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Noorbakhshia Islam is one of the Sufi sects of Islam.[1][2]

Noorbakhshia is a school of Islamic jurisprudence that emphasizes Muslim Unity. Its very foundation is based on the belief in Allah, angels, prophets, the Day of Judgement and the Quran,[3] as well as other Islamic Scriptures revealed by previous prophets. Practices include prayers (five times a day), fasting during Ramadan, Zakah and pilgrimage journeys to Kaaba. These beliefs and practices have been excerpted from the books: Usool-e-Aitiqadia (deals with Beliefs) and Fiqh-ul-Ahwat (deals with Islamic Jurisprudence), which were written by Syed Muhammad Noorbakhsh.[4] Noorbakhshia has its own Silsila (Sufi Order) : Silsila-e-Zahab (Golden Chain). This Silsila has Imam Haqiqi (Divinely Appointed Imam): from Imam Ali to Imam Mahdi, and Imam Izafi (Deputy to Haqiqi Imam). The linkage of Imam Izafi stems from renowned Sufi saint Maroof-e-Karkhi and is said to continue until the day of Judgement. Now Peer Tariqat is sufi anjum Ali rustum. Noorbakhshia is the only Sufi order of Islam whose foundation has been based upon the teachings of Aima Tahirreen (Fourteen Infallibles).

The order became known as Nurbakshi, named after Shah Syed Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani, who was attached to the Kubrawiya Sufi order ("tariqat").


The most important sources of Noorbakhshi doctrines are included within three books: the "Al-Fiqh al-Ahwat" Superlatively Precautionary Jurisprudence, the "Kitab al-Aitiqadia" Book of Faith, both written by [Shah Syed Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani], and [1] Dawat-e-Sofia, written by Ameer Kabir Syed Ali Hamdani, a Sufi preacher.[5] Now spiritual leader (Peer Tariqat Of Silsia) is sufi rustum Ali anjum.


In its country of origin, Iran, the order became outright Shi'a some decades after the Safavid dynasty made Twelver Shi'ism the religion of the state in 1501. The same occurred in Kashmir either during the lifetime of Shams ud-Din Iraqi, who died in 1527, or in the following decades, during the brief interlude of the Chak dynasty's reign. In Baltistan, the Sufia Nurbakhshiya still survive as a sect with doctrines of its own that combine elements of both Shi'ism and Sunni Islam.[6]

Mir Sayyid Muhammad Nurbakhsh was the 15th-century Sufi master to whom researchers have paid less attention. Although Nurbakhsh had many scholar-disciples, including Assiri lahiji, none of his disciples made any serious effort to write Nurbakhsh's biography and to preserve his teachings. However, hundreds of thousands of his followers are still present in the most remote areas of Pakistan. They practise his teachings and are still the custodians of his works and teachings five centuries later.[7][better source needed]

Nurbakhshis believe that the practices are not an assemblage of his personal views but were originally conceived by him from Muhammad through the masters of the spiritual chain. They state that anyone who questions this connection is invited to travel on the long road through the history of mysticism and to compare it with that of Nurbakhsh's teachings.[8]

Massacre of Nurbakshi in KashmirEdit

Khanqah Shah Hamdan Srinagar, Kashmir was an important centre of Noorbakshi Muslims in Kashmir for many centuries.

The dominance of Sunni Islam in Kashmir, after the period of Nurbakshi influence, was restored by Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat when he conquered Kashmir. Dughlat sent Fiqh al-ahwat to the Sunni ulema for its analysis, which resulted in a condemnatory fatwa by the ulema to end the Nurbakshi order and convert them to Sunni Islam.

Mir Danial Shaheed and other prominent figures were killed during the clashes. The onslaught against the Nurbakshi led to bloodshed and the end of the once-popular Sufi order. Persecution and intimidation of Shia Muslims in Pakistan-controlled Kashmir is popular myth in media without any evidence. Having spent time with locals in September 2019 and observing people practising beliefs openly and without any problems . [9]


  • Al Quran (القران آلکریم)
  • Al-Fiqqa Al-Ahwat (الفقہ الاحوط) by Syed Muhammad Noorbakhsh
  • Kitab Al-Aitiqadia[10] (اصول اعتقادیہ) (Book of Faith) by Syed Muhammad Noorbakhsh


  • Dawaat Sofia] (دعوات صوفیہ) by Mir Syed Ali Hamadani

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Aggarwal, Ravina. Beyond Lines of Control: Performance and Politics on the Disputed.
  2. ^ Kumar, Raj (2008). Encyclopaedia Of Untouchables : Ancient Medieval And Modern. p. Page 345.
  3. ^ noorbakhsh. "Belief". Noorbakhshia. Retrieved 2018-04-23.
  4. ^ noorbakhsh. "Golden Chain". Noorbakhshia. Retrieved 2018-10-05.
  5. ^ Bashir, S: "Messianic Hope and Mystical Vision: The Nurbakhshiya Between Medieval and Modern Islam (Studies in Comparative Religion), "University of South Carolina Press", October 2003
  6. ^ Reick Andreas: "The Sofia Nurbakhshis of Baltistan- Revival of the Oldest Muslim Community in the Northern Areas (Gilgit Baltistan) of Pakistan", Paper read at the International Conference "Karakurum-Himalaya-Hindukush-Dynamics of Change", Islamabad, National Library, 29.9-2.10.1995 and published in The Monthly Islamabad, Issue No. 28, March 1997.
  7. ^ Dr. Naeem, G: "Mir Sayyid Muhammad Nurbakhsh and Nurbakhshiya Sect", Shah-e-Hamadan Publications, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2000
  8. ^ Balghari S.H."Shah Syed Muhammad Nurbakhsh Qahistani", Monthly Islamabad, Issue No. 28, 1996
  9. ^ Hanif, N. (2002-01-01). Biographical Encyclopaedia of Sufis: Central Asia and Middle East. ISBN 9788176252669.
  10. ^ kerisi. "کتاب الاعتقادیہ". Noorbakhshia. Retrieved 2018-10-08.