Nikolay Chkheidze

Nikoloz Semyonovich Chkheidze (Georgian: ნიკოლოზ (კარლო) ჩხეიძე; Russian: Никола́й (Карло) Семёнович Чхеи́дзе), commonly known as Karlo Chkheidze (21 March [O.S. 9] 1864 – 13 June 1926), was a Georgian politician. In the 1890s, he promoted Social Democratic movement in Georgia. He became a key figure in the Russian Revolution (February 1917 to October 1917) as the Menshevik president of the Executive Committee of the Soviet of Petrograd (until September 1917). Later he served as president of the Transcaucasian Sejm (February 1918 to May 1918), and he held office in the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (April–May 1918). Later he became president of parliamentary assemblies of the Democratic Republic of Georgia, National Council, Constituent Assembly and Parliament (May 1918 to March 1921).[1]

Nikoloz Chkheidze
ნიკოლოზ ჩხეიძე (Georgian)
Никола́й Семёнович Чхеи́дзе (Russian)
Nikolay Chkheidze.jpg
Leader of Social-Democrat Opposition (Duma)
In office
1907–1917
Executive President of Petrograd Soviet
In office
March 12, 1917 – September 19, 1917
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byLeon Trotsky
President of the Transcaucasian Sejm
In office
February 23, 1918 – May 26, 1918
Preceded byOffice established
Parliamentary President of Georgia (National Council, Constitutional Assembly, Parliament)
In office
May 26, 1918 – Mars 16, 1921
Preceded byOffice established
Personal details
Born(1864-03-21)21 March 1864
Puti, Kutais Governorate, Russian Empire
Died13 June 1926(1926-06-13) (aged 62)
Leuville-sur-Orge, Seine-et-Oise, France
NationalityGeorgian
Political partySocial Democratic Labour Party of Georgia

Early life and familyEdit

Chkheidze was born to an aristocratic family in Puti, Kutais Governorate (in the present-day Imereti province of Georgia). From his marriage with Alexandra Taganova (X-1943), he will have four children including a daughter who will accompany him in exile.[2]

Political careerEdit

In 1892, Chkheidze, together with Egnate Ninoshvili, Silibistro Jibladze, Noe Zhordania and Kalenike Chkheidze (his brother), became a founder of the first Georgian Social-Democratic group, Mesame Dasi (the third team).

RussiaEdit

 
Chkheidze in June 1917

From 1907 to 1917, Chkheidze was a member of Tiflis Gubernyia in the Russian State Duma and gained popularity as a spokesman for the Menshevik faction within the Russian Social Democratic Party. He was an active member of the irregular freemasonic lodge, the Grand Orient of Russia’s Peoples.[3] In 1917, the year of the Russian Revolution, Chkheidze became Chairman of the Petrograd Soviet. He failed to prevent the rise of radical Bolshevism and refused a post in the Russian Provisional Government. However, he did support its policies and advocated revolutionary oboronchestvo (defencism). He also voted to continue the war against the German Empire.[4] · .[5]

TranscaucasiaEdit

In October 1917, the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia. At the time, Chkheidze was in Georgia. He remained in Georgia and on 23 February 1918, became leader of the Transcaucasian Federation in Tiflis. Some months later the federation was dissolved.[6]

Democratic Republic of GeorgiaEdit

On 26 May 1918, the Act of Independence of Georgia was adopted, Chkheidze was elected chairman of the National Council of Georgia: this Georgian Provisional Assembly decided to appoint a government, to prepare elections and to create a constitutional commission. In February 1919 he was elected a member of the Constituent Assembly of Georgia and on March 12 president of this assembly, but could not participate in its first session because he was located in Paris. Chairing the Georgian delegation to the Versailles Conference, he tried to gain the Entente's support for the Democratic Republic of Georgia. He also proposed to Georges Clemenceau and to David Lloyd George a French or British protectorate for Georgian foreign affairs and defense, but was unsuccessful.[7] Chkheidze, who had 14 years of parliamentary life experience, oversaw the writing of the Constitution by Razhden Arsenidze and 14 other MPs of the majority and the opposition.

FranceEdit

In March 1921, when the Red Army invaded Georgia, Chkheidze fled with his family to France via Constantinople.[8] In 1923 and 1924, as part of the Social Democratic Labour Party of Georgia in exile, Chkheidze opposed a national uprising in Georgia. Chkheidze, Irakly Tsereteli, Datiko Sharashidze, and Kale Kavtaradze formed a group called Oppozitsia. In their mind, the Red Army and Cheka were too strong, and the unarmed Georgian people too weak. After the August Uprising of 1924, 10,000 Georgians were executed, and between 50,000 and 100,000 Georgians were deported to Siberia or to Central Asia.

DeathEdit

 
Tomb of Nikolay and Alexandra Chkheidze, in Paris

On 13 June 1926, Chkheidze committed suicide, in his official residence in Leuville-sur-Orge, France. He was buried in Paris, in the Père Lachaise Cemetery.[9]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Nikolay Semyonovich Chkheidze". Encyclopedia Britannica..
  2. ^ "Russie, Géorgie et France : Véronique Chéidzé (1909-1986), fille du 1er président de Parlement géorgien". Colisée (in French). 29 November 2013..
  3. ^ Hass, Ludwik (1983). "The Russian Masonic Movement in the Years 1906 - 1918" (PDF). Acta Poloniae Historica (48): 95–131. ISSN 0001-6829. Retrieved 25 October 2017..
  4. ^ "Nicolas Chkheidze". Project 1917..
  5. ^ "Russian Revolution (1917). The Georgian deputy Nicholas Cheidze, executive president of the workers deputies and soldier". Alamy..
  6. ^ "Géorgie, Russie et France : Nicolas Chéidzé (1864-1926), homme d'État russe et géorgien". Colisée (in French). 9 January 2014..
  7. ^ "Hidden Story of the Georgian Hero". Georgia Today. 12 March 2019..
  8. ^ "1ère République en exil". Colisée (in French)..
  9. ^ "Membres du gouvernement et chefs de file de l'opposition aux obsèques de Nicolas Tcheidze". Samchoblo (in French)..

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit