Full-frame DSLR

  (Redirected from Nikon FX format)

A full-frame DSLR is a digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) with a 35mm image sensor format (36 mm × 24 mm).[1][2] Historically, 35mm was considered a small film format compared with medium format, large format and even larger.

The sizes of sensors used in most current digital cameras, relative to a 35mm format

The full-frame DSLR is in contrast to full-frame mirrorless interchangeable-lens cameras, and DSLR and mirrorless cameras with smaller sensors (for instance, those with a size equivalent to APS-C-size film), much smaller than a full 35mm frame. Many digital cameras, both compact and SLR models, use a smaller-than-35mm frame as it is easier and cheaper to manufacture imaging sensors at a smaller size. Historically, the earliest digital SLR models, such as the Nikon NASA F4 or Kodak DCS 100, also used a smaller sensor.

Kodak states that 35mm film (note: in "Academy format", 21.0 mm × 15.2 mm) has the equivalent of 6K horizontal resolution, according to a senior vice president of IMAX.[3] This equates to 10K horizontal resolution in full-frame size.

Use of 35mm film-camera lensesEdit

If the lens mounts are compatible, many lenses, including manual-focus models, designed for 35mm cameras can be mounted on DSLR cameras. When a lens designed for a full-frame camera, whether film or digital, is mounted on a DSLR with a smaller sensor size, only the center of the lenses image circle is captured. The edges are cropped off, which is equivalent to zooming in on the center section of the imaging area. The ratio of the size of the full-frame 35mm format to the size of the smaller format is known as the "crop factor" or "focal-length multiplier", and is typically in the range 1.3–2.0 for non-full-frame digital SLRs.

Advantages and disadvantages of full-frame digital SLRsEdit

35mm lensesEdit

 
An APS-C format DSLR (left) and a full-frame DSLR (right) show the difference in the size of the sensors.

When used with lenses designed for full frame film or digital cameras, full-frame DSLRs offer a number of advantages compared to their smaller-sensor counterparts. One advantage is that wide-angle lenses designed for full-frame 35mm retain that same wide angle of view. On smaller-sensor DSLRs, wide-angle lenses have smaller angles of view equivalent to those of longer-focal-length lenses on 35mm film cameras. For example, a 24mm lens on a camera with a crop factor of 1.5 has a 62° diagonal angle of view, the same as that of a 36mm lens on a 35mm film camera. On a full-frame digital camera, the 24mm lens has the same 84° angle of view as it would on a 35mm film camera.

If the same lens is used on both full-frame and cropped formats, and the subject distance is adjusted to have the same field of view (i.e., the same framing of the subject) in each format, depth of field (DoF) is in inverse proportion to the format sizes, so for the same f-number, the full-frame format will have less DoF. Equivalently, for the same DoF, the full-frame format will require a larger f-number (that is, a smaller aperture diameter). This relationship is approximate and holds for moderate subject distances, breaking down as the distance with the smaller format approaches the hyperfocal distance, and as the magnification with the larger format approaches the macro range.

Two photographs with the same lens and ISO, but a different sensor size: upon zooming in (insets), one notices there is less noise in the bottom picture (full-frame sensor - Canon EOS 6D) than in the top one (smaller sensor - EOS 7D Mark II).

There are optical quality implications as well—not only because the image from the lens is effectively cropped—but because many lens designs are now optimized for sensors smaller than 36 mm × 24 mm. The rear element of any SLR lens must have clearance for the camera's reflex mirror to move up when the shutter is released; with a wide-angle lens, this requires a retrofocus design, which is generally of inferior optical quality.[4] Because a cropped-format sensor can have a smaller mirror, less clearance is needed, and some lenses, such as the EF-S lenses for the Canon APS-C sized bodies,[5] are designed with a shorter back-focus distance; however, they cannot be used on bodies with larger sensors.

The full-frame sensor can also be useful with wide-angle perspective control or tilt/shift lenses; in particular, the wider angle of view is often more suitable for architectural photography.

While full-frame DSLRs offer advantages for wide-angle photography, smaller-sensor DSLRs offer some advantages for telephoto photography because the smaller angle of view of small-sensor DSLRs enhances the telephoto effect of the lenses. For example, a 200 mm lens on a camera with a crop factor of 1.5× has the same angle of view as a 300mm lens on a full-frame camera. The extra "reach", for a given number of pixels, can be helpful in specific areas of photography such as wildlife or sports.[6]

Lower size sensors also allow for the use of a wider range of lenses, since some types of optical impurities (specifically vignetting) are most visible around the edge of the lens. By only using the center of the lens, these impurities are not noticed. In practice, this allows for the use of lower cost lenses without corresponding loss of quality.[7]

Finally, full frame sensors allow for sensor designs that result in lower noise levels at high ISO [8] and a greater dynamic range in captured images. Pixel density is lower on full frame sensors. This means the pixels can be either spaced further apart from each other, or each photodiode can be manufactured at a slightly larger size. Larger pixel sizes can capture more light which has the advantage of allowing more light to be captured before over saturation of the photodiode. Additionally, less noise is generated by adjacent pixels and their emf fields with larger photodiodes or greater spacing between photodiodes. For a given number of pixels, the larger sensor allows for larger pixels or photosites that provide wider dynamic range and lower noise at high ISO levels.[9] As a consequence, full-frame DSLRs may produce better quality images in certain high contrast or low light situations.

Production costs for a full-frame sensor can exceed twenty times the costs for an APS-C sensor.[citation needed] Only 20 full-frame sensors will fit on an 8-inch (200 mm) silicon wafer, and yield is comparatively low because the sensor's large area makes it very vulnerable to contaminants—20 evenly distributed defects could theoretically ruin an entire wafer. Additionally, when full-frame sensors were first produced, they required three separate exposures during the photolithography stage, tripling the number of masks and exposure processes.[10] Modern photolithography equipment now allows single-pass exposures for full-frame sensors, but other size-related production constraints remain much the same.

Some full-frame DSLRs intended mainly for professional use include more features than typical consumer-grade DSLRs, so some of their larger dimensions and increased mass result from more rugged construction and additional features as opposed to this being an inherent consequence of the full-frame sensor.

Past and present full-frame DSLRsEdit

DSLRsEdit

 
The Canon EOS-1D X Mark III is Canon's flagship full-frame DSLR.
 
The Pentax K-1 II is Pentax's flagship full-frame DSLR

The Nikon E2/E2s (1994),[22] E2N/E2NS (1996)[23] and E3/E3S (1998)[24] digital SLRs as well as the similar Fujifilm Fujix DS-505/DS-515, DS-505A/DS-515A and DS-560/DS-565 models used a reduction optical system (ROS) to compress a full-frame 35mm field onto a smaller 2/3-inch (11 mm diagonal) CCD imager. They were therefore not digital SLRs with full-frame sensors, however had an angle of view equivalent to full-frame digital SLRs for a given lens; they had no crop factor with respect to angle of view.[25]

The first full-frame DSLR cameras were developed in Japan from around 2000 to 2002: the MZ-D by Pentax,[26] the N Digital by Contax's Japanese R6D team,[27] and the EOS-1Ds by Canon.[28]

Nikon has designated its full frame cameras as FX format and its smaller sensor interchangeable-lens camera formats as DX and CX.

Other technologiesEdit

Features of some full frame DSLR camerasEdit

Brand Model name Sensor size Effective megapixels Lens mount Viewfinder coverage Metering zones Focus points Lowest ISO Highest ISO DxO score DxO ISO[29] Cont. shtg LCD size LCD articulation method Live view Movie mode Memory card Video Dimensions (mm) Weight (g)[30] Announced (date) Reference
Canon 5D Mark IV Full frame 30.1 EF 100 252 61 50 102,400 91 2995 7 3.2 None yes yes CF+SD 150.7×116.4×75.9 890 Aug 2016 [1]
Canon 1D X Mark II Full frame 20.2 EF 100 216 61 50 409,600 88 3207 14 3.2 None yes yes CF+CFast 158x168x83 1530 Feb 2016 [1] [2]
Canon 1D X Full frame 18.1 EF 100 252 61 50 204,800 82 2786 14 3.2 None yes yes CF (2x) 158x164x83 1530 Oct 2011 [3] [4]
Canon 1Ds Mark III Full frame 21.1 EF 100 63 45 50 3,200 80 1663 5 3 None yes no CF+SD 150x160x80 1205 Aug 2007 [5][6]
Canon 5D Mark III Full frame 22.3 EF 100 63 61 50 102,400 81 2293 6 3.2 None yes yes CF+SD 152x117x77 950 (860 without battery) Mar 2012 [7][8]
Canon 5D Mark II Full frame 21.1 EF 98 35 9 50 25,600 79 1815 3.9 3 None yes yes CF 152x114x75 810 Sep 2008 [9][10]
Canon 6D Full frame 20.2 EF 97 63 11 50 102,400 82 2340 4.5 3 None yes yes SD 145x111x71 755 (680 without battery) Sep 2012 [11]
Nikon D5 Full frame 20.8 F-mount 100 180,000 153 50 3,280,000 88 2434 12 3.2 None yes yes SD (2x) or XQD (2x) 2160p30 160x159x92 1405(with battery) Feb 2017 [12]
Nikon D4 Full frame 16.2 F-mount 100 91,000 51 50 204800 89 2965 11 3.2 None yes yes CF + XQD 160x157x91 1180 (without battery) Jan 2012 [13] [14]
Nikon D3X Full frame 24.4 F-mount 100 1,005 51 50 6,400 88 1992 5 3 None yes no CF (2x) 160x157x88 1220 Dec 2008 [15][16]
Nikon D3S Full frame 12.1 F-mount 100 1,005 51 100 102,400 82 3253 9 3 None yes yes CF (2x) 160x157x88 1246 Oct 2009 [17][18]
Nikon D850 Full frame 45.7 F-mount 100 180,000 153 64 (32 with expansion) 25,600 100 2660 7 3.2 Tilting yes yes CF + XQD 2160p30 146x124x79 1005 Oct 2017 [19]
Nikon D810 Full frame 36.3 F-mount 100 91,000 51 64 51,200 5 3.2 None yes yes CF + SD 1920p60 146x123x82 980 [20]
Nikon D800 Full frame 36.3 F-mount 100 91,000 51 50 25,600 95 2853 4 3.2 None yes yes CF + SD 145x122x82 900 (without battery) Feb 2012 [21] [22] [23]
Nikon D780 Full frame 24.3 F-mount 100 91,000 51 100 51,200 7 3.2 Tilting yes yes SDXC (2x) 143.4x115.5x76 840 Jan 2020
Nikon D750 Full frame 24 F-mount 100 91,000 51 100 12,800 93 2956 6.5 3.2 Tilting yes yes SD (x2) 141x113x78 840 Sep 2014 [24][25]
Nikon D700 Full frame 12.1 F-mount 95 1,005 51 100 25,600 80 2303 5 3 yes no CF 147x123x77 995 Jul 2008 [26][27]
Nikon D600 Full frame 24.3 F-mount 100 2,016 39 50 25,600 94 2980 5.5 3.2 yes yes SD (x2) 141x113x82 760 (w/o battery) Sep 2012 [28] [29]
Pentax K-1 Full frame 36.3 K mount 100 86,000 33 100 204,800 96 3280 4.4 3.2 Cross-tilt yes yes SDXC (2x) 1080p30 136.5x110x85.5 750 Sep 2016 [30][31]
Pentax K-1 II Full frame 36.3 K mount 100 86,000 33 100 204,800 96 3280 4.4 3.2 Cross-tilt yes yes SDXC (2x) 1080p30 136.5x110x85.5 750 Feb 2018
Sony Alpha 900 Full frame 24.6 Sony α/Minolta A 100 40 9 100 6400 79 1431 5 3 no no CF, MS 156x117x82 895 Sep 2008 [32]

[33]

Sony Alpha 850 Full frame 24.6 Sony α/Minolta A 98 40 9 100 6400 79 1415 3 3 no no CF, MS 156x117x82 895 Aug 2009 [34][35]
Brand Model name Sensor size Effective megapixels Lens mount Viewfinder coverage (% of the frame) Metering zones Focus points Lowest ISO Highest ISO DxOMark sensor score DxO ISO performance[31] Cont. shtg (fps) LCD size (in) LCD articulation method Live view Movie mode Memory card type Video Dimensions (mm) Weight (g)[32] Announced (date) Reference

Prototype full-frame digital SLRsEdit

  • Pentax MZ-D "MR-52" (presented in 2000, based on Pentax MZ-S, with the same sensor as Contax N, it never went into production)[33]
  • Sony Alpha flagship model "CX62500" (presented at PMA 2007, early prototype of what one-and-a-half years later became the DSLR-A900 (aka "CX85100"), though with many detail differences)[34][35]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Nigel Atherton; Steve Crabb; Tim Shelbourne (2006). An Illustrated A to Z of Digital Photography: People And Portraits. Sterling Publishing Co. Inc. ISBN 2-88479-087-X.
  2. ^ Ross Hoddinott (2006). Digital Macro Photography. Sterling Publishing Co. Inc. ISBN 1-86108-452-8.
  3. ^ "/Film Interview: IMAX Executives Talk 'The Hunger Games: Catching Fire' and IMAX Misconceptions". Slash Film. 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2013-12-17.
  4. ^ "Retrofocus Design Problems: A Synopsis". Camerarepair.com. Archived from the original on 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
  5. ^ "The Canon Camera Story: 2001-2004". November 2004. Archived from the original on 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
  6. ^ Barbara Gerlach (2007). Digital Nature Photography: The Art and the Science. Focal Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-240-80856-7.
  7. ^ Bourne, Scott. "Seven Myths About the Need for Full Frames". Archived from the original on 2016-12-14. Retrieved 2013-10-15.
  8. ^ "Studio shot comparison". November 2019. Retrieved 2019-02-06.
  9. ^ "Full-frame sensors". Photocrati. 2009-05-11. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
  10. ^ "Canon's Full-Frame CMOS Sensors: The Finest Tools for Digital Photography" (PDF) (Press release). Canon. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-10-10. Retrieved 2009-12-26.
  11. ^ "Canon U.S.A. Introduces The New Canon EOS-1D X Digital SLR Camera, Re-Designed From The Inside Out" (Press release). Canon U.S.A. 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
  12. ^ "Canon Announces Its Smallest and Lightest Full-Frame Digital SLR Camera For Serious Photographers" (Press release). Canon U.S.A., Inc. 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
  13. ^ "Nikon D3x press announcement as of November 30th, 2008". Press.nikonusa.com. 2008-11-30. Archived from the original on 2011-01-10. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
  14. ^ "Nikon D3s press announcement as of October 14th, 2009". Press.nikonusa.com. 2009-10-14. Archived from the original on 2011-01-10. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
  15. ^ "When There Is No Second Chance: The New Nikon FX-Format D4 Multi-Media Digital SLR is The Definitive Unification Of Speed And Precision" (Press release). Nikon Inc. 2012-01-05. Archived from the original on 2012-08-16. Retrieved 2012-01-06.
  16. ^ "Expectations Surpassed: The 36.3-Megapixel Nikon D800 Is The Multimedia HD-SLR That Shatters Conventional Resolution Barriers For Maximum Fidelity" (Press release). Nikon Inc. 2012-02-06. Archived from the original on 2011-08-30. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
  17. ^ "Fall in Love Again: New Df D-SLR is Undeniably a Nikon with Legendary Performance and Timeless Design" (Press release). Nikon Inc. 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
  18. ^ "Performance that Fuels the Passion: The New Nikon D600 Puts FX-Format in Focus for Photo Enthusiasts" (Press release). Nikon Inc. 2012-09-13. Retrieved 2012-09-13.
  19. ^ "Concentrate on the Clarity: The New Nikon D610 FX-Format D-SLR Places Emphasis on the Image Making Experience" (Press release). Nikon Inc. 2013-10-08. Retrieved 2013-10-08.
  20. ^ "Sony α DSLR-A850 press announcement as of August 27th, 2009". News.sel.sony.com. 2009-08-27. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
  21. ^ "Sony introduces full-frame α99" (Press release). Sony. 2012-09-12. Archived from the original on 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
  22. ^ "Technical information on Nikon E2/E2s and Fujifilm Fujix DS-505/DS-515 at MIR - Photography in Malaysia". Mir.com.my. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
  23. ^ "Technical information on Nikon E2N/E2Ns and Fujifilm Fujix DS-505A/DS-515A at MIR - Photography in Malaysia". Mir.com.my. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
  24. ^ "Technical information on Nikon E3/E3s and Fujifilm Fujix DS-560/DS-565 at MIR - Photography in Malaysia". Mir.com.my. Retrieved 2010-12-30.
  25. ^ Jarle Aasland, Nikon E2N, NikonWeb.com.
  26. ^ "The long, difficult road to Pentax full-frame". dpreview.com.
  27. ^ British Journal of Photography, Issues 7410-7422, 2003, page 2
  28. ^ "Canon EOS-1Ds, 11 megapixel full-frame CMOS". dpreview.com.
  29. ^ ISO value, at which the noise starts to disturb the photo. Unit: ISO. More at DxOMark - Use Case Scores
  30. ^ Data taken from specification pages of Digital Photography Review Archived 2012-06-14 at the Wayback Machine review pages (usually page #2 of given camera review), e.g. here for a Nikon D3000
  31. ^ ISO value, at which the noise starts to disturb the photo. Unit: ISO. More at DxOMark Sensor Scores - Sports & action photography: Low-Light ISO Archived 2013-07-20 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ Data taken from specification pages of Digital Photography Review Archived 2012-06-14 at the Wayback Machine review pages (usually page #2 of given camera review), e.g. here for a Nikon D3000
  33. ^ Asahi Optical Historical Club (2001) "MR-52" 6 Megapixel digital SLR Archived 2009-02-28 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ – Charlie White (2007-03-08). "Charlie White's Gizmodo PMA March 8th, 2007 report on Sony press announcement in regard to Sony Alpha flagship model "CX62500"". Gizmodo.com. Retrieved 2010-12-30.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  35. ^ Paul, Matthias R. (2009-09-30). "Sony Alpha CX model codes overview". Minolta-Forum (in German). Archived from the original on 2016-04-01. Retrieved 2016-01-01.