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Norse mythology in popular culture

The Norse mythology, preserved in such ancient Icelandic texts as the Poetic Edda, the Prose Edda, and other lays and sagas, was little known outside Scandinavia until the 19th century. With the widespread publication of Norse myths and legends at this time, references to the Norse gods and heroes spread into European literary culture, especially in Scandinavia, Germany, and Britain. In the later 20th century, references to Norse mythology became common in science fiction and fantasy literature, role-playing games, and eventually other cultural products such as Japanese animation.

Contents

Reintroduction to popular cultureEdit

Antiquaries of the 19th century such as George Webbe Dasent brought the mythology of Scandinavia back to the popular notice of many people in Germany and England; in both cases, Norse mythology was recognized as the latest surviving form of Germanic paganism. Germany and England were Christianized far earlier than the Scandinavian countries and much of their own traditions were lost.

In Britain, William Morris composed poetry such as Sigurd the Volsung on Norse legendary subjects as well as translating Icelandic sagas into English. In Germany, Richard Wagner borrowed characters and themes from Norse mythology to compose the four operas that make up Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), though he also utilized medieval German sources and Germanized the names of the Norse gods.

Depictions in modern popular cultureEdit

ComicsEdit

American comicsEdit

  • In the Marvel Universe, the Norse Pantheon and related elements play a prominent part, especially Thor, who has been one of the longest-running superheroes for the company and has had a starring role in The Avengers, the movie based on the comic books. Also, Loki (Thor's adopted brother in this version) is one of the most prominent villains in the Marvel Universe, serving as one of the main antagonists in the Marvel Cinematic Universe franchise.
  • Odin, Thor, Loki, and several other beings and places in Norse mythology have recurring roles in Neil Gaiman's Sandman graphic novel series, most notably in the Season of Mists and The Kindly Ones stories.
  • The American graphic novel Gods of Asgard by Erik Evensen is an adaptation of several of the Norse myths. Gods of Asgard was awarded a Xeric grant in 2007.
  • The comic miniseries Hammer of the Gods by Michael Avon Oeming and Mark Wheatley, from Insight Studios Group, 2001, uses the world of the Norse myths as a setting.
  • The graphic novel series Norse Myths: A Viking Graphic Novel Series by Louise Simonson, Michael Dahl, Carl Bowen, Eduardo Garcia, and Tod Smith adapts several of the Norse myths for early readers.

[1][2]

European comicsEdit

Manga, anime and manhwaEdit

  • The Norse Pantheon heroes are the main characters of the Japanese manga and anime Matantei Loki Ragnarok (loosely translated, The Mythical Detective Loki Ragnarok).
  • The manhwa series Ragnarok, by Myung-Jin Lee, is based on Norse mythology and the events of Ragnarok, the prophesied fall of the gods.
  • Vinland Saga takes place in Iceland and 11th-century Europe, which makes many references to Norse mythology
  • In History's Strongest Disciple Kenichi, the protagonists fight against a gang organization known as Ragnarok. Each of the Eight Fists were nicknamed after a figure in Norse mythology, including Berserker, Freya, Loki, Thor, Siegfried, Hermit, Valkyrie, and their leader Odin.
  • Oh! My Goddess! has aspects of Norse mythology. Heaven's main computer is called Yggdrasil, the goddesses and demons' names are based on Norse gods and goddesses, and the Underworld's computer is called Nidhogg.
  • Attack on Titan, also has prominent themes of Norse mythology, including (but not limited to): Ymir, Castle Utgard, the walls, the Titans, parallels between Norse gods/goddesses and characters, as well as plot lines that seem to mimic events in Norse mythology. The conflict between the Titan shifters and normal humans may be compared to the wars between the Aesir and Vanir. There are other references that are minor as well, such as the can of herring found by Ymir (which contains Norse runes on the label) and the giant boar killed in the second OVA of the anime.
  • Sword Art Online has characters and story based on Norse mythology.
  • High School DxD has Norse mythical creatures and gods in the light novel and anime.
  • Saint Seiya: Poseidon and the Asgardians has characters and story based on Norse mythology such as Odin, Freyja, Jörmungandr, Fenrir, Sleipnir, Sigurd etc.

WebcomicsEdit

  • Sparkling Generation Valkyrie Yuuki is a webcomic featuring Yuuki, a boy turned into a Valkyrie by Hermod to stand against Surt and the Giants. It features many representations of Norse mythological figures in a modern-day setting.
  • Brat-halla is a mythology webcomic about the Norse gods during their elementary school days. All-Father Odin and his wife Frigg constantly have their hands full with youngsters Thor (the super strong runt of the litter), Loki (the god of mischief who likes to play with dolls), Balder (the invulnerable pretty boy), Hod (the blind god of darkness and winter), Hermod (the hyper super speedster) and the rest of the Norse pantheon.
  • The Order of the Stick features the Norse pantheon deities, including Thor, Sif, Loki, and Odin, as the gods of the Northern lands and participants in the creation of the universe. Durkon Thundershield, one of the main characters, is a cleric of Thor.
  • Stand Still. Stay Silent., by Finnish Swede illustrator and cartoonist Minna Sundberg, is a post apocalyptic webcomic with elements from Nordic mythology, set 90 years in the future.[3] In this story, Iceland and Norway have returned to the embrace of their ancient Gods.[4]

LiteratureEdit

MusicEdit

 
Illustration to a Wagner's Opera

Norse mythology influenced Richard Wagner's use of literary themes from it to compose the four operas that make up Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung).

TelevisionEdit

Live action TVEdit

  • The TV show Game of Thrones has Norse influences.
  • Several of the Norse gods feature prominently in the Danish miniseries, Jul i Valhal, and many of the Norse myths are referenced as well. Loki, in particular, is a major character.
  • Miniseries Dark Kingdom: The Dragon King, aka Niebelungen, is based on Nibelungenlied.
  • The TV series Stargate SG-1 regularly features the Asgard race, which is a powerful, yet friendly alien species broadly depicted as somewhat resembling grey aliens who, according to the series, are the original source of the Norse gods having portrayed them to help humanity. Thor, a member of the Asgard High Council, is a regularly returning character on the show. Their spaceships, as seen from below, are shaped like Mjolnir, Thor's hammer. In Stargate Atlantis, it is revealed that there is a sub-group of Asgard called the Vanir, opposed to the agenda of the other Asgard, and analogous to the Vanir of Norse mythology.
  • In the 5th Season of TV series Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, the episodes Norse by Norsevest and Somewhere over the Rainbow Bridge depict Hercules traveling to Asgard and being thrust into a major conflict among the Viking Norse Gods.
  • Odin and the Valkyries appear a few times in the television series Xena: Warrior Princess in the 6th season which is a spin off of Hercules: The Legendary Journeys.
  • In Metalocalypse, Skwisgaar Skwigelf and Toki Wartooth both seem to show some belief in Norse mythology.
  • The television series Doctor Who has referenced the Norse twilight of the gods in the story, The Curse of Fenric.
  • The television series Supernatural has referenced the Norse Vanir in a Season One episode, as gods that locals of Scandinavian descent brought with them. Supernatural also has four episodes that involves a being believed to be Loki the Trickster. In season 5 episode Hammer of the Gods, members of several godly pantheons (including those of Hindu, Voodoo, etc.) meet in order to deal with the matter of the Judeo-Christian apocalypse. Lucifer kills all the gods (except for Kali), including Norse gods Odin, Baldur and Loki (revealed earlier to actually be archangel Gabriel). Thor's hammer Mjolnir later appears in a Season 8 episode as an object at a supernatural auction house, bought by Norse god Vili. In the season 13 episode "Unfinished Business", Gabriel is revealed to have made a deal with the real Loki (played by Richard Speight Jr. like Gabriel) to take on his identity and persona millennia earlier to hide from Heaven and to have sought the aid of Loki and his sons Fenrir, Narfi and Sleipnir in hiding after faking his death once more. Instead, the gods had sold him to the Prince of Hell Asmodeus and Gabriel seeks revenge with the help of Sam and Dean Winchester. Gabriel kills Fenris, Narfi and Sleipnir before learning that Loki blames Gabriel for the death of Odin who he still loved despite their differences. Loki's betrayal was his way of getting revenge. After a fight, Gabriel kills Loki with a specially-crafted wooden sword and gets his own revenge upon him.
  • Thor was the main subject of episode 10 of Clash of the Gods.
  • New Zealand television series The Almighty Johnsons is centered on a family who are all reincarnations of Norse Gods.
  • Vikings is a Canadian TV series loosely based on the legendary Viking Ragnarr Loðbrók. The characters in the show have visions of Odin and/or pray to several Germanic deities, such as Thor, Freya, Freyr, and Loki, among others.
  • True Blood features a vampire character named Eric Northman who was once a Viking prince and now the owner of a Shreveport, Louisiana-based nightclub Fangtasia
  • The television series Witches of East End, based on the book of the same name, is about witches from Asgard.
  • Kamen Rider Gaim, a Japanese Tokusatsu television series, makes many references to Norse mythology, especially with the organization Yggdrasill Corporation, the forest-based other-world Helheim, and armor designs for a number of the Riders who turn up in the series.
  • The American Gods TV series features Norse mythological figures, being an adaptation of Neil Gaiman's novel American Gods. In the first season, Odin is the most prominent.
  • Victor Magtanggol is a Filipino television series set in the modern world after the events of Ragnarok where most of the Norse gods are already dead including Thor. The main antagonist in the series is Loki who was revived to take over the world. The story revolves around the main character Victor Magtanggol (played by Alden Richards) who was chosen by lady Sif to be the new wielder of Thor's hammer Mjolnir.[5]

AnimeEdit

  • Rintaro Okabe, protagonist in the Japanese anime series, Steins;Gate, uses Norse mythology to name several operations within the series. Each operation has to do with preventing the dystopia in 2036, but the names of the operations have no real connection to the actual myths.
  • Japanese anime series High School DXD light novels and the third season in the anime feature Odin, Loki, Rossweisse (a Valkyrie), Thor's Hammer, and Fenrir.
  • The Japanese series Bladedance of Elementalers, Rinslet Laurenfrost's Contracted Spirit is an ice spirit Dire Wolf named Fenrir.
  • In the anime series Sword Art Online, the game ALfheim Online is based on Norse mythology.[6]
  • In the Japanese anime series Blue Dragon, a character named Logi comes with many references to the mythology; including his name sounding of Loki's, his shadows called "Valkyrie" and "Odin" (who wields the Gungnir), and his fleet of robots named Sleipnir.

AnimationEdit

  • The 1990s Disney animated series Gargoyles featured "Eye of the Storm," set in modern Norway as the thirteenth episode of the so-called "Avalon World Tour" story arc, where Goliath is involved in what culminates in the return of Odin's missing right eye to him, with Odin depicted as one of the series' magical "Oberon's children," a race of powerful beings led by Oberon and Titania.
  • The cartoon series He-Man And The Masters Of The Universe and She-Ra, Princess Of Power, both by Filmation Studios, are imbued with Asatru/Norse traditions, including hailing the honored dead, hailing victories and ancestors, magical weaponry, mirror scrying, and divination. A winged sorceress who is the subliminal incarnation of Freya but dispenses wisdom is featured, and Adora/She-Ra is the incarnation of a Valkyrie.
  • The Walt Disney animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is based on a Brothers Grimm telling of Norse mythology, in which goddess Freya goes to Svartaheim to ask the dwarfs to craft Brisingamen, the magical necklace.

FilmEdit

Video gamesEdit

  • The Ragnarok Online universe contains many references to Norse mythology – in fact, almost everything in the game is based on Norse mythology.
  • The plot of Ash of Gods: Redemption is significantly based on Norse mythology, including names of the Runes and Gods used as the names of states and cities.
  • Tomb Raider: Underworld uses the Norse mythology keystones, names and artifacts as its main plot basis. Protagonist Lara Croft, in the course of her search for her mother, visits the Neiflheim and other mythical places. Thor's hammer Mjollnir is used as her weapon.
  • In StarCraft, four of the fifteen Zerg Broods are named Fenris, Garm, Jormungand, and Surtur, and there is also an overlord hero unit called Yggdrasil. In addition, there is a Terran unit called a Valkyrie; similarly, in Starcraft 2, there are several Terran units that are named based on Norse references.
  • The role-playing game Dungeons and Dragons has included Norse gods as optional elements since the publication of its Deities and Demigods sourcebook.
  • The tri-Ace role-playing game Valkyrie Profile: Lenneth is based on Norse mythology, though it does deviate at some points. The main character is a valkyrie named Lenneth, whom many have thought represents Brynhild. Lenneth has been commanded by Odin to gather souls of dead warriors for the upcoming battles of Ragnarok. Depending on the path the player chooses, Lenneth will face either Surt, lord of the fire giants, or Loki in combat.
  • Max Payne and Max Payne 2: The Fall of Max Payne both have several references to Norse mythology, including characters named Balder and Woden, Aesir Corporation, the drug Valkyr, and the Ragnarock nightclub.
  • In the Final Fantasy series, various characters and items are named after elements of Norse mythology. Final Fantasy VII's world features cities named Nibelheim and Midgar. Several of the games include weapons (Final Fantasy VII and Final Fantasy Tactics) or airships (Final Fantasy VIII) named Ragnarok. Party member Freya from (Final Fantasy IX). Final Fantasy XIII and its sequels feature multiple references, including the otherworld realm of Valhalla, the world-ending beast Ragnarok, various names used in altered forms and outfits inspired by figures from the Norse mythos. Odin is also often a summon in the games.
  • The Norse are a playable faction in Ensemble Studio's Age of Mythology.
  • In Halo, the player's character Master Chief (Halo) wears a special type of armor called MJOLNIR.
  • Too Human has a story based on Norse mythology where it is interpreted that the Gods are actually Cybernetically-Enhanced Humans.
  • Viking: Battle for Asgard is set in Midgard where the forces of Hel and Freya battle for dominance.
  • In Eve Online, many advanced ships and items associated with the Minmatar race have names based on Norse mythology. These include the Ragnarok-class Titan, the Sleipnir-class Command Ship, the Einherji fighter drone, the Fenrir-class Freighter, Vargur-class Marauder, Huginn-class Recon Ship, Muninn-class Heavy Assault Ship, Loki-class Strategic Cruiser, Naglfar-class Dreadnaught, the Nidhoggur-class Carrier, and Hel-class Supercarrier.
  • In Castle of the winds, the freeware/shareware RPG for windows, many of the characters/place names/weapons are named after Norse mythology.
  • The superhero game Marvel: Ultimate Alliance features the Marvel Comics version of Thor as one of the major playable characters and features the Norse characters and realms as the focus of Act III, in which Dr. Doom conquers Asgard and steals Odin's powers.
  • Another Marvel Comics-related game, Thor: God of Thunder, was released as a tie-in to the 2011 film Thor and features mythological realms that are not explored in the feature film.
  • A Neverwinter Nights and Neverwinter Nights 2 persistent world called Markshire NWN1 version | NWN2 version is influenced heavily by Norse mythology. They incorporate the pantheon directly into their world and take the culture into a renaissance period. The world is highly roleplaying oriented. Markshire is listed as a Hall of Fame world and has been reviewed with the highest rating of any world for NWN on the NWVault.
  • In Odin Sphere one of the five warlords is the 'Demon Lord Odin', who commands an army of Valkyrie warriors. The game depicts many aspects of Norse mythology, such as the Armageddon ‒ standing for the Ragnarök, the Haljas (guardians of the Netherworld), the Aesir and the Vanir (Valkyries and Fairies) fighting over the control of the land.
  • Rune is a 3rd person hack-and-slash game featuring a young Viking warrior on a fantasy quest, based around Norse mythology.
  • In Fire Emblem: The Sacred Stones several weapons are named after figures and objects in Norse mythology, including the weapons Garm, Gleipnir, and Fenrir.
  • In the video game Age of Empires: Mythologies the Norse are a playable nation.
  • In the PC based MMORPG game World of Warcraft, various storylines, characters, locations and monsters are named after and or based on popular parts of Norse mythology.
  • In the video game Tales of Symphonia, Heimdall, Ymir, Fenrir, and Yggdrasil were taken from Norse mythology, with Heimdall being the name of the village of the elves and Ymir the forest in which it is concealed, Fenrir as the Summon Spirit of Ice Celsius' companion, and Yggdrasill being the world tree of infinite mana.
  • In the video game Ben Hur: Blood of Braves, players can race with chariots through Asgard. They can also play with fictitious Norse characters and worship characters from Norse mythology such as Thor, Odin, Freya and The Valkyries.
  • In the video game series Boktai, many aspects of the plot are based on Norse mythology, such as the final bosses Hel, Jormungandr, and Vanargand, and the ultimate weapons Gram, Gungnir, and Mjollnir, to name a few.
  • In the video game La Tale, Norse mythology is reoccurrent in many of the games themes (i.e. fighting Valkyries, as well as Hel and Odin appearing as bosses). There are many maps in game that have ideas taken from Norse mythology, including Bitfrost, Valhalla, Asgard, The Long Tree (being Yggdrasil), Midgard, and a few more.
  • In the video game Heroes of Newerth, playing as a Valkyrie is possible.
  • The Shin Megami Tensei: Persona video game series contains several Norse gods and beings as summonable Personas. Additionally, some skills such as Odin's Thunder Reign, Loki's Niflheim, and Surt's Ragnarok are derived from Norse mythology.
  • In the video game Xenogears, names were taken from Norse mythology. These names include, but are not limited to, Andvari, Fenrir, Heimdall, Sigurd, and Yggdrasil.
  • The MMORPG RuneScape has a few notable Norse mythology links, mostly in the 'Fremennik Tribe' and their quests.
  • In the MMO Dark Age of Camelot there are three playable realms, one of which is called Midgard. The people encountered there have many references to Norse mythology, and they have such playable classes as Berserker, Runemaster, Skald, Thane and Valkyrie.
  • The video game Magicka is loosely based on Norse mythology, and contains several elements and references.
  • The role-playing game The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim by Bethesda Softworks is heavily influenced by Norse mythology in its setting.
  • In Age of Empires Online the Norse are a playable faction.
  • In the PC game Heroes of Might and Magic III, the faction Stronghold has a few Norse mythology elements, one being the building Valhalla.
  • In the PC MOBA, Smite, several playable gods are from the Norse pantheon. Currently, there are Thor, Odin, Loki, Hel, Fenrir, Ymir, Sol, Skadi, Freya, Tyr, Ratatoskr, Fafnir, and Ullr.
  • The puzzle platform game Munin is about Odin's raven Munin, whom Loki has stripped of wings and transformed into a human girl, and who has to travel through the nine worlds of Yggdrasil to relocate her missing feathers.
  • In the video game Dark Souls, there is a large, sword-wielding wolf named Sif that serves as a boss battle in the game. Sif's name references the Nordic goddess of the Earth, Sif, and he is a direct reference to the great lupine son of Loki, Fenrir. Furthermore, the sword wielded by Sif more than likely references the sword that was jammed in between the jaws of Fenris by the Æsir.
  • In the role-playing game Etrian Odyssey, the Yggdrasil Tree is a recurring plot element of great relevance and significance that appears on every game of the series.
  • In the video game Hellblade: Senua's Sacrifice, Norse mythology plays a key role in design of the world and enemies, with the developers going to great lengths to research the topic.
  • The God of War (2018 video game), is loosely based on Norse mythology, a change of direction for a series previously centered around Greek mythology. Baldr appears as the main antagonist, Freya and Mímir appear as allies, Odin and Thor are mentioned frequently with the latter's sons Móði and Magni appearing as antagonists. Kratos' second wife is Laufey, a Frost Giant and his son Atreus' original name is Loki.
  • In the PC space simulator Freespace, names for starships are derived from the Norse mythology, including Fenris and Loki.
  • In Pokémon X and Y, the legendary trio, Xerneas, Yveltal, and Zygarde, are based upon creatures from Norse Mythology.

Norse mythology in other mediaEdit

  • Rooster Teeth Productions's web series RWBY features the character Nora Valkyrie. Not only does her last name reference the female warriors who would lead Viking champions to Valhalla, but she also alludes to Thor. Her weapon is a hammer/grenade launcher known as Magnhild which she uses with uncanny strength. Her semblance is the production and channeling of electricity, similar to how Thor is the god of thunder. Nora's female gender alludes to the story where Thor disguised himself as Freyja in order to retrieve his hammer from a giant who wanted the goddess as his wife.
  • The Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game has a series of cards the (Nordic and Aesir archetypes) based on Norse gods and other mythological creatures.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://nepca.blog/2018/06/27/norse-mythology-in-popular-culture/
  2. ^ https://www.cbr.com/oeming-nails-norse-myth-in-hammer-of-the-gods/
  3. ^ http://www.sssscomic.com/
  4. ^ http://www.sssscomic.com/comic.php?page=67
  5. ^ http://entertainment.inquirer.net/282799/victor-magtanggol-based-norse-mythology-not-marvels-thor-says-creator
  6. ^ Eisenbeis, Richard (June 17, 2015). "Sword Art Online Is A Lot Of Fun, Even Without Its Main Character". Kotaku. Retrieved October 2, 2015. The first volume of Girls’ Ops follows the sub-heroines of Sword Art Online: Leafa, Silica, and Lisbeth as they explore the fairy-filled world of the Norse-themed ALfheim Online.