Norfolk and Western 611

Coordinates: 37°16′23″N 79°56′50″W / 37.272943°N 79.947231°W / 37.272943; -79.947231 Norfolk and Western 611, also known as the "Spirit of Roanoke" and the "Queen of Steam", is a preserved class "J" 4-8-4 "Northern" streamlined steam locomotive built in May 1950 by the Norfolk and Western's (N&W) East End Shops in Roanoke, Virginia. It was one of the last steam passenger locomotives built in the United States and represents the pinnacle of steam locomotive technology.

Norfolk & Western 611
611 on turntable.jpg
Norfolk and Western Class J No. 611 sitting on the turntable at the North Carolina Transportation Museum in May 2015
Type and origin
References:[1][2][3][4]
Power typeSteam
BuilderN&W's Roanoke Shops (East End Shops)
Serial number388
Build dateMay 29, 1950
Rebuild dateOctober 1981–July 1982
June 2014–March 2015
Specifications
Configuration:
 • Whyte4-8-4
 • UIC2′D2′ h2
Gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Driver dia.70 in (1,778 mm)
Length109 ft 2 in (33.27 m)
Width11 ft 2 in (3.40 m)
Height16 ft 2 in (4.93 m)
Axle load72,000 lb (32.7 tonnes) for drivers
Adhesive weight288,000 lb (130.6 tonnes)
Loco weight494,000 lb (224.1 tonnes)
Tender weight378,600 lb (171.7 tonnes)
Total weight872,600 lb (395.8 tonnes)
Fuel typeCoal
Fuel capacity70,000 lb (31.8 tonnes)
Water cap22,000 US gal (83,000 l; 18,000 imp gal)
25,000 US gal (95,000 l; 21,000 imp gal) in auxiliary tender
Firebox:
 • Firegrate area
107.7 sq ft (10.01 m2)
Boiler pressure300 lbf/in2 (2.07 MPa)
Heating surface:
 • Tubes and flues
4,693 sq ft (436.0 m2)
 • Firebox578 sq ft (53.7 m2)
Superheater:
 • Heating area2,177 sq ft (202.2 m2)
CylindersTwo, outside
Cylinder size27 in × 32 in (686 mm × 813 mm)
Valve gearBaker
Valve typePiston valves
Performance figures
Maximum speed110 mph (177 km/h)
Power output5,300 hp (4,000 kW)
Tractive effort80,000 lbf (355.86 kN)
Factor of adh.3.39
Career
OperatorsNorfolk and Western RailwayNorfolk Southern Railway
Virginia Museum of Transportation (Fire Up 611! Committee)
ClassJ
Number in class12 of 14
Numbers
  • 611
Nicknames
  • "The Spirit of Roanoke"
  • "The Queen of Steam"
RetiredOctober 24, 1959 (revenue service)
December 7, 1994 (1st excursion service)
RestoredJuly 5, 1982 (1st restoration)
March 31, 2015 (2nd restoration)
Current ownerVirginia Museum of Transportation
DispositionOperational, based in Roanoke, Virginia

No. 611 was assigned to haul the N&W's Powhatan Arrow, Pocahontas, and Cavalier passenger trains between Norfolk, Virginia and Cincinnati and Portsmouth, Ohio as well as ferrying the Southern Railway's Birmingham Special, Pelican and Tennessean between Lynchburg, Virginia and Bristol, Tennessee. It was retired from revenue service in 1959 and moved to the Virginia Museum of Transportation (VMT) in 1962, making it the sole survivor of the fourteen class J locomotives. In 1982, Norfolk Southern (NS) restored the locomotive to operating condition for excursion service as it became the star of their steam program, pulling excursions throughout the eastern United States. No. 611 was retired again in December 1994 and moved back to the VMT.

In February 2013, the VMT formed a committee called Fire Up 611! to raise enough money to restore the locomotive to operating condition once again for excursion service in May 2015. It often visits the North Carolina Transportation Museum (NCTM) in Spencer, North Carolina for its annual Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) maintenance and inspection as well as doing cab rides, caboose rides, in-cab experiences, whistle blowing, and passenger train rides around the museum. Most recently in fall 2019, No. 611 went to Strasburg, Pennsylvania to participate in the Strasburg Rail Road's N&W Reunion of Steam event where it ran several excursion trips alongside 4-8-0 Norfolk and Western 475. On May 26, 2021, No. 611 returned to Strasburg where it is scheduled to stay and pull excursions until early October 2021.

Design and appearanceEdit

The class Js were developed and built by the Norfolk and Western's (N&W) East End Shops in Roanoke, Virginia between 1941 and 1950 to handle passenger trains over the Blue Ridge Mountains.[1][3] Designed with 70 in (1,778 mm) driving wheels, 80,000 lb (36.3 tonnes) of tractive effort, and an operating boiler pressure of 300 psi (2.07 MPa), the class Js were the most powerful passenger steam locomotives as they operated upwards of 15,000 miles (24,140 km) per month and several logged over 3,000,000 miles (4,828,030 km).[1] Their streamlined appearance was designed by N&W Tool Supervisor, Franklin C. Noel and were painted in black with a Tuscan red stripe and golden yellow linings and letterings.[5][6]

In 1945, one of the Js, No. 610 was on loan to the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR), where it hauled a 1015-ton passenger train with 15 passenger cars at more than 110 mph (180 km/h) over the flat terrain on the Fort Wayne Division.[5] Because of their power and speed, the class Js were among the most reliable locomotives as they run as many as 15,000 miles (24,000 km) per month, even on the mountainous and relatively short route of the N&W.[4] They along with the articulated 2-6-6-4 class A and 2-8-8-2 Y6 freight locomotives were part of N&W's "Big Three" steam locomotives, considered to be the pinnacle of steam locomotive technology.[1][7][8]

HistoryEdit

Revenue service and retirement (1950-1959)Edit

 
No. 611's builder plate

N&W built No. 611 and placed it into revenue service on May 29, 1950 at a final cost of US$251,544.[1][4] It was one of the last third batches of 3 class Js for the N&W, making them the last steam passenger locomotives built in the United States.[9][10] No. 611 and the other class Js were assigned to haul the Norfolk and Western's passenger trains such as the Pocahontas, the Cavalier, and even the luxurious Powhatan Arrow between Norfolk, Virginia and Cincinnati and Portsmouth, Ohio as well as ferrying the Southern Railway's Birmingham Special, Pelican and Tennessean between Lynchburg, Virginia and Bristol, Tennessee.[4]

Under the management of Stuart T. Saunders in the late 1950s, N&W began purchasing first-generation diesel locomotives, experimenting with fuel and maintenance cost.[1][11] They leased several sets of EMD E6s, E7s, E8s from the Atlantic Coast Line and Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac railroads to replace their class Js from passenger service and reassigned the latters to freight service until they were all withdrawn and scrapped between 1958 and 1959, with the exception of one.[11][12] On that latter year, No. 611 was selected to haul two Farewell To Steam round trip excursions; one from Petersburg, Virginia to Norfolk, Virginia on October 18 and the other from Roanoke, Virginia to Williamson, West Virginia on October 24.[11][13]

After retirement from revenue service, No. 611 was served as a steam generator at the East End Shops, the same place were it was built, until its boiler flue ticket certificate expired.[1] Due to its excellent condition after being rebuilt from its 1956 accident, attorney and railfan, W. Graham Claytor Jr. convinced the N&W to preserve the 611 rather than seeing it scrapped.[11][14] In 1962, the locomotive was donated to the Roanoke Transportation Museum in Roanoke, Virginia, where it sat on display for two decades.[11] The 611 was also a possible candidate for the American Freedom Train; however, Reading 2101, Southern Pacific 4449 and Texas and Pacific 610 were ultimately chosen instead.[15]

First restoration and excursion career (1981-1994)Edit

In 1980, Graham's brother, Robert Claytor, who was president of Norfolk and Western in its last months, made plans to add the 611 to the Southern Railway's steam program,[16][17] which had begun in 1966 with No. 4501.[18][19] On October 16, 1981, Claytor leased the 611 and moved it to the Southern Railway's Norris Yard Steam Shop in Irondale, Alabama, where it would be restored to operating condition.[17]

On July 5, 1982, No. 611 was finally steamed up for the first time in 23 years and replaced another locomotive, Southern No. 2716, which had its excursion career ended due to firebox problems.[20][21] During that time, the Norfolk and Western, and Southern railways merged to form the Norfolk Southern (NS).[17] This doubled the length of track available for No. 611 to run.[17][a]

After completing a successful test run from Irondale, Alabama to Chattanooga, Tennessee on August 15 and 16, 1982, No. 611 made its ferry move back to Roanoke on August 20 with Robert Claytor at the throttle and his son, Preston firing.[21] Upon arrival in Roanoke on August 22, Claytor made a speech to the 4,000 citizens of Roanoke that No. 611 was "Roanoke Born, Roanoke Bred, and Roanoke Proud".[21] On Labor Day weekend, No. 611 began its first excursion trip, pulling the Roanoke Chapter National Railway Historical Society (NRHS) Centennial Limited train to Norfolk, Virginia.[21]

In 1983, No. 611 continued to pull more public and private excursion trips for the Norfolk Southern steam program including an NRHS excursion on Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac (RF&P) trackage from Alexandria, Virginia to Richmond, Virginia where it double headed with Savannah & Atlanta 750 on July 17.[25][26] Afterwards in mid-July, one of No. 611's excursion trip took the locomotive up to the Midwestern United States, where it ran some more excursion trips out of Chicago, Illinois and St. Louis, Missouri over Chicago and North Western (CN&W), ex-Nickel Plate Road (NKP), and ex-Wabash (WAB) trackage.[26]

 
No. 611 passing through Culpeper, Virginia with a Alexandria-Charlottesville round trip excursion in July 1984.[27]

On May 19, 1984, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers dedicated No. 611 as a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark and it has since been added to the National Park Service's Historic American Engineering Record.[4][28] In August of that year, the locomotive once again ran more excursions on ex-NKP trackage, where it double headed with Nickel Plate Road 765.[27] On November 10 and 11, No. 611 visited Jacksonville, Florida to haul the Suwanee Steam Special round trip excursion from there to Valdosta, Georgia for the North Florida Chapter NRHS.[27]

During the Roanoke NRHS convention in 1987, No. 611 pulled an excursion train, where it joined side-by-side with the recently restored class A No. 1218, who was pulling an empty 50 hopper car train and later double headed with No. 611.[29][b]

In summer of 1989, No. 611 joined No. 587 to haul the Roanoke NRHS Charter Independence Limited excursion trip from Cleveland, Ohio to Roanoke, Virginia, where the latter would join No. 1218 to make some excursion trips down in North Carolina.[29] On the same year of September 16, No. 611 made two round-trip excursions from Roanoke to Radford, Virginia and to Lynchburg, Virginia, pulling a matching set of ten Tuscan red passenger cars in honor of the 40th anniversary of the Powhatan Arrow's "new" equipment.[29]

On November 3, 1991, during the Norfolk Southern steam program's 25th anniversary, No. 611 and No. 1218 joined Southern Railway No. 4501 to triple head a 28-car passenger excursion train from Chattanooga to Ooltewah, Tennessee, where the latter would take a few coaches for a complete round trip back to Chattanooga, turning around at Cleveland, Tennessee.[30][31] Afterwards, the two N&W steamers would complete the rest of the trip to Atlanta, Georgia.[30][31]

In October 1992, No. 611 ran two round trip excursions from Charlotte, North Carolina to Asheville, North Carolina; one on the 24th over the Old Fort Loops and other on the 25th, where it conquered over the Saluda Grade, the steepest railway grade in the United States.[31][32][c]

 
No. 611 departing Norfolk, Virginia, with an excursion in May 1993.[32]

In June 1994, No. 611 joined a double header excursion run with St. Louis–San Francisco 1522 for the annual NRHS convention in Atlanta, Georgia.[32][34]

On September 28, 1994, there was a switching accident in Lynchburg, Virginia, involving the passenger cars of an excursion consist that No. 611 was about to pull to Richmond, Virginia on October 1 and 2.[32][34] This damaged nine steam program passenger cars, causing a shortage and the consequent need for more passenger cars.[34] As a result, the NS executives terminated the steam program due to rising insurance costs, increasing cost of maintenance, low spare system capacity, and delayed freight traffic.[34][35][36]

On December 3, 1994, No. 611 hauled the last steam-powered excursion trip from Birmingham, Alabama to Chattanooga, Tennessee and back.[35][37] The next day, No. 611 set off to return to Roanoke, reaching there on December 7.[37] On the last leg between Salisbury, North Carolina and Roanoke, No. 611 displayed two black flags.[37] That evening, upon arrival at Shaffer's Crossing in Roanoke, No. 611 had its fire put out for the last time, making it the last steam locomotive to operate on the NS system in the 20th century.[37]

Museum display (1995-2012)Edit

 
No. 611 sat on display next to the former N&W Roanoke passenger station and the Hotel Roanoke & Conference Center during National Train Day on May 8, 2010

After the NS steam program ended, No. 611 sat in storage at the East End Shops until October 1995, when it was donated to the City of Roanoke, and put back on display at the Virginia Museum of Transportation, formerly known as the Roanoke Transportation Museum and now located at the former N&W Roanoke freight station, where it sat underneath the Robert B. Claytor and W. Graham Claytor Jr. Pavilion shed.[38][d] In June 2003, No. 611 was reunited with No. 1218, which was particularly reassembled and cosmetically restored from its cancelled 1992-1996 overhaul.[38][39]

 
No. 611 with The Spirit of Roanoke decal

As one of the last, most prominent, and most distinctive locomotives assembled in Roanoke, No. 611 often serves as a symbol for Roanoke and its railroad history.[40] The locomotive was depicted on the Commonwealth of Virginia's "Railway Heritage" license plate.[41][42]

In 2007, the 611 and 1218 were both temporarily put on display at the East End Shops to commemorate its 125th anniversary.[43]

In 2011, the Roanoke City Council named No. 611 as The Spirit of Roanoke and the VMT had the name painted underneath both sides of the cab windows.[44]

On April 2, 2012, the City of Roanoke officially donated both the 611 and 1218 to the Virginia Museum of Transportation.[45]

Second restoration and excursion career (2013-present)Edit

In 2011, the Norfolk Southern brought back their steam program, under the name, 21st Century Steam,[46] leading to speculation among some about a possible restoration of No. 611.[1] On February 22, 2013, the VMT officials formed the Fire Up 611! committee to conduct a feasibility study with the goal of returning the 611 to active service.[47][48] At the same time, No. 611 was nicknamed the Queen of Steam.[49]

On June 2, 2013, the VMT and NS tested 611's roller bearings and it was determined that the locomotive was in very excellent condition to be restored,[50] thus on June 28, the VMT officials launched the Fire Up 611! Capital Campaign to raise $3.5 million by the end of October before restoring the 611.[49][51]

In October 2013, the committee had raised enough money to restore the locomotive, but fell short of their goal of $3.5 million to require a maintenance facility where the restoration would take place, so the committee decided to keep working on raising the remaining funds needed for the restoration of 611.[52] Soon, Norfolk Southern donated $1.5 million of the proceeds from an auction of a Mark Rothko painting to the committee.[53]

In March 2014, after raising enough money of $2.3 million, several key appointments were made by the Fire Up 611! committee to the locomotive's mechanical team, and a formal agreement was made with the North Carolina Transportation Museum (NCTM) in Spencer, North Carolina to use the ex-Southern Railway Bob Julian roundhouse as the perfect maintenance facility for the restoration of 611.[54][55] The restoration work includes a full overhaul to meet the FRA's current safety guidelines and certification requirements.[56]

On May 24, 2014, the 611 was finally moved out of the VMT for first time in 19 years and arrived in Spencer the next day to take part in the Streamliners at Spencer event the following weekend.[57][58][59] During the event, Norfolk Southern CEO, Wick Moorman removed the first part off of 611 and the restoration work began on June 2, 2014.[59][60] The restoration was done with the help of volunteers, including several from the Age of Steam Roundhouse in Sugarcreek, Ohio.[61] This includes repairing the engine truck, applying new safety appliances such as in-cab signals and an event recorder, installing new flues, boiler work, repairs to the tender, running gears, and air brakes.[51]

On February 23, 2015,[62] No. 611's boiler successfully passed a hydrostatic test and was test fired on March 31.[63][64] After the steam test, the locomotive was getting repainted with the use of Axalta paint.[65][66]

On May 9, 2015,[67] No. 611 moved under its own power for the first time in nearly 21 years and successfully completed a main line test run from Spencer to Greensboro, North Carolina and back on May 21.[68][e] On May 28, the North Carolina Transportation Museum held photo runbys with No. 611 leading passenger and freight consists, plus night photo session.[72]

 
The recently restored class J No. 611 (middle) was reunited with class A No. 1218 (right) and class Y6a No. 2156 (left) on May 31, 2015

On May 30, 2015, No. 611 began its homecoming trip back to Roanoke with now former CEO, Wick Moorman at the throttle.[67] The next day, the locomotive was reunited with the static display class A No. 1218 and class Y6a No. 2156, which was on loan from the National Museum of Transportation in St. Louis to the Virginia Museum of Transportation to partake in the "N&W's Big Three" reunion event until 2020.[7][69][73]

The locomotive ran several excursions in Virginia for the 21st Century Steam program during the summer of 2015 such as The American from Manassas, Virginia to Front Royal, Virginia on June 6 and 7, The Cavalier from Lynchburg, Virginia to Petersburg, Virginia on June 13 and 14, The Powhatan Arrow from Roanoke to Lynchburg and The Pelican from Roanoke to Radford on July 3, 4, and 5.[74] At the same time, Norfolk Southern officially concluded the 21st Century Steam program, although the 611 continued to pull various excursion trips over NS trackage.[75]

During 2016, No. 611 had its front leading wheels and axles replaced.[76] Afterwards, the locomotive ran two round trip excursion trips in partnership with the North Carolina Transportation Museum; The Virginian from Spencer to Lynchburg, Virginia on April 9 and The Blue Ridge Special from Spencer to Asheville, North Carolina the next day.[77] On April 11, No. 611 partake in another NCTM photo charter runby along with Lehigh Valley Coal Company 126.[78][79] On April 23 and 24, the locomotive ran The Roanoker round-trip excursion from Greensboro, North Carolina to Roanoke, Virginia on the ex-Virginian Railway (VGN) main line.[80] From May to June, the 611 reran more excursions that it did last year such as The Powhatan Arrow, The Pelican, and The American.[81]

 
No. 611 awaiting to depart Roanoke, Virginia for Lynchburg, Virginia with the Powhatan Arrow excursion on May 28, 2017

On April 8, 2017, the locomotive ran The Virginian round trip excursion again and the next day's Charlotte Special round trip excursion from Spencer to Charlotte, North Carolina in the morning and a second round trip excursion, The Piedmont Limited from Spencer to Greensboro, North Carolina in the afternoon.[82][83] At the same time, the Virginia General Assembly officially named No. 611 as the Official Steam Locomotive of Virginia.[84]

In 2018, the 611 was unable to perform any main line excursions due to Amtrak's newest restrictions on private charter trips.[85] However, the VMT was able to put on alternate events for No. 611 by making the locomotive visit the North Carolina Transportation Museum for its annual FRA routine maintenance, cab rides, caboose rides, whistle blowing, in-cab experiences, and photo charter runbys all the time.[76][86][87] Moreover, the VMT is presently in negotiations and talks with various entities in order to set up excursions and events for No. 611.[86] Presently, one key concern is the gradual introduction of the Positive train control (PTC) to the US railroad network, for which the VMT is asking for donations.[86]

In fall 2019, No. 611 visited the Strasburg Rail Road in Strasburg, Pennsylvania for the five weekend N&W Reunion of Steam events in late September and the rest of October along with a reunion with another N&W steam locomotive, 4-8-0 No. 475.[88][89]

In 2020, No. 611 was unable to perform any special events due to the COVID-19 pandemic as it was on display and occasionally operates at the North Carolina Transportation Museum.[90] On May 26, 2021, the locomotive returned to the Strasburg Rail Road, running on selected weekends up until early October 2021.[91][92][f]

AccidentsEdit

  • On January 23, 1956, No. 611 derailed along the Tug River near Cedar, Mingo County, West Virginia while pulling The Pocahontas.[4] It was determined that the engineer ran the engine at an excessive speed around a curve and its high center of gravity caused it to flip on its side.[4] The 611 was repaired and continued revenue passenger service until 1959.[4]
  • On May 18, 1986, No. 611 was at the head of a Norfolk Southern employee appreciation train from Norfolk, Virginia to Petersburg, Virginia,[27] with 23 passenger cars behind and Robert Claytor at the throttle.[28][95] However, 2 of the passenger cars struck a faulty switch on the main line through the Great Dismal Swamp in Suffolk, Virginia, causing them and the other 12 passenger cars to derail, except for the 611, who have stayed on the rails.[28][95] Nearly 177 of the 1000 employees and their family members were injured; 19 people were seriously injured and had to be airlifted to hospitals nearby Norfolk for treatment.[95]

In popular cultureEdit

The 611 was featured in the 2016 feature-length documentary, "611: American Icon" which documented the history of the locomotive and its restoration.[96]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ To run in excursion service, No. 611 would require two rolling stocks; an auxiliary tender to supply extra water during long trips to eliminate the water stops,[22] and a tool car to carry maintenance equipment for the locomotive. The auxiliary tender No. 220166 was originally belong to an ex-Louisville & Nashville (L&N) 2-8-4 Big Emma No. 1958 and was painted black with a Tuscan red stripe to match the 611.[23] In addition, the tool car No. 1407 was a former N&W storage mail car.[24]
  2. ^ In 1988, NS retired and donated No. 611's original Tuscan red striped auxiliary tender No. 221066 to the Indiana Transportation Museum, where it will be used behind Nickel Plate Road 587.[23] On the other hand, No. 611 was given another ex-L&N Big Emma auxiliary tender No. 250002, which was painted black without a Tuscan red stripe and was later repainted all Tuscan red with golden yellow stripes in 1994.
  3. ^ In 1993, former NS chairman, Robert Claytor, who was responsible for restoring the 611 to operating condition, have sadly passed away follow by his brother, Graham, who was responsible for persuading the N&W to preserve the 611, a year later.[33]
  4. ^ On that same year, the locomotive's second original auxiliary tender No. 250002 was donated to the Friends of the 261, where it was now used behind Milwaukee Road 261, while the tool car No. 1407 was purchased by the Roanoke Chapter NRHS.[24][38]
  5. ^ Being prepared for its second excursion career, No. 611 was given back the tool car No. 1407 from the Roanoke Chapter NRHS and another ex-L&N Big Emma auxiliary tender VMTX No. 250001, which was originally used behind No. 1218 during its NS excursion career from 1987 to 1991.[69][70][71]
  6. ^ Originally, the 611's first Strasburg excursion trips were scheduled for May 21-23, but these were cancelled due to the locomotive having some mechanical issues to its mechanical stoker which was later resolved just in time for the May 29-31 trips.[93][94]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "N&W Class J 611: The Spirit of Roanoke - Overview". Fire Up 611!. Virginia Museum of Transportation. Archived from the original on January 18, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  2. ^ "A mechanical powerhouse of design, speed and reliability". Fire Up 611!. Virginia Museum of Transportation. Archived from the original on January 18, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  3. ^ a b Rosenburg & Archer (1973), p. 68.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "N&W 611 Class J Steam Locomotive National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark". ASME. May 1984. Archived from the original on October 3, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
  5. ^ a b Young (2017), p. 207
  6. ^ Rosenburg & Archer (1973), p. 71.
  7. ^ a b "Norfolk & Western's 'Big Three' to reunite May 31". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. May 19, 2015. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved June 4, 2021.
  8. ^ McKinney (2014), p. 57.
  9. ^ Drury (2015), p. 259.
  10. ^ Young (2017), p. 209
  11. ^ a b c d e Wrinn (2000), pp. 1-3.
  12. ^ Solomon (2017), p. 207.
  13. ^ "N&W 611, past and present". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. August 19, 2015. Archived from the original on June 15, 2021. Retrieved June 15, 2021.
  14. ^ Miller (2000), p. 121.
  15. ^ "O-Gauge Lionel American Freedom Train Locomotives & Cars in 3-Rail Scale". The Story of America's Freedom Trains. ThemeTrains.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2021. Retrieved May 3, 2021.
  16. ^ Loy, Hillman & Cates (2005), p. 121.
  17. ^ a b c d Wrinn (2000), p. 61.
  18. ^ Gruber, John (November 21, 2011). "Southern 4501's first excursion". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. Archived from the original on August 19, 2015. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  19. ^ Loy, Hillman & Cates (2005), p. 109.
  20. ^ Wrinn (2000), p. 60.
  21. ^ a b c d Wrinn (2000), pp. 63-65.
  22. ^ "Auxiliary tenders". Trains. Kalmbach Publishing. May 1, 2016. Archived from the original on June 1, 2021. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  23. ^ a b "Hulcher Services, CSX Team Up With Kentucky Steam to Move Historic Rail Cars". Kentucky Steam Heritage Corp. September 28, 2018. Archived from the original on January 16, 2021. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  24. ^ a b Wrinn (2000), p. 107.
  25. ^ Wrinn (2000), p. 67.
  26. ^ a b Wrinn (2000), p. 115.
  27. ^ a b c d Wrinn (2000), p. 116.
  28. ^ a b c Wrinn (2000), pp. 74–76.
  29. ^ a b c Wrinn (2000), pp. 81-86.
  30. ^ a b Loy, Hillman & Cates (2005), p. 103.
  31. ^ a b c Wrinn (2000), pp. 90–93.
  32. ^ a b c d Wrinn (2000), p. 119.
  33. ^ Wrinn (2000), p. 99.
  34. ^ a b c d Wrinn (2000), pp. 100-102.
  35. ^ a b Loy, Hillman & Cates (2005), pp. 125-126.
  36. ^ Phillips, Don (October 29, 1994). "Norfolk Southern plans to end nostalgic steam locomotive program". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
  37. ^ a b c d Wrinn (2000), pp. 103–105.
  38. ^ a b c Wrinn (2000), p. 109.
  39. ^ Kirkman, Kenney (July–August 2003). "Memories of 1218" (PDF). Turntable Times. Roanoke Chapter, National Railway Historical Society. p. 5-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 12, 2021. Retrieved June 12, 2021.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  40. ^ "Roanoke born. Roanoke bred. Roanoke proud". Norfolk & Western 611. Archived from the original on June 25, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
  41. ^ "New Virginia Rail Heritage License Plate with 611 - Benefits Fire Up 611". WorthPoint. Archived from the original on June 9, 2021. Retrieved June 9, 2021.
  42. ^ "Attention Railfans! New Commemorative License Plate Design Approved by Virginia Division of Motor Vehicles" (PDF). Turntable Times. Roanoke Chapter, National Railway Historical Society. June 2001. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 12, 2021. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
  43. ^ McKinney (2014), p. 116.
  44. ^ Allen, Mike (May 28, 2015). "Steam dream: Norfolk & Western 611 'a true national marvel'". The Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on May 31, 2021. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  45. ^ "Our Story". Virginia Museum of Transportation. Archived from the original on April 27, 2021. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  46. ^ Cooper, Beth (September–October 2011). "Rollin' Out Again" (PDF). BizNS. Norfolk Southern. p. 1-10. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2021. Retrieved June 9, 2021.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  47. ^ "The Virginia Museum of Transportation studying Norfolk & Western Class J 611 Restoration and Return to Excursion Service". Virginia's Blue Ridge. February 22, 2013. Archived from the original on January 6, 2018. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
  48. ^ Tucker, Dorr (February 2013). "We are involved in FIRE UP 611!" (PDF). Turntable Times. Roanoke Chapter, National Railway Historical Society. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2013. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
  49. ^ a b "Virginia Transportation Museum Trying to Save 'Queen of Steam'". WSET-TV. June 28, 2013. Archived from the original on June 11, 2021. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  50. ^ "611 Test "Run"" (PDF). Turntable Times. Roanoke Chapter, National Railway Historical Society. June 2, 2013. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 12, 2021. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
  51. ^ a b "Restoration of Norfolk & Western Railway Class J 611 Study Findings & Report". Fire Up 611!. Virginia Museum of Transportation. Archived from the original on July 5, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  52. ^ Allen, Mike (October 25, 2013). "Far short of original goal, 'Fire Up 611!' to continue". The Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on April 21, 2021. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
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BibliographyEdit

  • Drury, George H. (2015). Guide to North American Steam Locomotives (2nd ed.). Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 978-1-62700-259-2.
  • Loy, Sallie; Hillman, Dick; Cates, C. Pat (2005). The Southern Railway: Further Recollections. Images of Rail (1st ed.). Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-1831-2.
  • McKinney, Wayne (2014). Roanoke Locomotive Shops and the Norfolk & Western Railroad. Images of Rails (1st ed.). Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4671-2111-8.
  • Miller, Kenneth L. (2000). Norfolk and Western Class J: The Finest Steam Passenger Locomotive (1st ed.). Roanoke Chapter, National Railway Historical Society, Inc. ISBN 0-615-11664-7.
  • Rosenburg, Ron; Archer, Eric H. (1973). Norfolk & Western Steam (The Last 25 Years) (1st ed.). Quadrant Press Inc. ISBN 0-915276-00-3.
  • Solomon, Brian (2017). North American Locomotives: A Railroad-by-Railroad Photohistory (3rd ed.). Crestline. ISBN 978-0-7858-3533-2.
  • Wrinn, Jim (2000). Steam's Camelot: Southern and Norfolk Southern Excursions in Color (1st ed.). TLC Publishing. ISBN 1-883089-56-5.
  • Young, Jan (2017). Fashion in Steel: Streamlined Steam Locomotives in North America (1st ed.). Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-387-40861-0.

Further readingEdit

  • Hensley, Timothy B.; Miller, Kenneth L. (2016). Norfolk and Western Six-Eleven - 3 Times A Lady (1st ed.). Pocahontas Productions. ISBN 978-0-9899837-1-6.
  • Huxtable, Nils; Schultz, Thomas R. (1985). Steam Spirit (1st ed.). Steamscenes Publication. ISBN 0-9691-409-1-6.

External linksEdit