No. 331 Squadron RAF
No. 331 Squadron RAF was a Second World War squadron of the Royal Air Force. The squadron was primarily manned with Norwegian aircrew. The squadron was part of Fighter Command between 1941 and March 1944 when it joined the 2nd Tactical Air Force until the end of the war. The squadron took part in the Dieppe Raid and the Normandy landings.
|331 (Norwegian) Squadron RAF|
Spitfire Vs of No. 331 Squadron, spring 1942.
|Allegiance||Norwegian Government in exile|
|Branch||Royal Air Force|
|Part of||RAF Fighter Command, 2nd Tactical Air Force|
|Motto(s)||Norwegian: For Norge|
|Squadron Badge heraldry||Two swords in saltire, enfiled by an amulet|
|Squadron Codes||FN (Jul 1941 – Nov 1945)|
Full control passed to RNoAF on 21 November 1945. Still active.
|Garrison/HQ||Bodø Main Air Station|
|Motto(s)||For Norge |
(Norwegian: "For Norway")
|Two swords in saltire, enfiled by an amulet|
It was given the RAF aircraft code prefix "FN", which was often said to be an abbreviation for "First Norwegian" or "For Norway", the latter being the squadron's official motto (in Norwegian For Norge). The squadron badge was a Norwegian Viking sword and a British sword in saltire, bound together with a ring — symbolising the friendship between Norway and Great Britain.
The squadron was initially equipped with Hawker Hurricane Mk 1s, inherited from a Polish RAF unit. These had to be rebuilt before 331 Squadron could become operational, on 15 September 1941. It provided defence for northern Scotland, moving to RAF Castletown on 21 August and later to RAF Skaebrae.
331 Squadron was joined by a second Norwegian unit 332 Squadron, also flying Spitfires. Together they were known as North Weald Wing and were part of the Allied air umbrella over the landing area in the Dieppe Raid, and later flying fighter sweeps and escort operations over occupied France and the Low Countries.
In November 1943, 331 and 332 Squadrons were transferred to the 2nd Tactical Air Force and became known as No. 132 Airfield; later No. 132 Wing.
Following fighter bomber and tactical air superiority operations, connected to preparations for D-Day and the actual landings in France, the squadron moved to Caen, Normandy, in August 1944. From September onwards, 132 Wing participated in the Liberation of Holland and provided air support for the crossing of the Rhine.
Following the end of the war, the wing flew to Norway and on 21 September 1945, 331 Squadron was officially disbanded as an RAF unit, with control passed to the re-formed Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF).
Between them during the war, 331 and 332 Squadrons scored 180 confirmed destroyed, 35 probables and more than 100 damaged. Combined losses were 131 aircraft lost with 71 pilots killed.
In honour of the achievements of the Second World War squadrons, the RNoAF has maintained RAF squadron names, including a 331st Fighter Squadron, now flying F-16s and based at Bodø Main Air Station.
Aircraft operated during RAF serviceEdit
- July–August 1941 Hawker Hurricane I & IIB
- August–November 1941 Supermarine Spitfire IIA
- November 1941-August 1942 Supermarine Spitfire VB
- March–October 1942 Supermarine Spitfire IXB
- October 1942-November 1945 Supermarine Spitfire IXE
All aircraft operated by No.331 SqnEdit
1941 Hawker Hurricane 1941 Supermarine Spitfire 1951 Squadron deactivated 1952 Republic F-84 Thunderjet 1957 North American F-86 Sabre 1963 Lockheed F-104 Starfighter 1981 General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon
- July–August 1941: RAF Catterick
- August–September 1941: RAF Castletown
- September 1941-May 1942: RAF Skeabrae
- May–June 1942: RAF North Weald
- June–July 1942: RAF Manston
- July–August 1942: North Weald
- August 1942: Manston
- August–September 1942: North Weald
- September 1942: RAF Ipswich
- September–October 1942: North Weald
- October 1942: Manston
- October 1942-January 1944: North Weald
- January 1944: RAF Llanbedr
- January–March 1944: North Weald
- March 1944: Southend
- March 1944: North Weald
- March–June 1944: Bognor Regis
- June–August 1944: RAF Tangmere
- August 1944: RAF Funtington West Sussex
- August 1944: RAF Ford
- August–September 1944: Villons les Buissons (B.16)
- September 1944: Camp Neuseville (B.33)
- September 1944: Lille/ Wambrechies (B.57)
- September–October 1944: RAF Fairwood Common
- October–December 1944: Grimbergen (B.60)
- December 1944-February 1945: Woendrecht (B.79)
- February–March 1945: Schijndel (B.85)
- March–April 1945: Fairwood Common
- April 1945: Schijndel (B.85)
- April 1945: Enschede (B.106)
- April–May 1945: RAF Dyce
- May–November 1945: Gardermoen (detachment at Stavanger)
- Halley, James J. The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth, 1918–1988. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-85130-164-9.
- Rawlings, John D.R. Fighter Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Macdonald and Jane's (Publishers) Ltd., 1969 (new edition 1976, reprinted 1978). ISBN 0-354-01028-X.
- Thomas, Andrew (2003). Hurricane Aces 1941–45. Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84176-610-2.
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