Nodule (medicine)

In medicine, nodules are small firm lumps, usually greater than 1 cm in diameter.[1][2] If filled with fluid they are referred to as cysts.[2] Smaller (less than 0.5 cm) raised soft tissue bumps may be termed papules.[3]

Nodule
Nodules.svg
SpecialtyPathology

The evaluation of a skin nodule includes a description of its appearance, its location, how it feels to touch and any associated symptoms which may give clues to an underlying medical condition.[4]

Nodules in skin include dermatofibroma[5] and pyogenic granuloma.[6] Nodules may form on tendons and muscles in response to injury,[7] and are frequently found on vocal cords.[8] They may occur in organs such as the lung,[9] or thyroid,[10] or be a sign in other medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis.[11]

CharacteristicsEdit

Nodules are small firm lumps usually greater than 1 cm in diameter, found in skin and other organs.[1][2] If filled with fluid they are usually softer and referred to as cysts.[2] Smaller (less than 0.5 cm) raised soft tissue bumps may be termed papules.[3]

EvaluationEdit

The evaluation of a skin nodule includes a description of its appearance, its location, how it feels to touch and any associated symptoms which may give clues to an underlying medical condition.[4]

Often discovered unintentionally on a chest x-ray, a single nodule in the lung requires assessment to exclude cancer.[9]

ConditionsEdit

Nodules may form on tendons and muscles in response to injury,[7] and are frequently found on vocal cords,[8] They occur in conditions including endometriosis,[12] neurofibomatosis,[6] and in rheumatoid arthritis.[11] They may also feature in Kaposi's sarcoma[13] and gonorrhea.[14]

Other examplesEdit

ReferenceEdit

  1. ^ a b Mosby (2013). Mosby's Medical Dictionary - E-Book. Elsevier. pp. 1235–1236. ISBN 978-0-323-11258-1.
  2. ^ a b c d Oakley, Amanda. "Terminology in dermatology | DermNet NZ". dermnetnz.org. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  3. ^ a b Potter, Patricia A.; Perry, Anne Griffin; Stockert, Patricia; Hall, Amy (2014-03-25). Essentials for Nursing Practice - E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-0-323-18881-4.
  4. ^ a b Evangelisto, Amy; Werth, Victoria; Schumacher, H. Ralph (October 2006). "What is that nodule? A diagnostic approach to evaluating subcutaneous and cutaneous nodules". Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases. 12 (5): 230–240. doi:10.1097/01.rhu.0000240034.72958.2f. ISSN 1076-1608. PMID 17023809. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  5. ^ a b Linton, Christina P. (March 2011). "Essential Morphologic Terms and Definitions". Journal of the Dermatology Nurses' Association. 3 (2): 102–103. doi:10.1097/JDN.0b013e318211c6f0. ISSN 1945-760X. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Dermal and subcutaneous lesions | DermNet NZ". dermnetnz.org. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  7. ^ a b Ashton-Miller, James A. (1999). "Response of Muscle and Tendon to Injury and Overuse". National Academies Press (US). Retrieved 13 January 2021. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. ^ a b "BRITISH VOICE ASSOCIATION : Vocal nodules". www.britishvoiceassociation.org.uk. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  9. ^ a b Kikano, George E.; Fabien, Andre; Schilz, Robert (15 December 2015). "Evaluation of the Solitary Pulmonary Nodule". American Family Physician. 92 (12): 1084–1091. ISSN 0002-838X. PMID 26760594. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  10. ^ a b Britton, K. E.; Gilday, David L.; Maisey, Michael (2013-12-11). Clinical Nuclear Medicine. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4899-3358-4.
  11. ^ a b "Rheumatoid nodules in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)". NRAS. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  12. ^ Nisenblat V, Bossuyt PM, Farquhar C, Johnson N, Hull ML (February 2016). "Imaging modalities for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2: CD009591. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd009591.pub2. PMC 7100540. PMID 26919512. painful palpable nodules
  13. ^ Massi, Daniela; Luzar, Boštjan; Alos, Llucia (2016). "15. Common skin tumours of the head and neck". In Cardesa, Antonio; Slootweg, Pieter J.; Gale, Nina; Franchi, Alessandro (eds.). Pathology of the Head and Neck. Springer. p. 737. ISBN 978-3-662-49670-1.
  14. ^ Berg, Dale; Worzala, Katherine (2006). "3. Female genitourinary examination". Atlas of Adult Physical Diagnosis. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-7817-4190-3.
  15. ^ "New York Thyroid Center: Thyroid Nodules". Archived from the original on 2010-09-17.
  16. ^ Ost D, Fein AM, Feinsilver SH; Fein; Feinsilver (June 2003). "Clinical practice. The solitary pulmonary nodule". New England Journal of Medicine. 348 (25): 2535–42. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp012290. PMID 12815140.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

External linksEdit