN 0-17-005860-3.
  5. ^ Hunter, Avalyn. "Nearco (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  6. ^ Hunter, Avalyn. "Nearctic". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Northern Dancer – Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame". Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Kocher, Greg. "Northern Dancer's run: 2 minutes on the track, 50 years in Thoroughbred bloodlines". Lexington Herald-Leader. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Northern Dancer a Very Unlikely Hero | Canadian Horse Racing Hall of Fame". Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  10. ^ "Fort Erie Race Track – Our History". Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  11. ^ O'Connor, Joe (May 28, 2011). "Canada's greatest racing horse still an influence in the sport of kings". Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  12. ^ Wright, Alfred. "The Continental Touch of Horation Luro". Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  13. ^ Tower, Whitney. "The Dancer, The Scoundrel – and Mr. Moon". Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  14. ^ a b Tower, Whitney. "The Dancer Dazzles Old Kentucky". Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  15. ^ Izenberg, Dafna (April 17, 2014). "Northern Dancer: a legendary Canadian horse". Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Lennox, Muriel (1995). Northern Dancer : legend and legacy. Toronto: Beach House Books. ISBN 0969902506.
  17. ^ a b Tower, Whitney. "Three for the Triple Crown". Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  18. ^ Tower, Whitney. "One More to Make It Nine". Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  19. ^ Tower, Whitney. "SI Vault – Taken for a Virginia Reel". Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  20. ^ Christie, James. "Greatest sire in history would be 50 today". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  21. ^ "Queen's Plate Facts" (PDF). Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  22. ^ Tower, Whitney. "Quadrangle splashes ahead". Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  23. ^ del Conte, B.J. (November 16, 1990). "Northern Dancer dies at 29". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  24. ^ Duke], [editor, Jacqueline (1999). Thoroughbred champions : top 100 racehorses of the 20th century (1st ed.). Lexington, Ky.: The Blood-Horse, Inc. pp. 134–135. ISBN 1581500246.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  25. ^ Allemang, John. "Northern Dancer: A smart recreation of the unexpected Kentucky Derby winner". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  26. ^ a b Conway, Terry. "Northern Dancer: The Patriarch Stallion". Retrieved August 3, 2019.
  27. ^ a b c "Leading Sires of Great Britain and Ireland".
  28. ^ a b c "Lyphard (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  29. ^ a b Lamb, Katie. "Kentucky Derby: Northern Dancer's impact on horse racing unmatched". Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  30. ^ Morris, Tony. "Stamping their stock". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  31. ^ "Another Stakes Winner for Northern Dancer". April 8, 2004. Retrieved May 9, 2014.
  32. ^ "Viceregal (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  33. ^ "Cool Mood (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
  34. ^ a b "Nijinsky II (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  35. ^ "Fanfreluche (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  36. ^ "Northernette". Canadian Racing Hall of Fame. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  37. ^ "The Minstrel (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  38. ^ "Try My Best". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  39. ^ a b "Nureyev (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  40. ^ "2000 Guineas Winners". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  41. ^ "Irish Derby Winners". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  42. ^ a b "El Gran Senor (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  43. ^ a b "Sadler's Wells (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  44. ^ a b "Epsom Derby Winners". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  45. ^ Lamoreaux, E.S. "Bud" (January 26, 2016). "Northern Dancer, The Super Stud For All Times". Paulick Report. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  46. ^ a b c Thomas, Robert McG., Jr. (November 17, 1990). "Northern Dancer, One of Racing's Great Sires, Is Dead". New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  47. ^ Levinson, Mason. "Meet the $300,000-a-Pop Stud That's Dominating U.S. Horse Racing". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  48. ^ Kocher, Greg. "Northern Dancer's run". Lexington Herald-Leader. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
  49. ^ "Keeneland November to feature Windfields Farm, Overbrook dispersals – Bloodstock Journal". Retrieved May 9, 2014.
  50. ^ a b Crist, Steven (July 21, 1983). "Sheik's Coup in Sport of Kings". The New York Times. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  51. ^ a b Clee, Nicholas (May 7, 2006). "He's never run a race, so why pay $16m for him?". the Guardian. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  52. ^ Associated Press. "Keeneland Sales Shatter Records". Ocala Star Banner. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  53. ^ "Northern Dancer's Offspring Top Sales". Ocala Star Banner. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  54. ^ "Danzig (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.,
  55. ^ Hunter, Avalyn. "Green Desert (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  56. ^ "Fairy King (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  57. ^ "Japanese Stallion Northern Taste Dead". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  58. ^ a b "English Classic Winners". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  59. ^ "Storm Bird (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  60. ^ "Vice Regent (horse)". American Classic Pedigrees. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  61. ^ "Hall of Famer Dance Smartly Dead". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  62. ^ "Experience Justify's pedigree with this video tour of his greatest ancestors". Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  63. ^ Hunter, Avalyn. "Triple Crown Connections". Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  64. ^ a b Peters, Anne. "Pedigree Analysis: Inbreeding Trends". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  65. ^ "Shackleford pedigree". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  66. ^ "Pedigree fun facts for 2018 Kentucky Derby". Retrieved May 4, 2018.
  67. ^ Sparkman, John P. "Evolution of sire lines seen at Breeders' Cup". Retrieved July 10, 2016.
  68. ^ Porter, Alan. "Deconstructing Black Caviar". Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  69. ^ Russell, Brian. "Two Horses of the Year with a triple of Northern Dancer : Australia Horse Breeding and Racing news updated daily,". Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  70. ^ Association, Japan Bloodhorse Breeders'. "Orfevre(JPN)". Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  71. ^ Association, Japan Bloodhorse Breeders'. "Gentildonna(JPN)". Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  72. ^ a b "Bloodstock – Frankel". Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  73. ^ Donnelly, John. "Northern Dancer and the Epsom Derby". Retrieved July 10, 2016.
  74. ^ a b "Pedigree Analysis: Doubling Down On Danzig". Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  75. ^ Walker, Matt. "Wonder Monkey: Are racehorses being bred to destruction?". BBC. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  76. ^ Sparkman, John P. "Pedigree Analysis: American Roots". Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  77. ^ Porter, Alan. "Line-breeding to Northern Dancer and Nasrullah in Thoroughbred Stallion Pedigrees". Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  78. ^ "Danzig Inbreeding Yields Successes". Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  79. ^ Rogers, Byron. "Kissing Cousins: Australia and Taghrooda". Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  80. ^ "Is Sire-Line Outcrossing Possible Anymore?". Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  81. ^ MacDonald, Michele. "These new elite stallions show how Northern Dancer and Mr Prospector still rule the world". Thoroughbred Racing Commentary. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
  82. ^ Porter, Alan. "Monsun Season Underway in Europe". Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  83. ^ Peters, Anne. "The Secret to Tapit's Success". Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  84. ^ Peddicord, Ross. "Right up to coffin, Northern Dancer's life was one of class". tribunedigital-baltimoresun. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  85. ^ "Northern Dancer: The Canadian Super Horse that Nobody Wanted". July 21, 2014. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  86. ^ "Northern Dancer: Little horse, big legacy". The Oshawa Express. April 18, 2018. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  87. ^ "Canada's Sports Hall of Fame – Northern Dancer". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  88. ^ "Northern Dancer – National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  89. ^ "1998 Inductees – Northern Dancer". Ontario Sports Hall of Fame. April 1, 2014. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
  90. ^ "Horses". Canada's Stamp Details (Vol. 8 No 3; May/June/July, 1999). Canada Post. Archived from the original on February 5, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
  91. ^ "About Woodbine Park". Woodbine Park Community Association. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
  92. ^ Hunter, Avalyn (2003). American classic pedigrees (1914–2002) : a decade-by-decade review of Kentucky Derby, Preakness, and Belmont winners, plus Kentucky Oaks and Coaching Club American Oaks (1st ed.). Lexington, Ky.: Eclipse Press. ISBN 1581500955.
  93. ^ Hunter, Avalyn (2008). The kingmaker : how Northern Dancer founded a racing dynasty (1st [trade paperback] ed.). Lexington, Ky.: Eclipse Press. ISBN 978-1581502039.
  94. ^ Chong, Kevin (2015). Northern Dancer: The Legendary Horse That Inspired A Nation (Trade ed.). Penguin Canada. ISBN 978-0143190196.
  95. ^ "Hall of Fame Auction List Loaded, Donors Don't Disappoint". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  96. ^ "Oshawa horn player releases third album". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  97. ^ "Northern Dancer". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  98. ^ "CFC Unveils the Northern Dancer Pavilion Named After Canadian Racehorse Legend". Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  99. ^ "New Oshawa school named after iconic racing horse". The Oshawa Express. July 4, 2018. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
  100. ^ "Nearco". Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  101. ^ "Hyperion". Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  102. ^ "Classic sirelines". November 28, 2012. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  103. ^ a b c Hunter, Avalyn. "Pedigree Analysis: Almahmoud". Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  104. ^ "Northern Dancer Pedigree". Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  105. ^ "Thoroughbred Bloodlines, Family 13-e". Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  106. ^ "Thoroughbred Bloodlines, Family 4-f". Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  107. ^ "Thoroughbred Bloodlines, Family 6-e". Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  108. ^ "Thoroughbred Bloodlines, Family 11-c". Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  109. ^ "Thoroughbred Bloodlines, Family 14-a". Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  110. ^ "Thoroughbred Bloodlines, Family 5-f". Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  111. ^ "Thoroughbred Bloodlines, Family 9-c". Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  112. ^ "Thoroughbred Bloodlines, Family 2-d". Retrieved April 19, 2018.

Further readingEdit

  • Arsenault, Debbie Gamble (2005). Great Canadian race horses. Calgary: Altitude Pub. ISBN 1-55439-000-1.
  • Hunter, Avalyn (2006). The kingmaker : how Northern Dancer founded a racing dynasty (1st ed.). Lexington, Ky.: Eclipse Press. ISBN 1-58150-137-4.
  • Lennox, Muriel (1995). Northern Dancer : legend and legacy. Toronto: Beach House Books. ISBN 0-9699025-0-6.

External linksEdit