Nissan CA engine
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The CA engine is a 1.6 to 2.0 L (1,598 to 1,974 cc) Inline-4 piston engine from Nissan designed for a variety of smaller Nissan vehicles to replace the Z engine and some smaller, four-cylinder L series engines. It is an iron block, aluminum head design with a timing belt, cheaper to make than the timing chain setup on the Z and L engines. Earlier versions featured SOHC and eight valves. The new CA block design was a scaled-up E series block with timing shaft and other ancillaries removed. The oil pump is fitted directly onto the crank nose and the distributor is driven by the end of the camshaft. Like the E series and the A block from which the E was derived, Nissan used a taller block for the largest stroked 2.0-litre engine. The CA was designed to be compact and light, with a CA16 requiring only 195 litres (52 US gal; 43 imp gal) of space (compared to 280 litres (74 US gal; 62 imp gal) for the earlier Z16), while weighing 23% less at 115 kg (254 lb). The engine was called the "CA" series for Clean Air, due to the installation of Nissan emission reducing technology, called NAPS-X.
|Nissan CA engine|
|Manufacturer||Nissan (Nissan Machinery)|
|Displacement||1.6 L (1,598 cc)|
1.8 L (1,809 cc)
2.0 L (1,974 cc)
|Cylinder bore||78 mm (3.07 in)|
83 mm (3.27 in)
84.5 mm (3.33 in)
|Piston stroke||83.6 mm (3.29 in)|
88 mm (3.46 in)
|Block material||Cast iron|
|Valvetrain||SOHC 2 valves x cyl.|
DOHC 4 valves x cyl.
|Turbocharger||Single Garrett T2 or T25 (CA18ET, CA18DET)|
|Fuel system||Carburetor (CA16S, CA18S, CA20S)|
Throttle-body fuel injection (CA18i)
Multi-port fuel injection (CA16DE, CA18DE, CA18ET, CA18DET, CA20E)
|Power output||81–166 PS (60–122 kW; 80–164 hp)|
|Torque output||123–228 N⋅m (91–168 lb⋅ft)|
|Predecessor||Nissan L engine & Nissan Z engine|
|Successor||Nissan SR engine (all except CA16)|
Nissan GA engine (CA16)
Later versions featured DOHC with 16 valves for increased efficiency at high engine speeds and a smoother power delivery. The hydraulic lifters are interchangeable between all DOHC RB and VG series engines excepting those with solid lifters.
The motor was expensive to produce being cast iron, Production ceased in 1991. The 1.8 L and 2.0 L versions were replaced by the SR series as the primary Nissan four-cylinder engine, while the smaller 1.6 L was replaced by the GA. Engines for the low volume American and European markets, 200SX were supplied by the overstock between Japanese and Australian markets.
The CA16S is a 1.6 L (1,598 cc) water cooling serial 4-cylinder OHC engine. It produces 81 PS (60 kW; 80 hp) at 5200 rpm and 123 N⋅m (91 lb⋅ft) at 3200 rpm.
The CA16DE is a 1.6 L (1,598 cc) engine produced from 1987 through 1989. It produces 122 hp (91 kW; 124 PS) at 6400 rpm and 137 N⋅m (101 lb⋅ft) at 5200 rpm. Bore and stroke is 78 mm × 83.6 mm (3.07 in × 3.29 in). It was a 16-valve DOHC engine with multi-port fuel injection, for front wheel drive use. North American versions used Nissan's NICS (Nissan Induction Control System), which opened up the secondary intake ports to each cylinder via a butterfly valve in each port. Activated at 3,900 rpm, this improved flow and performance resultingly. Additionally, on activation of the secondaries under a heavy load the fuel injection also went from sequential mode to simultaneous-pulse mode. These features were also found on North American CA18DE engines.
The CA18(i) is a naturally aspirated engine it delivers 91 hp (68 kW; 92 PS) at 5200 rpm. The fuel in this engine is not delivered via Multi Port Fuel Injection (E letter code on MPFI engines), it's instead delivered by Throttle Body Fuel Injection hence the (i) letter on the engine code. Bore and stroke is 83 mm × 83.6 mm (3.27 in × 3.29 in), for a total displacement of 1,809 cc (1.8 L).
- Nissan Skyline R31, R32 GXi (100 hp (75 kW; 101 PS))
- Nissan Laurel C33
- Nissan Auster T12 series, "1.8Vi", 1.8Mi", 1.8Xi"
- Nissan Bluebird RNU12
- Yue Loong Feeling 101, 102, Arex With minor changes to lower engine displacement from original 1,809 to 1,796 cc (1.8 to 1.8 L) by increasing bore up to 82.7 mm (3.26 in). CA18 for Arex was delivered with Lucas multi port Fuel Injection.
The CA18E is a naturally aspirated, 1.8 L (1,809 cc), single-cam engine. It uses Multi Point Fuel Injection.
The 1.8 L (1,809 cc) CA18(s) was a carbureted version of the CA engine available in Japan. It produces 66 kW (89 hp; 90 PS) and 149 N⋅m (110 lb⋅ft). Bore and stroke is 83 mm × 83.6 mm (3.27 in × 3.29 in). It was used in the following vehicles:
The CA18DE is a 1.8 L (1,809 cc) DOHC 16v engine produced from 1987 through 1989. It produces 131 hp (98 kW; 133 PS) at 6400 rpm and 159 N⋅m (117 lb⋅ft) at 5200 rpm. It has the same head as the CA18DET, however it did not use piston oil squirters that are found on the CA18DETs. A crank girdle as found on all CA18DET's is fitted to some versions for some markets, Nissan's parts data system "FAST" has to be consulted or the sump removed to determine if it's fitted.
- Nissan Pulsar NX SE (United States and Canada)
- Nissan EXA (Australia & Japan)
- 1985-1991 Nissan Skyline HR31 1800I(Japan)
- 1989-1990 Nissan Silvia/180SX P/S13
- Mid 1980s Nissan Sunny N13 (UK) 129 hp (96 kW; 131 PS) (no girdle)
- Mid 1980s Nissan Sunny B12 Coupe (UK) 129 hp (96 kW; 131 PS) (has girdle)
- Late 1980s Nissan Bluebird T72 (UK) 129 hp (96 kW; 131 PS)
- Nissan Bluebird (Sept'87 - Oct'89) RNU12 (FWD & AWD)
- 1985-1990 Nissan Auster "1.8Xt TwinCam" (has girdle)
- 1988-1991 kn13 Nissan EXA (Australian market)
production went all the way through to January 1991.
The 1.8 L (1,809 cc) CA18ET produces 99 kW (135 PS; 133 hp) and 183 N⋅m (135 lb⋅ft) from a single Garrett T2 turbocharger which did not feature an intercooler. The low-pressure turbo has a 0.6 bars (8.7 psi) overcharge. It was built from 1984 through 1992. The engine has fuel and air delivered via ECCS Multiport Fuel Injection, a system developed together with Hitachi.
It was used in the following vehicles:
- 1984-1986 Nissan 200SX Turbo (US) (until 1988 in Canada)
- 1984-1986 Nissan Bluebird U11 Turbo (UK Market)
- 1983-1985 Nissan Bluebird U11 SSS-X (Japanese Market) - 135 PS (99 kW; 133 hp) at 6000 rpm, 20 kg⋅m (196 N⋅m; 145 lb⋅ft) at 3600 rpm
- 1986-1988 Nissan Silvia (Japanese Market)
- 1986-1990 Nissan Bluebird T12/T72 Turbo (UK Market)
- 1985-1990 Nissan Auster 1.8Xt
- Mid 1980s Nissan Silvia S12 (UK Market)
- 1986-1990 Reliant Scimitar SS1 1800Ti
- 1990-1992 Reliant Scimitar SST 1800Ti
- Nissan Van C22 (Vanette) Japan market
The 1.8 L CA18DET was the last version of the CA engine to be released. It produces 124 kW (169 PS; 166 hp) and 228 N⋅m (168 lb⋅ft). It received a brand new DOHC aluminum head with 16 valves. The turbocharger was also upgraded to a Garrett T25 (.48 A/R) unit for increased flow capacity, and as such, was fitted with an intercooler to help prevent the onset of pre-ignition and/or detonation. Fuel was delivered via Multiport Fuel Injection. Bore and stroke is 83 mm × 83.6 mm (3.27 in × 3.29 in). An electronically controlled fuel injection system was used with 370 cc (23 cu in) injectors.[clarification needed]
It was used in the following vehicles:
- 1987-1988 Silvia S12 RS-X
- 1989-1990 Nissan Silvia/180SX S13 (International market)
- 1987-1989 Nissan Bluebird RNU12 SSS ATTESA Limited (Japanese Market)
- 1989-1994 Nissan 200SX RS13-U Europe.
- 1985-1990 Nissan Auster "1.8Xtt" and "Euroform Twincam Turbo"
There were 2 versions of the CA18DET available, yet only one was produced for Japan. The late model Japanese CA18DETs received 8 port (low port) heads, with butterfly actuated auxiliary ports in the lower intake manifold which corresponded with 8 ports in the head.
Below c. 3,800 rpm, only one set (4 ports open, 1 per cylinder) of long, narrow ports would be open, accelerating the intake charge to the cylinder. This allowed for quick spool and good low-end tractability. At the 3800 rpm change over, not only would the ECCS shift into batch fire (as opposed to sequential) fuel injection, but it also opened the second set of short, wide ports (8 ports open, 2 per cylinder) which assisted in high RPM flow.
This engine is known for stronger torque characteristics, as well as faster spool at lower RPMs. However, due to displacement-based taxation and cost of emissions testing in Europe, the CA18DET was sold as the only available engine in the S13 chassis 200SX (Euro model) until replaced by the S14 in 1994. The Euro motors received the 4 port (high port) head and intake manifold, as well as revised ECCS ("Electronic Concentrated Control System") parameters.
The SOHC 2.0 L (1,974 cc) CA20E produces 78 kW (106 PS; 105 hp) and 160 N⋅m (118 lb⋅ft). Bore and stroke is 84.5 mm × 88 mm (3.33 in × 3.46 in). It was used from August, 1981 through 1991. Fuel was delivered via Multiport Fuel Injection. Dual spark plugs per cylinder were used in some variants of this engine for enhanced combustion efficiency, called NAPS-X.
It was used in the following vehicles:
- 1984-1988 Nissan 200SX (US & Canada) / Nissan Gazelle (Australia)
- 1986-1992 Nissan Pintara R31/U12 (Australia)
- 1984-1990 Nissan Stanza
- 1982-1988 Stanza Wagon (US)/ Multi (Canada) M10
- 1987-1989 Nissan Bluebird U12 (and was replaced by the SR20DE in the Series 2 U12 Bluebirds)
- 1988-1990 Nissan Bluebird T72
- 1986-1991 Nissan Pintara
The CA20S is a SOHC 2.0 L (1,974 cc) engine produced from 1982 through 1987. Bore and stroke is 84.5 mm × 88 mm (3.33 in × 3.46 in) and is fed by a carburetor. It produces a peak power of 102 hp (76 kW; 103 PS) at 5,200 rpm and has a peak torque rating of 160 N⋅m (118 lb⋅ft) at 3,600 rpm.
- Nissan Stanza
- Nissan Prairie M11/M12 Europe
- Nissan Auster
- Nissan Bluebird Series 3 1985-1986 (Australia)
- Nissan Bluebird U11 Estate 1985-1990 (Europe)
- Nissan Bluebird T12 1985-1988 (Europe)
- Nissan Laurel (C32)1984-1990 (No twinspark)
- Nissan Skyline GL and GLE (R31) (106 hp (79 kW; 107 PS))
- 1983–1987 Nissan Cedric/Gloria Y30 (110 PS (81 kW; 108 hp) at 5,600 rpm)
- Nissan Van C22 (Vanette) / Vanette Largo C22/GC22 Model, Japan
There was never a factory-produced twin-cam CA 2.0 L motor, nor a turbo version. However the blocks are similar, and it is possible to fit the DOHC CA18DE/T twincam head to the SOHC CA20 block. However the DOHC/SOHC manifolds are different and the timing pulley/belts are not compatible. Despite this, CA20DET turbos have been built.
Tomei and JUN of Japan produced 2–litre stroker kits for the CA18. Also companies Norris Designs and Spool Imports produces CA20 stroker kits as well as a CA20 engine.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nissan CA engines.|
- Yamaguchi, Jack K. (1982), Lösch, Annamaria (ed.), "Japan: Shogun Strikes Back", World Cars 1982, Pelham, NY: The Automobile Club of Italy/Herald Books: 64, ISBN 0-910714-14-2
- Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (January 1989). "Prove su strada: Nissan Bluebird 1.8i Turbo" [Road Test]. Quattroruote (in Italian). Vol. 34 no. 399. Milan, Italy: Editoriale Domus. p. 166.
- Flammang, James M. (1994). Standard Catalog of Imported Cars, 1946-1990. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, Inc. p. 175. ISBN 0-87341-158-7.