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Nidzica [ɲiˈd͡ʑit͡sa] (former Polish: Nibork; German: About this soundNeidenburg ) is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship of Poland, lying between Olsztyn and Mława, in Masuria. The capital of Nidzica County, it had a population in 2017 of 13,872.[1]

Nidzica
Nidzica Castle
Coat of arms of Nidzica
Coat of arms
Nidzica is located in Poland
Nidzica
Nidzica
Coordinates: 53°21′30″N 20°25′30″E / 53.35833°N 20.42500°E / 53.35833; 20.42500
Country Poland
VoivodeshipWarmian-Masurian
CountyNidzica County
GminaGmina Nidzica
Town rights1381
Government
 • MayorJacek Kosmala
Area
 • Total6.86 km2 (2.65 sq mi)
Population
 (2017)
 • Total13,872
 • Density2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
13-100
Area code(s)+48 89
Car platesNNI
Websitehttp://www.nidzica.pl/

Contents

HistoryEdit

The settlement was founded in 1355 by the Teutonic Knights and received town privileges in 1381 from Winrich von Kniprode. Since the foundation the local population was almost entirely Polish.[2] After the victorious Battle of Grunwald (1410) the town remained in Polish hands for three months.[3] It was again captured by the Poles in 1414.[3]

From 1444 Nibork, as the town was called by its Polish population back then, was a member of the Prussian Confederation, at which request in 1454 Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon signed the act of incorporation of the region to the Kingdom of Poland.[3] The Polish army then peacefully entered the town and Adam Wilkanowski became the commander in the castle.[4] In 1455 a Teutonic attack was repulsed[4] and Nibork remained within Poland for the rest of the war.[3] The incorporation of Nibork to Poland was confirmed in the peace treaty signed in Toruń in 1466, but two years later the town came under Teutonic rule, remaining under Polish suzerainty as a fief. It then became part of the Duchy of Prussia, also a vassal state of Poland, after the secularization of the Order's Prussian territories in 1525. After 1525, Nibork was capital of the county, whose first administrator was Piotr Kobierzycki, a local Polish nobleman.[3] In 1549 the Czech Brethren settled in Nibork.[3] In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, Polish pastors from Nibork published their works and translations in both Nibork and Königsberg (Królewiec).[2] In 1656 the town was unsuccessfully besieged during the Northern Wars.

Nibork/Neidenburg became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Half of Neidenburg's inhabitants died from plague from 1708-1711. In 1758 the town was under Russian occupation.[3] In the 18th century, the Polish school in Nibork was one of the leading in the region.[3] Even youth from as far as Gdańsk, Elbląg and Königsberg studied here.[3]

Just like all of Masuria the Neidenburg/Nibork district in the 19th century was still inhabited mainly by Poles (93% in 1825, 75% in 1880).[3] In 1856 the town's Lutheran parish had 4,470 people, of which 3,150 were Poles.[5]

The town became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany.

20th centuryEdit

 
August 1914 in Neidenburg, a Russian aircraft shot down at the market place

At the beginning of World War I in 1914, Neidenburg was heavily damaged by invading Imperial Russian troops; 167 residential and agricultural houses, 8 public and 58 business buildings were destroyed by artillery fire on 22 August 1914. The town was reconquered and rebuilt by the Germans after the Battle of Tannenberg later in August 1914. The reconstruction was originally based on plans by Bodo Ebhardt, however, his neo-gothic style was not carried out; instead, a neoclassicist style was preferred.[6] As a result of the Treaty of Versailles, the East Prussian plebiscite was organized under the control of the League of Nations on 11 July 1920. The votes were 3,156 for remaining in Prussia and 17 for joining Poland.[7]

 
19th-century brewery

During the Kristallnacht riots in November 1938, the synagogue was destroyed and two Jewish inhabitants, Julius Naftali and Minna Zack, were killed by Nazi SA members, while several others were injured. The surviving members of the Jewish congregation were deported and killed in the Holocaust during World War II.

Neidenburg was the seat of a district in East Prussia until 1945; in that year the Red Army entered and occupied the town while pursuing the retreating Wehrmacht. While many, if not most, German civilians had fled the area, many of those who remained experienced atrocities at the hands of Soviet soldiers, who found themselves on German soil for the first time. Lev Kopelev, a Soviet officer and later dissident, described how he was appalled by the acts of murder and looting against those who remained.[8] In accordance to the Potsdam Agreement, Neidenburg along with the southern part of the former province of East Prussia (including most of historic Masuria) was granted to Poland, and the remaining German population was expelled. Rather than being renamed to the traditional Polish name Nibork, the town received a new name, Nidzica.

Heritage monumentsEdit

 
Interior of the Immaculate Conception and Saint Adalbert church
  • Nidzica Castle from 1370s
  • Immaculate Conception and Saint Adalbert church (Gothic and Renaissance Revival)
  • 19th-century buildings, including the Town Hall (Ratusz)
  • Jewish cemetery (19th-20th centuries)

International relationsEdit

 
Town Hall (Ratusz)

Twin towns — Sister citiesEdit

Nidzica is twinned with:

Notable residentsEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Nidzica (warmińsko-mazurskie)". Polska w liczbach (in Polish). Retrieved 2018-08-07.
  2. ^ a b Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Tom VII, Warsaw, 1886, p. 32 (in Polish)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Tom VII, Warsaw, 1886, p. 31 (in Polish)
  4. ^ a b Nidzica. Z dziejów miasta i okolic, Pojezierze, Olsztyn, 1976, p. 68 (in Polish)
  5. ^ Nidzica. Z dziejów miasta i okolic, Pojezierze, Olsztyn, 1976, p. 86 (in Polish)
  6. ^ Salm, Jan (2012). Ostpreußische Städte im Ersten Weltkrieg – Wiederaufbau und Neuerfindung (in German). Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. pp. 151 ff. ISBN 978-3-486-71209-4.
  7. ^ Marzian, Herbert; Kenez, Csaba (1970). Selbstbestimmung für Ostdeutschland – Eine Dokumentation zum 50 Jahrestag der ost- und westpreussischen Volksabstimmung am 11. Juli 1920 (in German). p. 91.
  8. ^ Kopelev, Lev (1977). No Jail For Thought. London: Secker & Warburg. pp. 39–41. ISBN 0-436-23640-0.

Coordinates: 53°22′N 20°26′E / 53.367°N 20.433°E / 53.367; 20.433